First let's get something clear about erroneous notions of Paul and his founding a new religion, which he didn't. True, the halakhah of his Judaism switched from the Pharisaic oral law to the Ruach Hakodesh, but his religion was still one of the Judaisms of the time, not a new non-Judaism Gentile religion.




The material you are looking at on your computer screen, the pages below,

are pages studied by Messianic believers at our messianic yeshiva, Omanim

Lema'an Yisrael (Artists For Israel) Messianic Yeshiva. No matter where in

the world you are right now, we want to welcome you onboard as a

fellow talmid at the first virtual messianic yeshiva on the Internet! You

net-surfed to the right place! One of the reasons our students study to

obtain Messianic S'micha to teach and enter Messianic ministry with large

classes of students is because of the chesed of Hashem using this Messianic

Yeshiva! In this file and in the other files on this web-site, you have more

than a complete seminary-level education, you have a complete messianic

yeshiva education as well. Take a look at the end of these pages for the

entrance exam that must be e-mailed in to us at and is

necessary for those seeking entrance to our virtual messianic yeshiva. May

you receive a barucha and may Hashem use you.

The Kitvei Hakodesh are clear about Klal Yisrael. They will not

change their G-d: they will still believe in the G-d of Avraham,

Yitzchak, and Ya'akov. They will not change their religion. They

will still hold dear to Judaism as their faith. Nevertheless,

the Kitvei Hakodesh are clear: they will be changed by teshuva

and hitkhadeshut, all the Jewish people people in the world. And

they will be redeemed. One day they will look up into heaven and

they will see the Kodesh HaKodashim in heaven open, and they will

see not a changing of religions but a changing of Kohanim

Gedolim. And in this changing of the guard of the Kohanim

Gedolim in the Kodesh HaKodeshim in heaven, they will see a new

Kohen Gadol (after the order of Malki-Tzedek) replacing the old

Kohen Gadol. But this spiritual revelation will not cause them to

discard their Siddurim or their copies of the Shas. They will

not cancel Bar Mitzvahs or High Holiday Services. They will not

do away with Torah Services on Shabbos. They will still be loyal

to the Sinai Covenant and its mitzvot. They will change very

little, almost nothing as far as their Orthodox Jewish manner of

life is concerned. But they will be changed. They will see him

in heaven, wearing the garments that Caiapha once wore when

Caiapha unwittingly ordered the Akedah and had him bound and led

away, carrying the Scapegoat's burden of the evil Olam Hazeh.

They will see him--Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach Adoneinu Yehoshua,

standing in the Kodesh HaKodashim in Shomayim. They will see him

and they will weep. And the shul and the yeshiva will never be

the same after that. And they will have far better people to

produce materials such as the following, because there will be

thousands and thousands of rabbis and yeshiva scholars weeping as

I have wept for the Jewish people and looking up into heaven and

seeing the changing of the guard of the Kohanim Gedolim in the

Kodesh HaKodashim. But, until then, this meager offering is

presented with a prayer and with faith in the Kitvei Hakodesh and

in the Geulah Redemption of Klal Yisrael.


COPYRIGHT (c) 1996 Artists For Israel International

All rights reserved.



1 beh-ray-SHEET 2 bah-rah 3 Eh-loh-HEEM 4 et (es)

5 hash-shah-MY-yeem 6 vuh-et 7 ha-AH-rets

8 v'ha-AH-rets 9 ha-yeh-TAH 10 TOH-hoo 11 vah-VOH-hoo

12 vuh-KHOH-shekh 13 ahl 14 p'NAY 15 teh-HOHM 16 vuh-ROO-ahkh

17 Eh-loh-HEEM 18 m'rah-KHEH-feht 19 ahl 20 p'NAY

21 hahm-MY-yeem 22 vahy-YOH-mer 23 Eh-loh-HEEM 24 yeh-HEE

25 ohr 26 vah-yeh-HEE 27 ohr 28 vahy-YAHR

29 Eh-loh-HEEM 30 et (es) 31 ha-ohr 32 kee 33 tohv

34 vahy-yahv-DAYL 35 Eh-loh-HEEM 36 bayn 37 ha-ohr

38 oo-VAYN 39 ha-KHOH-shehkh 40 vahy-yeek-RAH 41 Eh-loh-HEEM

42 lah-OHR 43 yom 44 v'lah-KHOH-shehkh 45 KAH-rah 46 LAI-lah

47 vah-yeh-HEE 48 EH-rev 49 vah-yeh-HEE 50 VOH-ker 51 yohm

52 eh-KHAD 53 vahy-YOH-mer 54 Eh-loh-HEEM 55 yeh-HEE

56 rah-KEE-ah 57 buh-TOKH 58 hah-MY-yeem 59 vee-HEE

60 mahv-DEEL 61 bayn 62 MY-yeem 63 lah-MY-yeem 64 vah-YAH-ahs

65 Eh-loh-HEEM 66 et (es) 67 ha-rah-KEE-ah 68 vahy-yahv-DAYL

69 bayn 70 hahm-MY-yeem 71 ah-sher 72 mee-TAH-khaht

73 lah-rah-KEE-ah 74 oo-VAYN 75 hahm-MY-yeem 76 ah-sher

77 may-AHL 78 lah-rah-KEE-ah 79 vah-yeh-HEE 80 khehn

81 vahy-yeek-RAH 82 vah-yeh-HEE 83 lah-rah-KEE-ah

84 shah-MY-yeem 85 vah-yeh-HEE 86 EH-rev 87 vah-yeh-HEE

88 VOH-ker 89 yom 90 shay-NEE 91 vahy-YOH-mer 92 Eh-loh-HEEM

93 yee-kah-VOO 94 hahm-MY-yeem 95 mee-TAH-khaht

96 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 97 el 98 mah-KOHM 99 eh-KHAD

100 vuh-teh-rah-EH 101 ha-yah-bah-SHAH 102 vah-yeh-HEE

103 khehn 104 vaahy-yeek-RAH 105 Eh-loh-HEEM

106 lah-yah-bah-SHAH 107 EH-rets 108 oo-l'meek-VAY

109 hahm-MY-yeem 110 kah-RAH 111 yahm-MEEM 112 vahy-YAHR

113 Eh-loh-HEEM 114 kee 115 tov 116 vahy-YOH-mer

117 Eh-loh-HEEM 118 tahd-SHAY 119 ha-AH-rets 120 DEH-sheh

121 EH-sev 122 mah-zeh-REE-ah 123 ZEH-rah 124 aitz 125 p'REE

126 OH-seh 127 p'REE 128 leh-mee-NOH 129 ah-sher 130 zah-oh

131 voh 132 ahl 133 ha-AH-rets 134 vah-yeh-HEE 135 khehn

136 vah-toh-TSEH 137 ha-AH-rets 138 DEH-sheh 139 EH-sev

140 mahz-REE-ah 141 ZEH-rah 142 luh-meen-NAY-hoo 143 v'aitz

144 OH-seh 145 p'REE 146 ah-sher 147 zah-roh 148 voh

149 leh-meen-NAY-hoo 150 vahy-YAHR 151 Eh-loh-HEEM 152 kee

153 tov 154 vah-yeh-HEE 155 EH-rev 156 vah-yeh-HEE 157 VOH-ker

158 yom 159 sheh-lee-SHEE 160 vay-YOH-mer 161 Eh-loh-HEEM

162 yeh-HEE 163 meh-oh-ROHT 164 bee-r'KEE-ah

165 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 166 leh-hahv-DEEL 167 bayn 168 ha-YOM

169 oo-VAYN 170 ha-LAI-lah 171 veh-ha-YOO 172 leh-oh-TOHT

173 oo-l'moh-ah-DEEM 174 oo-leh-yah-MEEM 175 veh-shah-NEEM

176 veh-ha-YOO 177 lee-moh-ROHT 178 bee-r'KEE-ah

179 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 180 leh-ha-EER 181 ahl 182 ha-AH-rets

183 vah-yeh-HEE 184 khehn 185 vah-YAH-ahs 186 Eh-loh-HEEM

187 et (es) 188 shuh-NAY 189 ham-meh-oh-ROHT

190 ha-guh-doh-LEEM 191 et (es) 192 ham-mah-OHR

193 ha-gah-DOHL 194 leh-mehm-SHEHL-et 195 ha-YOM 196 vuh-et

197 ham-mah-OHR 198 ha-kah-TOHN 199 leh-mehm-SHEHL-et

200 ha-LAHY-lah 201 vuh-et 202 ha-koh-khah-VEEM

203 vahy-yee-TEHN 204 oh-TAHM 205 Eh-loh-HEEM

206 bee-r'KEE'ah 207 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 208 leh-ha-EER 209 ahl

210 ha-AH-rets 211 vuh-leem-SHOHL 212 bah-YOM

213 oo-vah-LAI-lah 214 oo-lah-hahv-DEEL 215 bayn 216 ha-OHR

217 oo-VAYN 218 ha-KHOH-shehksh 219 vahy-YAHR 220


221 kee 222 tov 223 vah-yeh-HEE 224 EH-rev 225 vah-yeh-HEE

226 VOH-kehr 227 yom 228 reh-vee-EE 229 vahy-YOH-mehr

230 Eh-loh-HEEM 231 yeesh-ruh-TSOO 232 hahm-MY-yeem

233 SHEH-retz 234 NEH-fehsh 235 chai-YAH 236 vuh-OHF

237 yuh-oh-FAYF 238 ahl 239 ha-AH-rets 240 ahl 241 p'NAY

242 r'KEE-ah 243 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 244 vahy-yeev-RAH

245 Eh-loh-HEEM 246 et (es) 247 ha-tahn-nee-NEEM

248 ha'geh-doh-LEEM 249 v'et 250 kohl 251 NEF-fesh

252 ha-chai-YAH 253 ha-roh-MEH-set 254 ah-sher

255 shah-ruh-TSOO 256 hahm-MY-yeem 257 luh-mee-nay-HEHM

258 v'et 259 kol 260 ohf 261 kah-NAHF 262 luh-meen-NAY-hoo

263 vahy-YAHR 264 Eh-loh-HEEM 265 kee 266 tov

267 vah-yeh-vah-REHKH 268 oh-tahm 269 Eh-loh-HEEM 270 lay-MOHR

271 peh-ROO 272 oor-VOO 273 oo-meel-OO 274 et 275 hahm-MY-eem

276 ba-yahm-meem 277 v'ha-OHF 278 YEE-rev 279 ba-AH-rets

280 vah-yeh-HEE 281 EH-rev 282 vah-yeh-HEE 283 VOH-kehr

284 yom 285 chah-mee-SHEE 286 vay-YOH-mer 287 Eh-loh-HEEM

288 toh-TSAY 289 ha-AH-rets 290 NEH-fesh

291 chai-YAH 292 luh-mee-NAH 293 beh-hay-MAH 294 vah-REH-mehs

295 veh-chay-TOH 296 EH-rets 297 leh-mee-NAH 298 vah-yeh-HEE

299 khehn 300 vay-yah-ahs 301 Eh-loh-HEEM 302 et

303 chay-yaht 304 ha-AH-rets 305 leh-mee-NAH 306 v'et

307 ha-beh-he-MAH 308 leh-mee-NAH 309 v'et 310 kol 311 REH-mes

312 ha-ah-dah-MAH 313 leh-mee-NAY-hoo 314 vay-yahr

315 Eh-loh-HEEM 316 kee 317 tov 318 vay-YOH-mehr

319 Eh-loh-HEEM 320 nah-ah-SEH 321 ah-DAHM

322 bay-tsahl-MAY-noo 323 kee-duh-moo-TAY-noo 324 vuh-yeer-DOO

325 veed-GAHT 326 ha-YOM 327 oo-vuh-OHF 328 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem

329 oo-va-beh-hey-MAH 330 oo-veh-CHOL 331 ha-AH-retz

332 oo-veh-KHOL 333 ha-REH-mes 334 ha-roh-MESH 335 ahl

336 ha-AH-rets 337 vay-yeev-RAH 338 Eh-loh-HEEM 339 et

340 ha-ah-DAHM 341 beh-tsahl-MOH 342 beh-TSEH-lehm

343 Eh-loh-HEEM 344 bah-RAH 345 oh-TOH 346 zah-KHAR

347 oon-keh-VAH 348 bah-RAH 349 oh-TAHM 350 vah-y'vah-rech

351 oh-TAHM 352 Eh-loh-HEEM 353 vay-YOH-mehr 354 lah-HEHM

355 Eh-loh-HEEM 356 p'ROO 357 oor-VOO 358 oo-meel-OO 359 et

360 ha-AH-rets 361 veh-kheee-vuh-SHOO-hah 362 oor-DOO

363 beed-gaht 364 hay-YAHM 365 oo-vuh-OHF

366 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 367 oo-veh-khohl 368 chai-YAH

369 ha-roh-MEH-set 370 ahl 371 ha-AH-rets 372 vahy-YOH-mehr

373 Eh-loh-HEEM 374 hee-NAY 375 nah-TAH-tee 376 lah-khehm

377 et 378 kol 379 EH-sev 380 zoh-RAY-ah 381 ZEH-rah

382 ah-sher 383 ahl 384 p'NAY 385 khohl 386 ha-AH-rets

387 v'et 388 kol 389 ha-aitz 390 ah-sher 391 boh 392 p'REE

393 aitz 394 zoh-RAY-ah 395 ZAH-rah 396 lah-KHEHM

397 yee-heh-yeh 398 leh-ohkh-LAH 399 oo-leh-khohl

400 chai-YAHT 401 ha-AH-rets 402 oo-leh-KHOHL 403 ohf

404 hash-shah-MY-yeem 405 oo-leh-KHOHL 406 roh-MES 407 ahl

408 ha-AH-rets 409 ah-sher 410 boh 411 NEH-fesh

412 chai-YAH 413 et 414 kohl 415 YEH-rek 416 EH-sev

417 leh-ohkh-LAH 418 vay-yeh-HEE 419 khehn 420 vay-yahr

421 Eh-loh-HEEM 422 et 423 kohl 424 ah-sher 425 ah-SAH

426 v'hee-NAY 427 tov 428 meh-OHD 429 vah-yeh-HEE 430 EH-rev

431 vah-yeh-HEE 432 VOH-kehr 433 yom 434 ha-shee-SHEE

435 vah-yuh-khoo-LOO 436 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 437 veh-ha-AH-rets

438 vuh-KHOHL 439 tseh-vah-AHM 440 vah-yuh-KHOHL

441 Eh-loh-HEEM 442 bahy-YOM 443 hah-shuh-vee-EE

444 meh-lahkh-TOH 445 ah-sher 446 ah-sah 447 vahy-yeesh-BOHT

448 bah-YOM 449 hash-shuh-vee-ee 450 mee-KOHL

451 meh-lahkh-TOH 452 ah-sher 453 ah-sah 454 vah-y'vah-REHKH

455 Eh-loh-HEEM 456 et 457 yom 458 hash-shuh-vee-ee

459 vah-yuh-kah-DAYSH 460 oh-TOH 461 kee 462 voh

463 shah-VAHT 464 mee-KOHL 465 muh-lahkh-TOH 466 ah-sher

467 bah-RAH 468 Eh-loh-HEEM 469 lah-ah-SOHT 470 EH-leh

471 tohl-DOHT 472 hahsh-sha-MY-yeem 473 veh-ha-AH-rets

474 buh-hee-bahr-AHM 475 buh-YOHM 476 ah-SOT 477 Adonoy

478 Eh-loh-HEEM 479 EH-rets 480 v'shah-MY-yeem 481 vuh-KHOHL

482 SEE-ahkh 483 hahs-sah-DEH 484 TEH-rehm 485 yee-heh-YEH

486 vah-AH-rets 487 vuh-KHOHL 488 EH-sev 489 hahs-sah-DEH

490 The-rehm 491 yeets-MAHKH 492 kee 493 lo 494 heem-TEER

495 Adonoy 496 Eh-loh-HEEM 497 ahl 498 ha-AH-rets

499 vuh-ah-DAHM 500 AH-yeen 501 lah-ah-VOHD 502 et

503 ha-ah-dah-MAH 504 veh-EHD 505 yah-ah-LEH 506 meen

507 ha-AH-rets 508 veh-heesh-KAH 509 et 510 kohl 511 p'NAY

512 ha-ah-dah-MAH 513 vahy-yee-TSEHR 514 Adonoy

515 Eh-loh-HEEM 516 et 517 ha-ah-DAHM 518 ah-FAHR

519 meen 520 ha-ah-dah-MAH 521 vahy-yee-PAHKH 522 beh-ah-PAHV

523 neesh-MAHT 524 chai-YEEM 525 vay-yeh-HEE

526 ha-ah-DAHM 527 luh-NEH-fesh 528 chai-YAH 529 vahy-yeet-TAH

530 Adonoy 531 Eh-loh-HEEM 532 gahn 533 beh-EH-dehn

534 mee-KEH-dehm 535 vah-YAH-sehm 536 shahm 537 et

538 ha-ah-DAHM 539 ah-sher 540 yah-TSAR 541 vahy-yahts-MAHKH

542 Adonoy 543 Eh-loh-HEEM 544 meen 545 ha-ah-dah-MAH

546 kohl 547 aitz 548 nehkh-MAHD 549 leh-mahr-AY

550 vuh-tov 551 leh-mah-ah-KHOHL 552 vuh-aitz

553 ha-chai-YEEM 554 beh-TOHKH 555 ha-gahn 556 vuh-aitz

557 ha-DAH-aht 558 tov 559 vah-RAH 560 veh-nah-HAHR

561 yoh-TSEH 562 meh-EH-dehn 563 leh-hahsh-KOHT 564 et

565 ha-gahn 566 oo-mee-SHAHM 567 yee-pah-REHD

568 veh-hai-YAH 569 leh-AHR-bah-ah 570 rah-SHEEM

571 shehm 572 ha-eh-KHAD 573 pee-SHOHN 574 hoo

575 ha-soh-VEHV 576 et 577 kol 578 EH-rets 579 ha-khah-vee-LAH

580 ah-sher 581 shahm 582 haz-zah-HAHV 583 oo-zah-hahv

584 ha-AH-rets 585 ha-HEE 586 tov 587 shahm

588 hahb-DOH-lahkh 589 veh-EH-vehn 590 ha-SHOH-hahm

591 vuh-SHEHM 592 hahn-nah-HAHR 593 ha-shay-NEE 594


595 hoo 596 ha-soh-VEHV 597 et 598 kohl 599 EH-rets 600 Koosh

601 veh-shem 602 hahn-nah-HAHR 603 ha-sheh-lee-SHEE

604 chee-DEH-kehl 605 hoo 606 ha-hoh-LEHKH 607 keed-MAHT

608 ah-SHOOR 609 vuh-hahn-nah-HAHR 610 ha-ruh-vee-EE 611 hoo

612 fuh-RAHT 613 vahy-yek-KAHKH 614 Adonoy 615 Eh-loh-HEEM

616 et 617 ha-ah-DAHM 618 vahy-yah-nee-KHAY-hoo 619 vuh-gahn

620 EH-den 621 leh-ahv-DAH 622 oo-leh-shahm-RAH

623 vah-yuh-TSAHV 624 Adonoy 625 Eh-loh-HEEM 626 ahl

627 ha-ah-DAHM 628 leh-MOHR 629 mee-KOHL 630 aitz 631 ha-gahn

632 ah-KHOHL 633 toh-KHEHL 634 oo-meh-AITZ 635 ha-DAH-aht

636 tov 637 vah-rah 638 lo 639 toh-KHOHL 640 mee-MEHN-noo

641 kee 642 buh-YOM 643 ah-KHOHL-khah 644 mee-MEHN-noo

645 MOHT 646 tah-MOOT 647 vahy-YOH-mehr 648 Adonoy

649 Eh-loh-HEEM 650 lo 651 tov 652 heh-YOHT 653 ha-ah-DAHM

654 leh-vah-DOH 655 EH-eh-seh 656 lo 657 AY-zehr

658 keh-nehg-DOH 659 vahy-yee-TSEHR 660 Adonoy

661 Eh-loh-HEEM 662 meen 663 ha-ah-dah-MAH 664 kohl

665 chai-YAHT 666 hahs-sah-DEH 667 vuh-et 668 kohl 669 ohf

670 hahsh-sha-MY-yeem 671 vahy-yah-VAY 672 el 673 ha-ah-DAHM

674 leer-OHT 675 mah 676 yee-krah 677 lo 678 vuh-KHOHL

679 ah-sher 680 yeek-RAH 681 lo 682 ha-ah-DAHM 683 NEH-fesh

684 chai-YAH 685 hoo 686 sh'MOH 687 vahy-yeek-RAH

688 ha-ah-DAHM 689 sheh-MOHT 690 leh-CHOHL 691 ha-beh-he-MAH

692 oo-leh-OHF 693 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 694 oo-leh-KHOHL

695 chai-YAHT 696 has-sah-DEH 697 oo-l'ah-DAHM 698 lo 699

mah-TSAH 700 EH-zehr 701 kuh-nehg-DOH 702 vahy-yah-PAYL

703 Adonoy 704 Eh-loh-HEEM 705 tahr-day-MAH 706 ahl

707 ha-ah-DAHM 708 vahy-yee-SHAHN 709 vahy-yee-KAHKH

710 ah-KHAHT 711 meets-tsahl-oh-TAHV 712 vahy-yees-GOHR

713 bah-SAHR 714 tahkh-TEHN-nah 715 vahy-yee-VEHN 716 Adonoy

717 Eh-loh-HEEM 718 et 719 hats-tseh-LAH 720 ah-sher

721 la-KAHKH 722 meen 723 ha-ah-DAHM 724 leh-eesh-SHAH

725 vah-y'vee-EH-hah 726 el 727 ha-ah-DAHM 728 vahy-YOH-mehr

729 ha-ah-DAHM 730 zoht 731 ha-PAH-ahm 732 EH-tsehm

733 meh-ah-tsah-MAHY 734 oo-vah-SAHR 735 mee-beh-sah-REE

736 luh-ZOHT 737 yee-kah-REH 738 ee-SHAH 739 kee 740 meh-EESH

741 loo-kah-CHAH 742 zoht 743 ahl 744 ken 745 yah-ah-zahv

746 eesh 747 et 748 ah-VEEV 749 vuh-et 750 eem-MOH

751 vuh-dah-VAHK 752 beh-eesh-TOH 753 vuh-ha-YOO

754 luh-vah-SAHR 755 eh-KHAHD 756 vahy-yee-huh-YOO

757 sheh-nay-HEM 758 ah-roo-MEEM 759 ha-ah-DAHM

760 veh-eesh-TOH 761 veh-lo 762 yeet-bo-SHAH-shoo

763 veh-hahn-nah-KHAHSH 764 ha-yah 765 ah-ROOM 766 mee-KOHL

767 chay-YAHY 768 has-sah-DEH 769 ah-sher 770 ah-SAH

771 Adonoy 772 Eh-loh-HEEM 773 vahy-YOH-mehr 774 el

775 ha-eesh-SHAH 776 ahf 777 kee 778 ah-MAHR

779 Eh-loh-HEEM 780 lo 781 tohkh-LOO 782 mee-KOHL 783 aitz

784 ha-gahn 785 vah-toh-MEHR 786 ha-ee-SHAH 787 el

788 hahn-nah-KHAHSH 789 mee-p'REE 790 aitz 791 ha-gahn

792 noh-KHEHL 793 oo-mee-p'REE 794 ha-AITZ 795 ah-sher

796 beh-TOHKH 797 ha-gahn 798 ah-mahr 799 Eh-loh-HEEM

800 lo 801 tohkh-LOO 802 mee-MEH-noo 803 v'lo

804 teeg-guh-OO 805 bo 806 pehn 807 the-moo-TOON

808 vah-YOH-mehr 809 hahn-nah-KHAHSH 810 el 811 ha-ee-SHAH

812 lo 813 moht 814 the-moo-TOON 815 kee 816 yoh-DAY-ah

817 Eh-loh-HEEM 818 kee 819 beh-YOHM 820 ah-khohl-KHEHM

821 mee-MEH-noo 822 veh-neef-kuh-KHOO 823 ay-nay-KHEHM

824 vee-h'yee-TEHM 825 kay-loh-heem 826 yod-AY 827 tov

828 vah-rah 829 vah-TEH-reh 830 ha-ee-SHAH 831 kee 832 tov

833 ha-aitz 834 leh-mah-ah-KHOHL 835 vuh-KHEE

836 tah-ah-vah 837 hoo 838 lah-ay-NAHY-eem 839 vuh-nehkh-MAHD

840 ha-aitz 841 leh-hahsh-KEEL 842 vah-tee-KAHKH

843 mee-peer-YOH 844 vah-toh-KHOHL 845 vah-tee-TEHN

846 gahm 847 luh-ee-SHAH 848 ee-MAH 849 vahy-yoh-KHAHL

850 vah-tee-pah-KAHK-noo 851 ay-NAY 852 sheh-nay-HEHM

853 vahy-yay-duh-OO 854 kee 855 ay-roo-MEEM 856 hem

857 vahy-yeet-peh-ROO 858 ah-leh 859 tuh-ay-NAH

860 vah-yah-ah-SOO 861 la-HEM 862 khah-go-ROT

863 vah-yeesh-meh-OO 864 et 865 kol 866 Adonoy 867 Eh-loh-HEEM

868 meet-hah-LEHKH 869 bah-gahn 870 luh-ROO-ahkh 871 ha-YOHM

872 vah-yeet-chah-BEH 873 ha-ah-DAHM 874 vuh-eesh-TOH

875 mee-p'NAY 876 Adonoy 877 Eh-loh-HEEM 878 buh-TOHKH

879 aitz 880 ha-gahn 881 vah-yeek-RAH 882 Adonoy

883 Eh-loh-HEEM 884 el 885 ha-ah-DAHM 886 vahy-YOH-mehr

887 lo 888 ah-YEH-kah 889 vay-YOH-mehr 890 et

891 kol-KHAH 892 shah-MAH'tee 893 bah-gahn 894 vah-ee-RAH

895 kee 896 ay-ROHM 897 ah-NOH-khee 898 vah-eh-chah-VEH

899 vay-YOH-mehr 900 mee 901 hee-geed 902 leh-CHAH 903 kee

904 ay-ROHM 905 AH-tah 906 ha-meen 907 ha-aitz 908 ah-sher

909 tsee-vee-TEE-chah 910 leh-veel-TEE 911 ah-KOHL

912 mee-MEH-noo 913 ah-KHAHL-tah 914 vahy-YOH-mehr

915 ha-ah-DAHM 916 ha-ee-SHAH 917 ah-sher 918 na-TAH-tah

919 ee-mah-DEE 920 hee 921 nah-t'NAH 922 lee 923 meen

924 ha-aitz 925 vah-OH-khehl 926 vah-YOH-mehr 927 Adonoy

928 Eh-loh-HEEM 929 lah-ee-SHAH 930 mah 931 zot 932 ah-SEET

933 vah-toh-MEHR 934 ha-ee-SHAH 935 ha-nah-KHAHSH

936 hee-shee-AH-nee 937 vah-oh-KHEL 938 vah-YOH-mehr

939 Adonoy 940 Eh-loh-HEEM 941 el 942 ha-nah-KHAHSH 943 kee

944 ah-see-TAH 945 zot 946 ah-ROOR 947 ah-TAH

948 mee-KOHL 949 ha-beh-heh-MAH 950 oo-mee-KHOHL

951 chay-YAHT 952 has-sah-DEH 953 ahl 954 geh-khoh-NEH-chah

955 teh-LEHKH 956 vuh-ah-FAHR 957 toh-KHOHL 958 kol

959 yeh-MAY 960 chay-YEH-chah 961 v'ay-VAH 962 ah-SHEET

963 bey-neh-CHAH 964 oo-VAYN 965 ha-ee-SHAH 966 oo-vayn

967 zah-ah-CHAH 968 oo-vayn 969 zahr-AH 970 hoo

971 yeh-shoof-CHAH 972 rosh 973 v'ah-tah

974 the-shoo-FEH-noo 975 ah-KEV 976 el 977 ha-ee-SHAH

978 ah-mar 979 hahr-bah 980 ahr-BEH 981 eets-voh-NEHCH

982 veh-he-roh-NEHKH 983 beh-EH-tsehv 984 teh-luh-DEE

985 vah-NEEM 986 veh-el 987 ee-SHEHKH 988 teh-shoo-kah-TEHKH

989 veh-hoo 990 yeem-SHOHL 991 bakh 992 oo-leh-ah-DAHM

993 ah-mahr 994 kee 995 shah-mah-TAH 996 leh-KOHL

997 eesh-teh-KHAH 998 vah-toh-KHOHL 999 meen

1000 ha-etz 1001 ah-sher 1002 tsee-vee-tee-CHAH 1003 leh-MOHR

1004 lo 1005 toh-CHOHL 1006 mee-MEH-noo 1007 ah-roo-RAH

1008 ha-ah-dah-MAH 1009 bah-ah-voo-REH-chah

1010 beh-eets-tsah-vohn 1011 toh-chah-LEH-noo 1012 kol

1013 yeh-MAY 1014 chai-YEH-chah 1015 veh-KOHTS

1016 veh-dahr-DAHR 1017 tahts-MEE-ahkh 1018 lach

1019 vah-ah-khahl-TAH 1020 et 1021 EH-sehv 1022 hahs-sah-DEH

1023 beh-zeh-AHT 1024 ah-PEH-chah 1025 toh-KHOHL

1026 LEH-chem 1027 ahd 1028 shuv-CHAH 1029 el

1030 ha-ah-dah-MAH 1031 kee 1032 mee-MEH-nah

1033 loo-KAHKH-tah 1034 kee 1035 ah-far 1036 AH-tah

1037 veh-el 1038 ah-fahr 1039 tah-shuv


1 beh-ray-SHEET 2 bah-rah 3 Eh-loh-HEEM 4 et (es)

5 hash-shah-MY-yeem 6 vuh-et 7 ha-AH-rets

The above seven Hebrew words, read right to left, are the first

words in the Bible, Bereshis 1:1. In this Hebrew course, we are

going to read these seven words plus the first three chapters of

Genesis (up to the end of Gen. 3:19), and examine each of the

1039 words found there. In this way we will be able to not only

master the alphabet and the essentials of pronunciation and

grammar, but we will also be able to study in depth three of the

most important chapters in the Bible. This experience should

help us as we pursue a lifetime of study of the rest of the

Hebrew Bible. Let's look at these words one by one. [But first

get a CHUMASH and make an enlarged xerox of the first three

chapters of Bereshis (Genesis) and then take a red pen and number

the first 1,039 words up to the end of Gen. 3:19.

1. beh-ray-SHEET "in-the-beginning" is the first word. Find this

word in your Hebrew Bible. We are going to look at it's letters

one by one, right to left. This will just take a few minutes.

Then, as soon as we finish this one word, we are going to learn

the entire Hebrew ALEF BET, memorizing a different letter for

each prophecy about the Moshiach!!!!! The first syllable of

beh-ray-SHEET is made up of a consonant BET (it is pronounced "b"

as in "beginning") and a SH'VA, two vertical dots below the

letter, which, when it is vocal, has an "eh" sound as a

half-vowel as in "math-EH-ma-tics." The first syllable is

pronounced "beh." The second syllable is made up of a consonant

RESH (it is pronounced "r" as in "ray"), a vowel TZAYREH made up

of two horizontal dots below the letter pronounced "ay" as in

"pray," and a silent ALEF. The second syllable is pronounced

"ray." The third syllable is made up of, first, a consonant

SHIN. The letter SHIN is pronounced "SHEEN" and the sound is

pronounced "sh" as in "sheet" and is not to be confused with SIN,

a letter pronounced "SEEN" and the sound of the letter pronounced

"s" as in "see"). Notice the SHIN has a dot above the right side

and the SIN has a dot over the left side. Then we have a vowel

called CHEEREEK GADOL (a dot followed by a YUD and pronounced

"ee" as in "TREE"), and a consonant called a TAV (pronounced "t"

as in "tent"). (Note that TET also has a "t" sound; compare word

number #33 "tov"). The third syllable is pronounced "sheet." If

you take your Chumash and look at the CHEEREEK dot under the

SHIN, you will see a tipcha accent mark, a kind of slanted mark

to the left of the CHEEREEK. This is a musical note helping the

Baal Koreh or Reader sing or chant the reading in shul. It tells

us the proper pronunciation, that the accent is on the last

syllable, "beh-ray-SHEET." The accent is on the third syllable.

We know this thanks to the tipcha. We you buy a Biblical

Hebraica at your local Bible Society headquarters, a list of

these accents is provided in a handy book mark card. The "beh"

is the prefixed preposition meaning "in." Related words to the

root RESH ALEF SHIN are "rosh" ("head") and "ree-SHOHN" meaning

"first"). Now, if you want to jump in and learn the entire ALEF

BET then turn to Tehillim (Psalm) 119 where you get an acrostic

with eight repetitions of each letter of the ALEF BET with a new

letter introduced as the first letter for each new eight verses

of the Psalm: 8 ALEF's, 8 BET's, 8 GIMMEL, DALET, HAY, VAV,



TZADE, KOOF, RESH, SIN/SHIN, TAV. Make a copy of each letter

and write it out eight times with its name as you study Psalm 119

and you will be ready to continue your lesson. Or here's a

better way to learn the Hebrew ALEF BET. Let's memorize a

different letter for each prophecy about the Moshiach, and

especially a key word in each prophecy that begins with that

letter. For example, TZEMACH (TZADE-MEM-CHET) starts with a

TZADE in Zecharyah (Zechariah) 6:12, where it says that YEHOSHUA

(Joshua/Yeshua) will have the name TZEMACH (MOSHIACH THE

"BRANCH" [OF DOVID]). So look it up in your Tanakh and memorize


MOSHIACH. Then, learn some Hebrew calligraphy and start

designing a tract or a poster with the letters of the Hebrew ALEF

BET and the names and titles and prophecies of Moshiach in the

Tanakh. Hebrew sounds fun now, right? It is more than fun. It

is the most serious thing you can learn, and means the difference

between Shomayim and Gehinnom for 14 million Jewish people and 6

billion Gentiles now living on the face of planet earth.

ALEF, Moshiach is the "EH-ven" ALEF-VET-FINAL NOON, the "Stone"

that the builders rejected, TEHILLIM (PSALM) 118:22


TEHILLIM (PSALM) 89:28(27), the "Firstborn" heir, the most

exalted king of the earth GIMMEL Moshiach is the "GOH-ehl"




DALET Moshiach is the "DEH-rekh ha-chay-YEEM" "the way of Life"


HAY Moshiach is the one born of "ha-al-MAH" "the virgin" YESHAYAH

(ISAIAH) 7:14 HAY AYIN LAMMED MEM HAY with a miraculous

"he-ra-yohn" "conception" (RUTH 4:13)

VAV Moshiach is the one who will be violently killed "V'AYN LO"

"and not for himself" (DANIEL 9:26) VAV ALEF YUD FINAL NOON

ZAYIN Moshiach is the "ZEH-rah ha-ee-SHAH" "Seed of the Woman"




CHET Moshiach is the "chem-daht kol ha-Goyim" "the desired of all

nations" CHAGAI (HAGGAI) 2:7 CHET-MEM-DALET-TAV meaning the

desired object

TET Moshiach is the one led like a lamb to the "The-vakh"

"slaughter" YESHAYAH (ISAIAH) 53:7, a word that refers to the

slaughter of animals, since Moshiach died on Pesach as a korban

pesach at the same time as the lambs were being

slaughtered by the kohenim TET-VET-CHET

YUD Moshiach is the one who will "yatz-DEEK"


"justify" many, make them have a right standing before Hashem


KAF Moshiach is the one sold for thirty pieces of "KEH-sehf"



LAMMED Moshiach is the one born in "beth LECHEM"


MICHOH (MICAH) 5:1 (2)

MEM Moshiach is the "Moh-SHEE-akh" MEM-SHIN-YUD-CHET who will


violently killed and cut off from his people, but not for himself


NOON Moshiach is the one whose "NEF-esh" NOON-FAY-SHIN has to

undergo suffering YESHAYAH (ISAIAH) 53:10-11 and become an

"ah-shahm" guilt offering for the "transgressions of Israel"


SAMECH Moshiach is our "SEH-vel" bearer SAMECH-VET-LAMMED,


"burden" bearer, who carries away our sins YESHAYAH (ISAIAH)


AYIN Moshiach is the RIGHTEOUS "ahv-DEE" "My Servant"


PAY Moshiach is the one put to death and cut off from the land of

the living for the "PEH-shah ahm-mee" PAY-SHIN-AYIN

("transgression of my people Israel") YESHAYAH (ISAIAH) 53:8;

49:5; He is also our Pesach PAY-SAMECH-CHET korban lamb

TZADE Moshiach is the "tzad-DEEK ahv-DEE" "My Righteous Servant"



L-RD" who commands us to come "qah-ROHV" "near"



(ZECHARIAH) 4:14; 14:4; 6:5

RESH Moshiach is the "ro-EH" who is stricken







TAV Moshiach is the one who brings the TORAH of the Besuras

haGeulah to the Nations


(ISAIAH) 42:4

Now that we know our letters of the ALEF BET, let's return to

word #1, beh-ray-SHEET. This very important word tells us that

the creation had a definite beginning in historical time. There

was a time when the creation did not exist, indeed before time

itself. In the timeless eternity of G-d Himself, there was only

Eh-loh-HEEM and the Ruach Haelohim (the Spirit of G-d--Gen.1:3)

and the Dvar Hashem, the Word of G-d--Psa.33:6).

Genesis 1:1-2:1 tells us that G-d used His Spirit and His Word to

create everything that exists. So behind the finite universe

stands not G-dless Evolution but the Creator G-d. The

"steady-state" theory of the universe is a scientific speculation

that asserts that the universe had no beginning and will have no

end. This theory is refuted by this word beh-ray-SHEET which

asserts that the universe does have a beginning and also carries

the inference that the universe will have an end. Therefore,

Genesis is not merely a book of origins; it is an eschatological

(or end-times) teaching which is the way Revelation, Ezekiel,

Isaiah and other parts of the Bible interpret it. The "big-bang"

cosmological theory is more favored by scientists today than the

"steady-state" theory. The "big-bang" theory asserts that the

universe began with a primordial explosion and has a finite size

and age, meaning it had a definite beginning and will one day

have a definite end. It is not our purpose to speculate about

these theories, as to which is scientifically more defensible,

only to comment that the "steady-state" theory is Biblically

refuted. This does not mean that we are endorsing the "big-bang"

theory. But this idea of a definite beginning and a definite end

is what the Bible teaches, and this is also what the science of

cosmology (a branch of astronomy concerned with the origin of the

universe) has tended to confirm. However, scientists go through

great theoretical contortions trying to get around all the

enigmas involved in the fragmentary and frequently changing

character of their purported empirical scientific evidence (of

which much defies theory). They postulate the "big-bang theory"

and assert that the universe exploded into existence perhaps some

20 billion years ago, more or less, and project that the earth is

between 4.5 and 4.7 billion years old and that humans evolved

from some sort of apelike primate ancestor 2.5 million years ago.

Then, just when they are certain of their results and have

convinced themselves that their cosmological scientific theories

fit all the complexities of new astronomical discoveries, the

fossil record, radio-carbondating, paleontological discoveries,

etc, conflicting new data emerges and they are left to flounder

around with a lot of empty and passing ideas and unsettled

"conclusions" that are more a matter of blind faith than

scientific fact. "For the heavens are as high above earth as

G-d's thoughts are above our thoughts," Isaiah 55:9 says, and

things without number are beyond our comprehension. So we cannot

endorse any scientific theory. But we can find out what the

Bible teaches. Biblical faith is sure of this: if we reject the

words of Genesis and look elsewhere for an inerrant cosmology, we

will never find one, because mere man, unaided by the inspiration

of the Ruach Hakodesh of G-d, can never write an inerrant

cosmology, and to this, at least, the ever collapsing theories

and endless disputes of scientists eloquently concur.

2. bah-rah "(He) created" is the second word. You have had all

of these consonants. What are they? Review #1. The new vowel

point KAMATZ looks like a small T under the consonants BET and

RESH and is pronounced with an "ah" sound as in "card." This

same small T is sometimes a KAMATZ HATOOF pronounced "o" as in

"soft" in words like #450, meaning "from all" and pronounced

"mee-kohl" (#450), not "mee-kahl." The G-d of Israel is always

the subject of this verb in the Hebrew Bible, never man or pagan

deities. No one can "bah-rah" except the G-d of Abraham, Isaac

and Jacob. "Mother Nature" cannot "bah-rah," G-dless "Evolution"

cannot "bah-rah." Also, as every spiritually reborn believer

knows experientially, not psychotherapy, not human science, nor

human endeavor of any kind, but only G-d can "bah-rah" the new

creation we have in Moshiach Yehoshua. This verb bah-rah is in

the perfect tense, meaning the action is complete. G-d

accomplished the creation of everything and this is a finished

work. Since only G-d was in the beginning and everything else

came to exist as part of His creation, creation is creatio ex

nihilo, out of nothing. Without the use of pre-existing

materials G-d "called into existence the things that do not

exist" (Romans 4:17).

3. Eh-loh-HEEM "G-d" is the next word ALEF and CHEEREEK GADOL


have already had. Review #1. ALEF is a silent consonant. A

syllable in Hebrew never begins with a vowel. It always consists

of a consonant plus a vowel or a consonant plus a vowel plus a

consonant. CHATAF SEGOL under the first letter looks like five

dots and has an "eh" sound. LAMMED has an "l" sound. CHOLOM is

a dot above the consonant and has an "oh" sound. It can be

written with or without a VAV and in either case has an "oh"

sound. The second syllable is "loh." HAY is a consonant with an

"h" sound. And the "m" consonant is called a MEM but looks like

SAMECH but is more rectangular when it comes at the end of a word

as FINAL MEM as here (SAMECH has an "s" sound as in "six"). This

syllable is pronounced "heem." In your Biblia Hebraica the accent

mark under the HAY and to the left of the CHEEREEK marks this

word as the middle of the verse. This accent is called an atnah

(meaning "rest"). The word Eh-loh-HEEM is plural in form

(CHEEREEK YUD FINAL MEM is a plural ending) but singular in

meaning, here construed with a singular verb, "He created," not

"They created." (However, see Gen.35:7 Elohim "They were

revealed" to him. Also, see Ps.58:12.) This plural is called

"plural of majesty." So in the word for G-d we have the idea of

plurality in unity, the One G-d who is eh-KHAHD "one" in the

sense of complex unity, not yah-KHEED "one" in the sense of

absolute, uncompounded singleness. See these last two Hebrew

words in Deut.6:4 and compare Gen.2:24 and Jdg.11:34. 4.

"et" untranslated sign of the direct object is the next word,

which tells you that "the heavens and the earth" are the direct

objects of the verb and therefore are the objects of the verb's

action. Note the ALEF and the TZAYREH and the TAHV. Review #1

if you've forgotten these.

5. hahsh-shah-MAH-yeem "heavens, sky" is the next word. Note the

short horizontal dash under the HAY. This is called a PATACH and

is pronounced "ah" as in "card." The dot inside the SHIN doubles

the letter. We have already had all the other letters. What are

they? HAY is the definite article "the," used here because "the

heavens" and "the earth" (see #7) are nouns with unique

referents. Remember that a noun is the name of a person, place,

or thing. Notice here the plural ending CHEEREEK YUD FINAL MEM

as in Eh-loh-HEEM.

6. vuh-et "and (sign of direct object)" is the next word.

Notice the prefixed conjunction "and" VAV pronounced with a "v"

sound as in "vote." (Do not confuse this letter with ZAYIN

which has a "z" sound as in "zoo".) The name of G-d we will see

later contains the consonants YUD HAY VAV HAY.

7. ha-AH-rehts "the earth" is the next word. Notice the accent

under the ALEF indicating that this is the accented syllable. Do

you see the SEGOL? the KAMATZ? The last letter is a FINAL TZADE

which is the way the TZADE looks when it comes as the last

letter of a word. It is pronounced "ts" as in "fits" or tsuris

(Yiddish = "trouble"). Notice the definite article HAY at the

beginning of this word, "the earth." When compounded with "the

earth," "heaven" designates the whole cosmos; so this expression,

"the heavens and the earth" really means "everything." So Genesis

1:1 teaches an absolute beginning of everything that exists as a

direct act of G-d. This is why He alone is worthy of praise and

worship. Everything has its existence of Him and through Him and

from the good pleasure of His will.


8 v'ha-AH-rets 9 ha-yeh-TAH 10 TOH-hoo 11 vah-VOH-hoo

12 vuh-KHOH-shekh 13 ahl 14 p'NAY 15 teh-HOHM

8. v'ha-AH-rets "and-the-earth" --Review #6 and 17.

9. ha-yeh-TAH "(she) was" --Notice the accent mark under the last

syllable. Look at the first syllable HAY KAMATZ. Look at your

three vowels (the SH'VA here is a half-vowel). Syllables that end

in a vowel-sound are called open syllables (meaning syllables

without a consonant ending), so we know to break the syllable

here and pronounce the word "ha-yeh-TAH," not "hi-TAH." This is

the way we write "she was" since "earth" is feminine in Hebrew.

10. TOH-hoo "nothingness. formless" --For the CHOLOM review #3.

Notice the SHURUK long vowel at the end, which looks like a dot

in the middle of a VAV. This has an "oo" sound as in "loot" and

is pronounced the same as KUBUTZ which is three slanted dots

under the consonant.

11. vah-VOH-hoo "and-empty, void" --On the prefixed conjunction

"and" see #6 and #8, here written with a KAMATZ instead of a

SH'VA. We had BET in #1. Without the dot it is VET and

pronounced "v" instead of "b" (vet, not bet). Notice the SHURUK.

12. vuh-KHOH-sheh~ "and-darkness" --See prefixed conjunction

"and." SH'VA is a half-vowel. It is pronounced quickly and softly

with the VAHV as "vuh." Do not confuse CHET

(pronounced "kh" as in "Sikh" or "ch" as in CHanukah) and HAY

(see #3) and DALET which has a "d" sound as in "doll" and FINAL

CHAF. Notice the two dots which must be written but have no

sound. This vowel has the same sound as the second letter CHET.

The dot in the KAF ("k" as in "kick") distinquishes it from the

CHAF. The KOOF also has a "k" sound. For the CHOLOM review #3.

Note the accent under the second syllable. For the SHIN see #1.

Note the SEGOL "eh" vowel under the SHIN.

13. ahl "upon" AYIN is a silent consonant like ALEF. Note the

PATACH and review #5. Note the LAMMED and review #3. This is a

preposition, since it is used before the noun in #14 and forms a

prepositional phrase with it modifying word #12.

14. p'NAY "faces-of, surface of" --PAY has a "p" sound as in

"put" and when the dot is absent is FAY with an "f" sound as in

"fit." FINAL FAY (see #403) is not to be confused with FINAL

CHAF. NOON is an "n" sound as in "not" but when it comes as the

last letter of a word looks like FINAL NOON in word #38 and is

not to be confused with VAV. Do not confuse GIMMEL which has a

"g" sound as in "get" with NOON which has an "n" sound as in

"not." TZAYREH is a vowel with an "ay" sound as in "pray" and is

two horizontal dots under the consonant. TSEREH can also be

followed by YUD as in #14 but is pronounced the same. (Do not

confuse TZAYREH with CHEEREEK which has only one dot under the

consonant and is pronounced "ee" as in "siesta" and may or may

not have a YUD following it.)

15. tuh-HOHM "the (oceanic) deep". "p'NAY" is said to be in

construct" with "tuh-HOHM" because p'NAY is closely connected

with the following word "tuh-HOHM" and also "p'NAY" has a

construct ending TZAYREH YUD. The accent under the second

syllable of "tuh-HOHM" marks this word as the middle of the

verse. Now let's review the alphabet, first the consonants,

then the vowels. Make sure you have a mental image of each one

and a sound in your ear for the sound of each as we go along.

You may have to go back over the last 15 paragraphs and look at

each word in the Tanakh and make flash cards for yourself. ALEF






KOOF RESH SHIN SIN TAV. Make not of all of them as we go along

until you have mastered the ALEF BET. Now let's take the vowels.

KAMATZ (the vowel under the BET and the RESH in word #2),

PATACH (the vowel under the CHET in word #16),

TZAYREH (the vowel under the RESH in word #1),

SEGOL (the vowel under the RESH in word #7),

SH'VA (the vowel under the BET in word #1),

CHOLOM (the vowel dot above the HAY and to the left of the LAMMED

in word #3; also the third letter in word #15),

CHEEREEK (the vowel under the HAY in word #17),

KUBUTZ (the vowel under the CHAF in word #435, first word in

Gen.2:1, vah-yuh-khoo-LOO),

SHURUK (the last letter in word #93, yee-kah-VOO),

CHATAF KAMATZ (I could not find one in the first 1039 words. You

will see one only rarely. It is a KAMATZ with a SH'VA to the

right of it. Go to Ezekiel 39:14 and look at the next to the

last word, the first letter CHET and you will see a CHATAF KAMATZ

under it), CHATAF PATACH (the vowel under the ALEF in word


CHATAF SEGOL (the vowel under the ALEF in word #3).

Make flash cards for yourself for all vowels and the entire ALEF

BET using the relevant words I am giving you form Gen.1:1-3:19.

These will be learned by memorization and repetition, but it will

be fun because we are going to master this material and see the

doctrines of our faith in the words in the process. Just as you

did not learn English by listening to a lecture, so neither will

you learn Hebrew by merely staring at these pages. You must

become like a child with a crayon and write out your alphabet

and, as it were, once again make your own copy of "See Dick run.

See Jane run. See Spot run." Otherwise you will be like the kid

who says he can't ride bicycles and has never even got on one.

Practice writing in your own handwriting the first several verses

of Genesis. Purchase a large print Hebrew Bible (preferably the

Biblica Hebraica Stuttgartensia which I will show you how to use

and which will come in very handy when we get to the messianic

prophecies.) As you write each letter down, look it up above.


16 vuh-ROO-ahkh 17 Eh-loh-HEEM 18 m'rah-KHEH-feht 19 ahl 20


21 hahm-MY-yeem

16. vuh-ROO-ahkh "and-Spirit-of" --Notice the PATACH is

pronounced before the CHET and not after it, as in mo-SHI-ach

(see Daniel 9:26) (Anointed One, Messiah). This is called furtive

PATACH and we will discuss it later.

17. Review word #3. The same Spirit of G-d in Exod.31:3 that

filled the artist Bezalel and equipped him to build the

tabernacle is at work here in creating the earth.

18. m'rah-KHEH-feht "brooding" from the root RESH CHET FINAL FAY

meaning "to hover tremulously, shake, tremble" as in Deut. 32:11

where it describes an eagle hovering over the young in its nest.

Like a giant eagle egg was the earth under the hovering Ruach

Hakodesh. See how your knowledge of Hebrew helps you read the

Bible on a whole new level of comprehension. You should now have

the motivation to want to read the next three chapters of Genesis

with us. The MEM at the beginning indicates it is a participle

or verbal adjective, here modifying "Spirit of G-d."

19. review #13.

20. review #14.

21. hahm-MY-yeem "the-waters" --The short vertical accent under

the first MEM indicates the end of the verse, and the large

colon-like marks after FINAL MEM always follow this accent and

function as the period of the sentence. Notice the dot in the

first MEM. A dot in a letter preceded by a full vowel indicates

doubling of the letter and the dot is called dagesh-fort.

(Remember, SH'VA is only a half-vowel, not a full vowel.) So the

"m" is doubled "hahm-MY-yeem." The usual form of the definite

article "the" prefixed at the beginning of a noun is HAY PATACH

with the dagesh-forte' in the following letter (doubling the

letter); see #5. However, notice the exception in #7, because

there is no dagesh-forte in the ALEF in #7 since HAY CHET AYIN

RESH ALEF do not have the dagesh dot in them. The doubling

dagesh or dot should not be confused with the pronunciation

dagesh that makes a BET out of a VET, a KAF out of a CHAF, and a

PAY out of a FAY, and can also appear in a GIMMEL, a DALET, and a

TAV, though not all these letters are pronounced differently in

modern Hebrew. This is called the b-g-d-k-f-t dagesh. So when

you see a dagesh dot in a letter, ask yourself if it is a

doubling dagesh or a b-g-d-k-f-t pronounciation dagesh.


22 vahy-YOH-mer 23 Eh-loh-HEEM 24 yeh-HEE 25 ohr

26 vah-yeh-HEE 27 ohr

22. vahy-YOH-mehr "and-(He)-said" --Note the dagesh-forte in the

YUD, which indicates there are two YUDS "vahy-YOH-mehr." There

are two main tenses in Biblical Hebrew: the perfect tense, which

are actions that are completed as in "He said;" and the imperfect

tense, which are actions that are not completed as in "He will

say, He usually says, He might say.." The word ALEF MEM RESH,

is 3rd person masculine singular perfect of "he said." Here it

is a divine fiat that not only commands but commands effectively,

actually declaring the future and then causing what it declares

to come into being; see #24 and #26. In #22 the YUD indicates the

imperfect "he will say" but the VAV PATACH DAGESH conjunction

"and" not only connects this sentence with the preceding, it also

makes the imperfect "he will say" equivalent to the perfect "he

said," so we call it a VAV CONVERSIVE. The VAV PATACH DAGESH


CONVERSIVE is often attached to verbs in a sequence and reverses

their tense. When a verb is in the imperfect tense, the addition


meaning to

that of the perfect tense. If the verb is in the perfect tense,

the addition of the reversing VAV changes its meaning to that of

the imperfect tense. If you looked up #22 in your Hebrew lexicon

(language dictionary) you would have to look up the word under

the root form ALEF MEM RESH. Remember that roots have three

letters and all other letters are prefixes and suffixes added to

the root. You have to subtract all of these to find the root and

therefore be able to know how to look up the word in the

dictionary. This is a very high frequency word and must be

memorized. Put it on your vocabulary flash cards. Remember the

conjunction "and" VAV SH'VA connects but the reversing VAV PATACH

DAGESH connects and changes the tense of the verb.

23. review #3.

24. yuh-HEE "shall be" or "let be" from HAY KAMATZ YUD KAMATZ


"he was"--see #9. The SH'VA is always vocal SH'VA if it is in the

first syllable like this. Compare the silent SH'VA in #28. The

initial YUD indicates the imperfect tense as in #22. However,

this tense is called the jussive, although in this case it is

written exactly like the imperfect. The jussive tense expresses

volition "let it be." G-d wanted light and that's what he called

forth and got. There are three kinds of imperatives in Hebrew

that you need to know about: cohortative ("let me/us do some

action [first person]), imperative ("you do some action [second

person]); jussive ("let it/him/her/them do some action [third

person]). Do not feel overwhelmed with all this; you will be

seeing all this new material over and over again as you go along

in Gen.chps. 1-3 and it will eventually sink in. Don't get

discouraged. Allow your mind to get the repetitions it needs to

begin to clarify everything conceptually through repetition.

This is how we learn.

25. ohr "light"

26. vah-yuh-HEE "and-(there)-was" --This word is written like an

imperfect verb with an initial YUD but has the CONVERSIVE VAV VAV

PATACH DAGESH in front of it, which switches it to a perfect "and

there was." Compare the two words "#26 and #24 to see how the



to perfect, incomplete action to completed action. The CONVERSIVE

VAV VAV PATACH DAGESH is not merely a conjunction connecting the

previous part of the sentence. The CONVERSIVE VAV VAV PATACH

DAGESH converts the imperfect ("shall be") into a perfect tense

("there was").

27. see #25. The hyphen at #26 indicates that this word is to be

accented with #26 and pronounced with it.


28 vahy-YAHR 29 Eh-loh-HEEM 30 et (es) 31 ha-ohr 32 kee 33

tohv 34 vahy-yahv-DAYL 35 Eh-loh-HEEM 36 bayn 37 ha-ohr 38

oo-VAYN 39 ha-KHOH-shehkh

28. vahy-YAHR "and-(He)-saw" --Notice the letter YUD indicates

imperfect tense "he will see" but the CONVERSIVE VAV VAV PATACH

DAGESH makes it perfect. Is the SH'VA silent or vocal? Review

#24. The root for "he saw" is RESH ALEF HAY in the Hebrew


29. review #3 if you need to.

30. review #4 if you need to.

31. review #25. What is HAY KAMATZ? Review #21. Why is there no

dot in the ALEF? Review #21. Look at the horizontal stroke or

hyphen-like mark (it's called a makkef "binder" and shows that

these two words are bound together and there is only one major

accent and it is on the last word of those bound) between #31 and

#30? Review #27. "The light" is the object of the verb of

perception "and-He-saw." Note the sign of the direct object #30.

32. kee "that" --This word can mean various things, depending on

the context: "that, but, except, because, for, when, if, as,

like." See p.155, William L. Holladay, A Concise Hebrew and

Aramaic Lexicon of the Old Testament, Eerdmans, 1971.

33. tohv "good, beautiful, fit for its purpose" --Note the TET.

Notice the creation reflects the goodness of its Creator. This

little word refutes the gnostic false teacher Cerinthus (I

Yochanan 2:22, OJBC) who taught that the creation and the body

are evil and that therefore the divine good Moshiach could not

actually be the same as the dying man Moshiach Yehoshua in a real

(presumeably evil, according to Cerinthus) body.

34. vahy-yahv-DAYL "and-(He)-caused-a-division/separation" --from

the root VET DALET LAMMED ("to divide") with the HAY preformative

(indicating "cause to divide"). (We will explain what happened to

the HAY later; it has disappeared and the dot in the YUD is the

only trace of it.) If you look this word up in The Englishman's

Hebrew Concordance (p.181, Baker Book House Publishers) you see

that G-d is in the business of separating and causing division.

In Ezra 9:1 the Jews had not kept themselves separate from the

neighboring people and their detestable practices. In Num. 16:21

G-d said to Moses and Aaron, "Separate yourselves from this

wicked (Korah's) assembly so I can put an end to them at once.

But even before this, G-d caused a division between Cain and Abel

and between the children of Ishmael and Isaac. In Luke 12:51-52

Moshiach Yehoshua is the light causing a division in a household.

Notice the imperfect YUD and the CONVERSIVE VAV, VAV PATACH


35. review #3.

36. bayn "between" --Notice the FINAL NOON.

37. review #25 and #31 if you need to.

38. oo-VAYN "and-between." The conjunction VAV SH'VA ("and") is

generally found written like a SHURUK before MEM FAY and VET and

vowelless consonants. Compare #36 and #38.

39. review #12. Do you see the definite article. Do you

remember why there is no dagesh dot in the CHET? Review #21.


40 vahy-yeek-RAH 41 Eh-loh-HEEM 42 lah-OHR 43 yom

44 v'lah-KHOH-shehkh 45 KAH-rah 46 LAI-lah 47 vah-yeh-HEE

48 EH-rev 49 vah-yeh-HEE 50 VOH-ker 51 yohm 52 eh-KHAD

40. vahy-yeek-RAH "and-He-called" --Notice the KOOF and review

#12. From KOOF RESH ALEF a root meaning "to call, to proclaim, to

read." This last definition is important in terms of certain

Masoretic marginal notes in your BHS (Biblica Hebraica

Stuttgartensia). The Masaretes were a new type of Hebrew Biblical

scholar and they came on the scene after 500 C.E. They developed

a system of notations to help preserve their critical and

explanatory notes of their authoritative exegetical guide to the

grammar and pronunciation etc of the Hebrew Bible. They would not

altar the consonantal text, but if they felt there was a scribal

error in the consonantal text, or if they knew of a textual

variant, they would put the word "to be read" KOOF RESH YUD

"kerey" in the margin with the abbreviation KOOF with a dot above

it and they would put this word's vowel points under the word in

the consonantal text. For example, in BHS Gen.8:17 the form that

is KAF TAV YUD VET (written) in the consonantal text is that Noah

VAV YUD TZADE ALEF "came out" but the word in the margin is in

the imperative HAY YUD TZADE ALEF "Go out". Taking this reading

as perferred, the New Revised Standard Version translates, "Then

G-d said to Noah, 'Go out of the ark.." whereas the NIV

translates the consonantal text, "And Noah came out..." The BHS

text is the so-called Masorah (collection of notes) of these

scribes plus a reproduction of Codex Leningradensis (1008 C.E.)

plus the critical apparatus at the bottom of the pages indicating

portions where other manuscripts or versions differ or where

scholarly research brings the BHS text into question. All of

these witnesses help us stay close to the original inerrant

autographs of the infallible Biblical authors. KOOF RESH ALEF =

he called YUD KOOF RESH ALEF = he will call + CONVERSIVE


VAV PATACH DAGESH = "he called."

41. review #3.

42. lah-OHR "to-the-light" --The preposition "to, for" is


43. yohm "day"

44. v'lah-KHOH-shehkh "and-to-the-darkness" VAV = "and" LAMMED =

"to, for" HAY PATACH DAGESH ="the"--Notice the HAY of

the article elided (ignored) and its vowel PATACH is given to

LAMMED. We have had this word. Learn it. Review #12. 45.

KAH-rah "he called" --Review #40. This is the simple stem or

root of the verb. Most Hebrew roots consist of three letters

called radicals. The root is generally given in its simplest

verbal form, 3rd person masculine singular perfect.

46. LAHY-lah "night" --Notice we have a chiasmus (reversal in the

order of words" in verb/indirect object here:

"cal1ed-light/darkness-called." This expresses unity between the

two acts of naming as one action.

47. review #26.

48. EH-rehv "evening" as in erev Shabbat or Friday evening.

49. review #26.

50. VOH-kehr "morning" --Notice the accent under the VET.

51. review #43.

52. review #3. The cardinal "one" may be used for the ordinal

"first" in Hebrew. See Gen. 2:1 ha-eh-khad "the first." There

are those who assert that this "first day" must be a twenty-four

hour solar day. However, evening and morning appear three days

before the sun and moon, which the text says are to be for "days

and years" (1:14). Psalm 90:4 gives us the impression that a

cosmic day, from the divine point of view, might be a thousand

years or more, indeed a whole age or epoch. Since this section

has to do with life and eternal life and eternal righteousness

(Gen. 2:9,17; 3:22-24), the larger point seems to be that if even

G-d finds eternal rest at the end of his "week" of good works,

will not there be Chayyei Olam eternal life and rest and

righteousness and "glory and honor and peace for everyone who

does good" (Rom. 2:l0)? Made in the image of G-d to live by every

word that proceeds from the mouth of G-d, Man cannot live his

life's work-week for bread alone (Deut. 8:3; Yochanan 6:27),

since there is no true rest or food for his soul except in G-d

(Matt. 11:29). And those who doubt this fundamental teaching of

Torah should remember that the creation has been so ordered from

the beginning. Not only so, G-d will bring every deed into

eternal judgment when evening comes at the end of life's brief

"week" (Eccles. 12:14; Gen. 29:27-28; Dan. 9:24). The good G-d we

see at work in Gen. 1:1-2:3 reflects Himself in His good creation

in which everything is put together "decently and in order," the

"luminaries" of Day 4 interdependently pointing back to the

divine "light" in Day 1, the "birds and fish" of Day 5

symbiotically related to the separated rain clouds and oceans of

Day 2, the animals and man of Day 6 beneficially dependent on the

dry land and vegetation of Day 3, and, finally. all this divine

time of creative work dependent on the Sabbath of eternity, where

G-d returns when His good cosmos is finished, for this is where

He started "in the beginning" (Gen. 1:1).

GEN. 1:6

53 vahy-YOH-mer 54 Eh-loh-HEEM 55 yeh-HEE 56 rah-KEE-ah 57

buh-TOKH 58 hah-MY-yeem 59 vee-HEE 60 mahv-DEEL 61 bayn 62

MY-yeem 63 lah-MY-yeem

53. review #22.

54. review #3.

55. review #24.

56. rah-KEE-ah "dome"--This word is found in Ezek. 1:22-23

"spread out above the heads of the living creatures was what

looked like a dome, sparkling like awesome crystal." It is the

atmosphere seen as a vaulted ceiling or dome. The PATACH under

the AYIN is called PATACH furtive. Review #16.

57. buh-TOHKH "in midst of"

58. review #21.

59. vee-HEE "and let (it) be" review #24. This is YUD SH'VA HAY

CHEEREEK GADOL + "and" VAV so that the SH'VA contracts to


60. mahv-DEEL "causing-a-division" --review #34. This is a

participle or a verbal adjective as indicated by the preformative

MEM. Because this participle follows the verb "to be" it

expresses continuing future action.

61. review #36.

62. MAH-yeem "waters"

63. lah-MAH-yeem "from-the-waters" = LAMMED = "from, to, for"

--Notice the KAMATZ replaces the normal PATACH under the MEM in

#62 and #63 because it's the last word in the sentence, the voice

rests upon it, strengthens the vowel, and words with such vowel

changes are said to be "in pause." Notice the final accent in the

verse, which is called siIluq. Look under the MEM. Notice the

aof passuq which looks like a colon (:) and marks the end of the



64 vah-YAH-ahs 65 Eh-loh-HEEM

66 et (es) 67 ha-rah-KEE-ah 68 vahy-yahv-DAYL 69 bayn 70

hahm-MY-yeem 71 ah-sher 72 mee-TAH-khaht 73 lah-rah-KEE-ah 74

oo-VAYN 75 hahm-MY-yeem 76 ah-sher 77 may-AHL

78 lah-rah-KEE-ah 79 vah-yeh-HEE 80 khehn

64. vah-YAH-ahs "and-(He)-made"--not SHIN but SIN. The root is

AYIN SIN HAY "he made" with the imperfect form "he will make" YUD


65. review #3.

66. review #4.

67. ha-rah-KEE-ah --review #56.

68. review #34.

69. review #36.

70. review #21.

71. ah-SHER "which" --This is a high frequency relative pronoun

meaning "who, which, that." Memorize it.

72. mee-TAH-khaht "from under" TAV CHET TAV means "under" and

MEM CHEEREEK FINAL NOON means "from" and the NOON is

assimilated or absorbed when the two words become one.

73. Study #56 and #63 and you ought to be able to figure this one

out by yourself.

74. review #38.

75. review #21.

76. review #71.

77. may-AHL "from upon" MEM CHEEREEK FINAL NOON = "from" +


PATACH LAMMED "upon" with the FINAL NOON absorbed

lengthening the HEEREEQ under MEM to TZAYREH

78. lah-rah-KEE-ah "to the dome"

79. review #26 "and-it-was"

80. khehn "so" --The note in the textual apparatus of BHS for

#79 and #80 tells you that the Targum Ha-Shivim (Septuagint)

transposes this phrase to the end of verse 6. You will notice

that the symbol for the Greek translation of the Tanakh is an

ornate looking G. Cp = chapter. The two a's separated by a dash

next to 7 means that everything between those two a's is referred

to. Cf means compare. Each footnote is separated by parallel

double vertical lines. The apparatus footnote tells you that the

Targum Ha-Shivim translates "And G-d saw that it was good" into

Greek and inserts it at the end of verses 4,10,12,18,21,31, and

8. However, this is an inept attempt at standardization because

the Masoretic Text has this formula seven times to show the

complete perfection of G-d's works. If you want to know more

about the ancient versions referred to in the apparatus at the

bottom of each page (Samaritan Pentateuch, Syriac [Peshitta],

Latin Vulgate, Targum Onqelos, etc), get Ernst Wurthwein's The

Test of the Old Testament, Eerdmans Publishers, 1979.


81 vahy-yeek-RAH 82 vah-yeh-HEE 83 lah-rah-KEE-ah

84 shah-MY-yeem 85 vah-yeh-HEE 86 EH-rev 87 vah-yeh-HEE 88

VOH-ker 89 yom 90 shay-NEE

81. review #40. The little "s" like mark under the RESH in your

BHS is an accent.

82. review #3.

83. review #78.

84. review #5.

85. review #26.

86. review #48.

87. review #26.

88. review #50.

89. review #43.

90. shay-NEE "second." Notice in the BHS that the FAY to the left

of this word means paragraph, indicating a new paragraph begins

after that letter.

GEN. 1:9

91 vahy-YOH-mer 92 Eh-loh-HEEM 93 yee-kah-VOO 94


95 mee-TAH-khaht 96 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 97 el 98 mah-KOHM 99

eh-KHAD 100 vuh-teh-rah-EH 101 ha-yah-bah-SHAH

102 vah-yeh-HEE 103 khehn

91. review #22.

92. review #3.

93. yee-kah-VOO "let be collected" --The root is KOOF VAV HAY

"he collects." The passive stem is indicated by a NOON

preformative. The word for the place for the tevilah immersion

is mikvah meaning a "gathering/collection of waters" using a MEM

prefix which is often used in noun-formations. Study this word

carefully. The YUD indicates the imperfect or jussive (review

#24) 3rd person singular. The dagesh forte in the KOOF indicates

the absorbed NOON prefix of the passive stem of the root. See

also #108. Many Jewish people believe they must take a mikvah to

remove a state of ritual impurity. This is a ritually prepared

bath for purification in accordance with various regulations.

Strictly observant Jews often attempt to purify themselves in

this way before Sabbaths and Festivals. Also, following the

menstrual period, a woman is required to immerse herself. This is

TET VET YUD LAMMED HAY "tevilah" or total immersion. This occurs

following seven "clean" days after the woman's last menstrual

period. Many Jewish women even take their dishes to the mikvah or

"ritualarium" to be immersed before ever using them. A complete

immersion is necessary. This ritual goes back to the kohanim in

the Torah who had to cleanse themselves from ritual impurity

derived from contact with unclean objects or circumstances. That

there were such ritual bath facilities at the time of Moshiach

Yehoshua is clear from excavations at the desert fortress Masada.

It is therefore clear that Yochanan the Tevilah immersionist was

a kohen (hereditary priest) navi (prophet) offering a tevilah

haTeshuvah "immersion of repentance." It is an absurd lie to say

that this is a Gentile ritual foisted on the Jewish people. See

Deut.23: l0-11.

94. review #21.

95. review #72.

96. review #5.

97. el "to"

98. mah-KOHM "place, location."

99. review #52

100. review #28. vuh-teh-rah-EH "and-she-shall-be-seen" --The

subject ("dry land") is feminine. TAV is a prefix for the

imperfect 3rd pers. fem. sing. just as YUD is a prefix for the

imperfect 3rd pers. masc.sing. Look at #21 to see why, although

the NOON prefix of the passive N-stem assimilates into the

previous letter, in this case, since it is a RESH there is no

dagesh forte in the RESH. See Isaiah 53:10 YUD RESH ALEF HAY "he

will see" which is predicated about Moshiach at the time of his

Resurrection after Moshiach was "cut off out of the land of the

living" (53:8).

101. ha-yah-bah-SHAH "dry land" = feminine noun. Notice the HAY PATACH DAGESH "the"

102. review #79

103. review #80.


104 vaahy-yeek-RAH 105 Eh-loh-HEEM 106 lah-yah-bah-SHAH

107 EH-rets 108 oo-l'meek-VAY 109 hahm-MY-yeem 110 kah-RAH 111

yahm-MEEM 112 vahy-YAHR 113 Eh-loh-HEEM 114 kee 115 tov

104. Review #40.

105. Review #3.

106. Review #101. LAMMED prefix means "to, for." Review #97

and #78.

107. Review #7. EH-rets = "land."

108. Review #93 and #38 and #97. oo-luh-meek-VAY


109. Review #21. In Biblical Hebrew there is no word to express

the English word "of' when it indicates either possession or

description as in "the house of Ruth" or a "word of kindness."

However, in Hebrew, when two nouns are linked together to create

a single idea, the first noun carries with it the meaning "of."

This noun is in what is called the construct state.

110. Review #40. kah-RAH "he-called"

111. yahm-MEEM "seas" YUD KAMATZ FINAL MEM = "sea." Notice

the KAMATZ under the YUD becomes PATACH when the plural is


by adding CHEEREEK YUD FINAL MEM at the end, making the form


see here "seas".

112. review #28.

113. review #3.

114. review #32.

115. review #33.


116 vahy-YOH-mer 117 Eh-loh-HEEM 118 tahd-SHAY 119 ha-AH-rets

120 DEH-sheh 121 EH-sev 122 mah-zeh-REE-ah 123 ZEH-rah 124

aitz 125 p'REE 126 OH-seh 127 p'REE 128 leh-mee-NOH 129

ah-sher 130 zah-oh 131 voh 132 ahl 133 ha-AH-rets 134

vah-yeh-HEE 135 khehn

116. review #22. The simple stem is called the Qal stem. The

n-stem or passive stem is called the nifal stem. The h-stem or

causative stem is called the hifil stem. For example, "he ate"

is the Qal or simple stem. The nifal stem is "it was eaten," and

the hifil is "he caused to eat, he fed."

117. review #3

118. tahd-SHAY "she-shall-cause-to-spring-forth, sprout, be green

--The TAV prefix indicates the imperfect tense "she shall." The

PATACH under the TAV indicates that this is a HAY causative stem

verb "she shall cause." On this see also #122 and the causative

PATACH under the YUD in #34. The root is DALET SHIN ALEF and


see on page 75 of William Holladay's A Concise Hebrew and Aramaic

Lexicon of the the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 1971) that it is a

jussive as in #24, "let her sprout."

119. review #7.

120. DEH-sheh "grass, vegetation" see #118 DALET SHIN ALEF "be


121. EH-sehv "herbs, plants"

122. mah-zeh-REE-ah "causing to seed" --Root ZAYIN RESH AYIN.

Notice the furtive PATACH and review #56 and #16. The prefix MEM

indicates the word is a verbal adjective or participle. We must

ask what noun it modifies and the answer is #121, "plants

yielding seed."

123. ZEH-rah "seed." The noun form of the previous word, the verb

ZAYIN RESH AYIN "it seeds, he sows." This is a very important

word. Yehoshua says that Abraham looked forward to seeing his

day (Yochanan 8:56). Yehoshua means that Abraham's seed in Gen.

12:7 refers to the Moshiach (see Gal. 3:16). David's seed (II

Sam. 7:12) also is a Messianic term. Isa. 53:10 says the

Moshiach shall see his seed (believers). The Seed of the Woman,

also a Messianic term, in Gen. 3:15 is ZAYIN RESH AYIN HAY "her


124. aitz "trees, tree." --Look at 2:9, 17; 3:5,22. The "aitz

haDa'as tov varah" ("tree of the knowledge of good and evil" is

the tree of moral autonomy where men add to G-d's commandments

(Deut. 4:2) their own will and their own traditions (Mark 7:9)

and reject G-d's word in order to honor their own ideas about

what is good and evil. There is a way that seems right to a man

but whoever turns aside from the law and goes that way (Josh.

1:7) will find that its end is death (Prov. 16:25). On the other

hand, there is also the "aitz haChayyim" (the tree of life) which

if a man eat of it, he will live forever. This tree points to

Moshiach Yehoshua (Yochanan 5:46; 6:51; Rev. 22:l-2).

125. p'REE "fruit"

126. OH-seh "making" --This is a participle of ALEF SIN HAY "he

made" The CHOLOM indicates a participle or verbal adjective and

here it modifies "fruit trees."

127. review #125. "Baruch atah Adonoy Eloheinu Melech haOlam

bore p'ri hagafen. "Blessed art thou 0 L-rd our G-d, King of the

universe, who creates the fruit of the vine." Moshiach Yehoshua

gave this blessing over the Kiddush cup at his Last Pesach.

128. leh-mee-NOH "to-his-kind" --The pronoun suffix "his"

(CHOLOM) is at the end. The inseparable preposition LAMMED SH'VA

is at the beginning. The noun is MEM CHEEREEK YUD FINAL NOON


The Bible says that G-d created the first member of each kind and

put the seeds of reproduction in each so that it could perpetuate

its kind. Evolution teaches that species simply evolve from one

to the other, and that if you have apes and you wait long enough

some of them will evolve into higher forms, that is, human beings

through ape like/man like inter-species "transitional forms."

This speculation is by no means proven to be true.

129. review #71.

130. zah-oh "his seed"

131. voh "in him." Notice the inseparable preposition BET SH'VA

"in." For the suffix review #123.

132. review #13.

133. review #7.

134. review #26.

135. review #80. Gen. 1:12


136 vah-toh-TSEH 137 ha-AH-rets 138 DEH-sheh 139 EH-sev 140

mahz-REE-ah 141 ZEH-rah 142 luh-meen-NAY-hoo 143 v'aitz 144

OH-seh 145 p'REE 146 ah-sher 147 zah-roh 148 voh 149

leh-meen-NAY-hoo 150 vahy-YAHR 151 Eh-loh-HEEM 152 kee 153 tov

136. vah-toh-TSEH "and-she-caused-to-bring-out"--the PATACH under

the VAV is causative --(review #118). The root YUD TZADE ALEF

means "go out" in the Qal stem and in the hifal stem stem it

means "caused to go out" or "bring out" (review #116). The TAV

is imperfect 3fs "she will cause to go out" but the VAV PATACH

DAGESH CONVERSIVE converts it to the perfect "she caused to go


137. review #7.

138. review #120. The New Revised Standard Version punctuates

this by putting a colon after #138.

139. review #121.

14O. review #122.

141. review #123.

142. luh-meen-NAY-hoo "to-his (its) kind" --Review #128. The HAY

SHURUK ending is the full form of the pronominal suffix meaning

"his" or "him." The TZAYREH under the NOON is a connecting


143. review #124.

144. review #126.

145. review #125.

146. review #71.

147. review #130.

148. review #131.

149. review #142.

150. review #28.

151. review #3.

152. review #32.

153. review #33.

GEN. 1:13

154 vah-yeh-HEE 155 EH-rev 156 vah-yeh-HEE 157 VOH-ker

158 yom 159 sheh-lee-SHEE

154. Review #26.

155. Review 148.

156. Review #26.

157. Review #50.

158. Review #43

159. shuh'lee-SHEE "third." What does the FAY mean after #159 in

BHS? It means new paragragh. The SAMECH before the first word

in Genesis mean Sedarim. There are 167 Sedarim or lessons in the

Torah. This mark divides the Hebrew Bible into 452 lessons. On

page 85 in the BHS you have the counts for Genesis. It says "Sum

of the verses of book, thousand and five hundreds and thirty and

four 1000 500 30 4 and mid-point is "VAV AYIN LAMMED (makkef)

CHET RESH BET FINAL CHAF (this is the middle verse--see p. 43 in

BHS) and paragraphs 45. As the Masoretes counted also every

letter, they could avoid scribal errors where words were

inadvertently added or subtracted from the text as the scribe's

eye skipped on the text as he was writing. On page 353 in BHS we

are told that there are 79,856 words in the Torah. In this

course we will read 1039 of them. According to page 353 in the

BHS, there are also 400,945 letters in the Torah, but we will not

count them; we will take the Masoretes' word for it. Amen?


160 vay-YOH-mer 161 Eh-loh-HEEM 162 yeh-HEE 163 meh-oh-ROHT

164 bee-r'KEE-ah 165 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 166 leh-hahv-DEEL

167 bayn 168 ha-YOM 169 oo-VAYN 170 ha-LAI-lah

171 veh-ha-YOO 172 leh-oh-TOHT 173 oo-l'moh-ah-DEEM

174 oo-leh-yah-MEEM 175 veh-shah-NEEM

#160. Review #22.

161. Review #3.

162. Review #24.

#163. meh-oh-ROHT "luminaries" --The MEM in front, if taken

away reveals, the word ALEF CHOLOM RESH or "light."

#164. bee-r'KEE-ah "in-dome-of" --This word is in construct

with #165 (review #109). Review #1 and #56.

#165. review #5.

166. leh-hahv-DEEL "to-cause-a-separation." Notice the HAY.

This word is the causative hifal stem. On LAMMED SH'VA "review


#167. Review #36.

168. Review #43. Do you see the definite article? Review #21.

#169. Review #38.

#170. Review #46. Do you see the definite article? Review #21.

The luminaries (carefully not mentioned by name since many

worship them as g-ds--see Deut. 17:3) divide the day from the

night, the moon lighting the night, the sun lighting the day.

SHEMESH is the name for "sun" and yah-RAY-ach is the name for


#171. veh-ha-YOO "and they shall be" --This is the verb "to


#172. leh-oh-TOHT "for signs (that is, of fixed times)" --ALEF

CHOLOM TAV = "sign"

#173. oo-leh-moh-ah-DEEM "and for seasons" from MEM CHOLOM


DALET = mo'ed = "season" --Notice the plural ending. Review #3.

The conjunction VAV SH'VA before a consonant with SH'VA (in this

case LAMMED SH'VA) is written SHURUK (SHURUK is always written

with VAV used as a vowel-letter).

#174. oo-leh-yah-MEEM "and days" --Review #43.

#175. veh-shah-NEEM "and-years" --SHIN NOON HAY "sha-nah" =

"year." On Rosh Hashanah we say shah-nah tov-ah.


176 veh-ha-YOO 177 lee-moh-ROHT 178 bee-r'KEE-ah

179 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 180 leh-ha-EER 181 ahl 182 ha-AH-rets

183 vah-yeh-HEE 184 khehn

#176. Review #171.

#177. Review #163. Contrast the feminine plural ending here

CHOLOM TAV with the masculine plural ending we've encountered

many times thus far CHEEREEK YUD FINAL MEM.

#178. Review #164.

#179. Review #5.

#180. leh-ha-EER "to-cause-to-shine/light" from the verb ALEF

CHOLOM RESH = "be/become light" in the hifil stem HAY ALEF YUD

RESH with the causative force here in the infinitive. Review


#181. Review #13.

#182. Review #7. "to-cause-to-shine/light upon the earth."

Charles Darwin's speculations would lead one to believe that what

looks like design and a Designer in nature (the so-called

Teleological Argument for the existence of G-d) is actually

"natural selection" wherein, for example, the skunk's

odor-generating capacity was not designed and put there by G-d

for its protection but was a chance variation or mutation

retained in the process of evolution for its advantageousness in

the survival of that species. But natural selection cannot

explain the inorganic adaptation in the universe, wherein the

earth and the sun are in such a relationship to each other that

life and breath are possible, a fact that indicates there is

design and a Designer in the universe, as this verse teaches. Had

the earth not been designed to have the particular size and mass

and position in the ecosphere (region around the sun) that it is

favored with, it would not have the kind of atmosphere it enjoys,

with oceans and clouds of water (review Gen. 1:6-8), oxygen-rich

air, and a temperature conducive to life. Slightly closer to or

farther from the sun and the earth might never have developed

life. Mercury essentially has no atmosphere and Venus has one

that is 90 times denser that the earth's and is composed

primarily of carbon dioxide, with some sulfuric acid. Can earth's

favored status be decribed by any "survival of the fittest

planet" theory? Of course not. Also, to say that the earth's

size, mass, ecospheric position, etc is a fortuitous accident

producing a breathable atmosphere quite gratuitiously and without

a Designer's plan is as absurd as asserting that Rembrandt's

paintings were produced by paint accidently spilled on a canvass.

The causative force in word #180, a hifil stem infinitive, shows

that there is a Designer and the sun and the moon were formed by

Him in order to cause light to shine on the earth, "leh-ha-EER"

#183. Review #79 and #26.

#184. Review #80.


185 vah-YAH-ahs 186 Eh-loh-HEEM 187 et (es) 188 shuh-NAY 189

ham-meh-oh-ROHT 190 ha-guh-doh-LEEM 191 et (es)

192 ham-mah-OHR 193 ha-gah-DOHL 194 leh-mehm-SHEHL-et

195 ha-YOM 196 vuh-et 197 ham-mah-OHR 198 ha-kah-TOHN 199

leh-mehm-SHEHL-et 200 ha-LAHY-lah 201 vuh-et

202 ha-koh-khah-VEEM

#185. Review #64.

#186. Review #3.

#187. Review #4.

#188. shuh-NAY "two-of" --Review #90. This is in the construct

state of the number sh'nayim (where the dual ending of CHEEREEK

YUD FINAL MEM for objects that go in pairs) has been altered to

TZAYREH YUD to show this word is in contruct with #189.

#189. Review #163. ham-mah-ohr "luminary, light" (HAY MEM ALEF

CHOLOM RESH) is masculine noun, although in the plural it has a

feminine plural ending. Review #177.

#190. ha-guh-doh-LEEM "the great" --Notice this adjective

(called an attributive adjective) follows the noun it modifies

and agrees with it in the masculine plural ending (it has

CHEEREEK YUD FINAL MEM since #189 is a masculine plural noun).

An attributive adjective agrees with the noun it follows in

gender, number, and definiteness.

#191. Review #4.

#192. Review #163.

#193. ha-gah-DOHL "the great" --Review #190.

#194. leh-mehm-SHEHL-et "for-dominion-of" from MEM SHIN


"he rules, has dominion. This is a very important thematic word

in Genesis and the Hebrew Bible. The sun and the moon rule over

the day and the night (Gen. 1:18), the husband rules over the

woman/wife (Gen. 3:16); Mankind is to rule over the fish of the

sea and birds of the air and all creation (Gen. 1:28); Joseph

will rule (Gen. 37:8); Moshiach is to be a ruler in Israel (Micah

5:1-2); Psalm 8:6 (7) says, "Thou madest him to have dominion;

Anti-Moshiach will rule, Dan. 11:43; Moshiach will rule (Zech.

6:13) and will have dominion from sea to sea (Zech. 9:l0). By

using this linking the matic word you can show what Moshiach

Yehoshua meant when he said the Bible is speaking about him,

really, all the way through (Luke 24:27). This kind of in-depth

study of the Scriptures is impossible without some grasp of the

Hebrew. The first MEM is a noun preformative. The TAV is a

feminine ending. You know the inseparable preposition LAMMED

SH'VA (review #97. It can mean "to" or "for," in this case


#195. hay-YOHM "the day" --Review #43.

#196. Review #6.

#197. Review #163.

#198. ha-kah-TOHN "the small."

199. Review #194.

#200. Review #46. Do you see the definite article HAY PATACH


#201. Review #6.

#202. ha-koh-khah-VEEM "the stars" --KAF CHOLOM CHAF VET

"koh-KHAHV" = "star." A koh-KHAHV will come out of Ya'akov

(Jacob) according to Num. 24:17. A false Moshiach was named "Son

of a Star" or Bar Kokh-vah and hundreds of thousands of Jewish

people perished because they listened to a rabbi who taught them

to believe in such men and to reject the true Messianic

prophecies and doctrines of our Shluchim. (This took place

during the time of the Second Jewish revolt about a hundred years

after the resurrection of the Moshiach.)

Ironically, this rabbi is considered a hero to this day, and no

one blames the "false Moshiach holocaust" he was partially

responsible for on him, though those who use blanket statements

to blame the Holocaust on followers of our Moshiach would never

blame their hero rabbi. This is terrible hypocrisy and

irrationality. Incidently, while you're learning Hebrew, you

probably should pick up a little inexpensive paperback, The



(Signet New American Library, 1977). If you look on page 143 in

the Hebrew half, you will see how to pronounce koh-KHAV. I also

recommend Zevi Scharfsteins Shilo Pocket Dictionary because it

has many important Biblical and theological words.


203 vahy-yee-TEHN 204 oh-TAHM

205 Eh-loh-HEEM 206 bee-r'KEE'ah 207 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 208

leh-ha-EER 209 ahl 210 ha-AH-rets

#203. vahy-yee-TEHN "and he gave/set/put" --Root NOON TAV FINAL

NOON, "he gave/set/put" --The dagesh forte is an assimilated NOON

as in #72. This is a Qal imperfect with VAV CONVERSIVE giving it

perfect force. Review #22.

#204. oh-TAHM "them" This is the sign of the direct object ALEF

TAV (review #4) with the masculine plural pronominal suffix

KAMATZ FINAL MEM, condensed together.

#205. Review #3.

#206. Review #164.

#207. Review #5.

#208. Review #180.

#209. Review #13.

#210. Review #7.


211 vuh-leem-SHOHL 212 bah-YOM 213 oo-vah-LAI-lah

214 oo-lah-hahv-DEEL 215 bayn 216 ha-OHR 217 oo-VAYN

218 ha-KHOH-shehksh 219 vahy-YAHR 220 Eh-loh-HEEM 221 kee

222 tov

#211. Review #194.

#212. Review #43 and #l.

#213. Review #38. #44, #46.

#214. Review #34. Remember HAY = causative. What is LAMMED?

Review #42.

#215. Review #36.

#216. Review #25.

#217. Review #38.

#218. Review #12.

#219. Review #28.

#220. Review #3.

#221. Review #32.

#222. Review #33.


223 vah-yeh-HEE 224 EH-rev 225 vah-yeh-HEE 226 VOH-kehr 227 yom

228 reh-vee-EE

#223. Review #26.

#224. Review #48.

#225. Review #26.

#226. Review #50.

#227. Review #43.

228. ruh-vee-EE "fourth" --Now count from one to four:

eh-KHAD (one) shuh-nayim (two) shalosh (three) ahr-ba (four)


229 vahy-YOH-mehr 230 Eh-loh-HEEM 231 yeesh-ruh-TSOO

232 hahm-MY-yeem 233 SHEH-retz 234 NEH-fehsh 235 chai-YAH

236 vuh-OHF 237 yuh-oh-FAYF 238 ahl 239 ha-AH-rets 240 ahl

241 p'NAY 242 r'KEE-ah 243 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem

#229. Review #22.

#230. Review #3.

#231. yeesh-ruh-TSOO "they shall swarm" from SHIN RESH FINAL

TZADE "it swarmed" --imperfect active 3rd person plural.

#232. Review #21. Notice that this is the subject of #231.

#233. SHEH-retz "swarm" or, collectively, swarms. This noun is

formed with the same root letters as #231.

#234. NEH-fehsh "soul, being, breath"

#235. chai-YAH "living thing" (a feminine noun) --Translate

#234 and #235 together as "living creatures." When this word is

chayyim it means "life."

#236. vuh-OHF "and bird"

#237. yuh-oh-FAYF "he shall fly" --Imperfect 3rd person

masculine of AYIN VAV FINAL FAY "he flew."

#238. Review #13.

#239. Review #7,

#240. Review #13.

#241. Review #14.

#242. Review #78.

#243. Review #5.


244 vahy-yeev-RAH 245 Eh-loh-HEEM 246 et (es)

247 ha-tahn-nee-NEEM 248 ha'geh-doh-LEEM 249 v'et 250 kohl

251 NEH-fesh 252 ha-chai-YAH 253 ha-roh-MEH-set 254 ah-sher

255 shah-ruh-TSOO 256 hahm-MY-yeem 257 luh-mee-nay-HEHM 258 v'et

259 kol 260 ohf 261 kah-NAHF 262 luh-meen-NAY-hoo 263 vahy-YAHR

264 Eh-loh-HEEM 265 kee 266 tov

#244. vahy-yeev-RAH "and-(He)-created" --Review #2. Do you see

that this is imperfect "he-will-create" YUD VET RESH ALEF with


#245. Review #3.

#246. Review #4.

#247. ha-tahn-nee-NEEM "the sea-monsters" --Root TAV NOON YUD

FINAL NOON --This word is used of the powerful creatures G-d has

made. In Isaiah 27:1 the word is used of Leviathan the serpent

whom the L-rd will destroy and who symbolizes the power of evil

and the anti-G-d nations.

#248. Review #190. An adjective, when attributive, follows its

noun, and agrees with it in gender, number and definiteness.

Compare the endings of #248 and #247.

#249. Review #6.

#250. kohl (not kahl) This KAMATZ is a KAMATZ HATOOF and is not

pronounced like a KAMATZ. It means "all." It can also mean "any."

Review #15.

#251. Review #234.

#252. Review #235.

#253. ha-roh-MEH-set "the (one) creeping/moving" --A participle

from the root RESH MEM SIN "he creeped/glided along/moved

about." The participle stresses the doer of the action. The

participle is also like an adjective modifying in this case word

#235, a feminine noun. Therefore we should not be surprised to

see a feminine ending TAV on this participle.

#254. Review #71.

#255. shah-ruh-TSOO "they swarmed" --Review #231.

#256. Review #21.

#257. luh-mee-nay-HEHM "to their kinds/types" --Review #128.

HAY SEGOL FINAL MEM at the end of this form is a pronominal

suffix 3rd person masculine plural "their."

#258. Review #6.

#259. Review #250.

#260. Review #236.

#261. kah-NAHF "wing" --This word is found in Daniel 9:27 where

it means "wing" ..."and on a wing will be a desolating

abomination: even until the End, even one being decreed (by G-d),

overwhelms the desolator." This passage is about a wing of the

Beis Hamikdash that the Anti-Moshiach will desecrate. The

winglike top corner of the Temple could be the pinnacle of

Mat.4:5, or possible the winglike top corner of the altar.

#262. Review #142.

#263. Review #28.

#264. Review #3.

#265. Review #32.

#266. Review #33.


267 vah-yeh-vah-REHKH 268 oh-tahm 269 Eh-loh-HEEM 270 lay-MOHR

271 peh-ROO 272 oor-VOO 273 oo-meel-OO 274 et

275 hahm-MY-eem 276 ba-yahm-meem 277 v'ha-OHF 278 YEE-rev

279 ba-AH-rets

267. vah-yeh-vah-REHKH "and (He) blessed" from the root BET RESH

FINAL CHAF, "he blessed." Now here you have a new stem, the piel

intensive stem. The characteristic of the intensive piel stem is

dagesh forte in the second radical or letter of the root, in this

case RESH. However, as we saw in #21, RESH rejects the dagesh

dot so you cannot use that indicator to identify this word as a

piel. You must just memorize it as a piel stem.

#268. Review #204.

#269. Review #3.

#270. lay-MOHR "to say" --We translate this as "saying" and

know that what follows is a direct quotation that should be put

in quotation marks.

#271. peh-ROO "be-ye-fruitful" --a Qal imperative 2nd person

plural of PAY RESH HAY, "he bore fruit/was fruitful." Yochanan

15:5,8 is an allusion to this verse.

#272. oo-ruh-VOO "and-multiply-ye/increase ye --a Qal

imperative 2nd person plural of RESH VET HAY "he multiplied.

#273. oo-meel-OO "and-fill-ye" from the root MEM LAMMED ALEF

"he filled" a Qal imperative 2nd person plural.

#274. Review #4.

275. Review #21.

#276. Review #111.

277. Review #236.

#278. YEE-rehv "let it multiply" --Review #272.

#279. Review #1 and #7.


280 vah-yeh-HEE 281 EH-rev 282 vah-yeh-HEE

283 VOH-kehr 284 yom 285 chah-mee-SHEE

#280. Review #26.

#281. Review #48.

#282. Review #26.

#283. Review #50.

#284. Review #43.

#285. khah-mee-SHEE "fifth."


286 vay-YOH-mer 287 Eh-loh-HEEM 288 toh-TSAY 289 ha-AH-rets

290 NEH-fesh 291 chai-YAH 292 luh-mee-NAH 293 beh-hay-MAH

294 vah-REH-mehs 295 veh-chay-TOH 296 EH-rets 297 leh-mee-NAH

298 vah-yeh-HEE 299 khehn

#286. Review #22.

#287. Review #3.

#288. toh-TSAY "let her cause to bring out" hifil imperfect 3rd

person feminine singular at YUD TZADE ALEF "he went forth."

Review #136. This word in the hifil means "produce" both here

and in #136.

#289. Review #7. This is the feminine subject of #288.

#290. Review #234 end #235.

#291. Review #234 and #235.

#292. luh-mee-NAH "to her kind" --Review #128 and note the

difference between the masculine singular pronominal suffix

CHOLOM and the feminine singular pronominal suffix KAMATZ HAY,

here and in Gen. 3:l5 "her seed" (i.e. the Moshiach). The dot in

the HAY is not a dagesh but a mappiq to differentiate the 3fs

suffix from a feminine noun ending KAMATZ HAY, as in the next

word, #293, which is a feminine noun.

#293. beh-hay-MAH "beast, animal, cattle"

#294. vah-REH-mehs "and creeping things" --Review #253.

#295. vuh-khahy-TOH "and beast of." The TAV tells you that

chay-YAH "beast" is in construct with #296. The CHOLOM is an old

ending, now obsolete. This word "beast" is what the King of

Babylon becomes in Dan. 4:13(16) for seven "times" or years. In

chps 13,17,18 in the book of Revelation the King of Babylon is

the Anti-Moshiach "Beast" who makes unsaved people take the "mark

of the Beast." See. Rev. 16:2. Although the word in Daniel is

Aramaic, it is the same word. Remember that Anti-Moshiach Beast

Hitler who made the Jewish people carry the mark of his tatoo,

marking them for death. This kind of word study helps one follow

Yochanan's thought. The Anti-Moshiach will be a killer, like a

wild animal, and he will have not one shred of humanity or human

compassion or mercy. Don't confuse this word for the noun

"beast" with the word (verb) for "be/stay alive" or the word

meaning "life," Chai, or this same word in the plural, Chayyim.

#296. Review #7.

#297. Review #292.

#298. Review #79.

#299. Review #80.


300 vay-yah-ahs 301 Eh-loh-HEEM 302 et 303 chay-yaht

304 ha-AH-rets 305 leh-mee-NAH 306 v'et 307 ha-beh-he-MAH

308 leh-mee-NAH 309 v'et 310 kol 311 REH-mes 312 ha-ah-dah-MAH

313 leh-mee-NAY-hoo 314 vay-yahr 315 Eh-loh-HEEM 316 kee 317 tov

#300. Review #64.

#301. Review #3.

#302. Review #4.

#303. Review #295.

#304. Review #7.

#305. Review #292. "after her kind."

#306. Review #6.

#307. Review #293.

#308. Review #292.

#309. Review #6.

#310. Review #250.

#311. Review #253.

#312. ha-ah-dah-MAH "the ground, the earth" --Keep in mind that

this word is made of the same root radicals or letters as Man

(ALEF DALET FINAL MEM, which is like saying that the first man

was named Mr. Mud (which is surely what his name was after the

fall!). This word-play is lost in English. Another reason to

learn Hebrew. There is the Adam from the mud and there is the

Adam from Shomayim.

#313. Review #292.

#314. Review #28.

#315. Review #3.

#316. Review #32.

#317. Review #33.


318 vay-YOH-mehr 319 Eh-loh-HEEM 320 nah-ah-SEH 321 ah-DAHM

322 bay-tsahl-MAY-noo 323 kee-duh-moo-TAY-noo 324 vuh-yeer-DOO

325 veed-GAHT 326 ha-YOM 327 oo-vuh-OHF 328 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem

329 oo-va-beh-hey-MAH 330 oo-veh-CHOL 331 ha-AH-retz

332 oo-veh-KHOL 333 ha-REH-mes 334 ha-roh-MESH 335 ahl

336 ha-AH-rets

x#318. Review #22.

#319. Review #3.

#320. Review #64. See the NOON -- this tells you the form is

1st person common plural "we." However, here the verb is not

imperfect but cohortative--"let us make." G-d is speaking to His

Spirit mentioned back in 1:2. Up till now G-d has used the

jussive ("let there be"); now He uses the cohortative ("let us

make") as He prepares to use His Spirit in the creation of a

unique spiritual being made in His image, namely Mankind. Because

of the complexity in the being of the One G-d, He can communicate

with his rational creative Word (Ps. 33:6) and also with His

Spirit. Man, who is likewise both rational and spiritual can

deliberate within himself like G-d does in Gen. 11:7 NOON RESH

DALET HAY "let us go down" and Isaiah 6:8 "Who will go LAMMED


#321. ah-DAHM "mankind" (not a proper name here in this verse).

ha-ah-DAHM "the man." Ah-dahm = Adam.

#322. bay-tsahl-MAY-noo "in-our-image" --Notice the

inseparable preposition at the beginning of the form. Review #1.



p.306 in your Hebrew lexicon and as in Gen.5:3 "when Adam had

lived 130 years he had a son in his own image." Review #321 to

see how human beings resemble G-d in a way that animals, lacking

rationality and a human spirit, do not. Notice the pronominal

suffix "our" (NOON SHURUK at the end of the form. Not "my image"

but "our image." Elohim HaAv, and Ben haElohim Moshiach Chochmah

of G-d (Psa. 2:7; Mishle 30:4) and the Ruach Hakodesh. Moses was

made aware of the complexity within the unity of the One G-d who

is Eh-loh-HEEM and Roo-ahkh ha-Eh-loh-HEEM, the Spirit of G-d and

D'vahr ha-Eh-loh-HEEM, the Word of G-d. It is foolhardy and

faithless to assert that such an idea is foreign to the Hebrew

Bible when it is literally staring right at you there in the


#323. "kee-duh-moo-TAY-noo" according to our likeness" as in

Ezek. 1:26 where it says that on G-d's throne was the "likeness

as the appearance of a man" --the root is d'mut DALET SH'VA MEM

SHURUK TAV "likeness." KAF SH'VA "as, while, according to" is

an inseparable preposition.

#324. vuh-yeer-DOO "and let them rule" --root RESH KAMATZ

DALET KAMATZ HAY "he rules." This is jussive 3rd person masculine

plural. Man is like G-d in that he can rule over the rest of the

creation with G-d-like dominion.

#325. vee-duh-GAHT "over the fish of" --root DALET GIMMEL HAY

= "fish." The TAV tells you it is in construct with #326.

Review #109.

#326. Review #111.

#327. oo-vuh-OHF Review #236. There are a few rules to

remember concerning when the SH'VA is pronounced with an "uh"

sound. (Otherwise it is a silent syllable divider as in #324.)

SH'VA is generally pronounced at the beginning of a word as in

#1. SH'VA is generally pronounced if there are two of them, in

which case only the second of them would be pronounced as in

#231. A SH'VA under a dotted letter is generally pronounced as

in #189. A SH'VA is generally pronounced when it follows CHEEREEK

as in #325 or #397, when it follows SHURUK as in #330, when it

follows CHOLOM as in #826, when it follows TZAYREH, as in #853,

and when it follows KAMATZ as in #255 (though there are

exceptions, so let the accents help you). The SH'VA is generally

silent in the following CHATAF PATACH, CHATAF SEGOL, CHATAF


#328. Review #5.

#329. Review #293.

#330. Review #250.

#331. Review #7.

#332. Review #250.

#333. Review #294

#334. Review #253

#335, Review #13.

#336. Review #7.


337 vay-yeev-RAH 338 Eh-loh-HEEM 339 et

340 ha-ah-DAHM 341 beh-tsahl-MOH 342 beh-TSEH-lehm

343 Eh-loh-HEEM 344 bah-RAH 345 oh-TOH 346 zah-KHAR

347 oon-keh-VAH 348 bah-RAH 349 oh-TAHM

#337. Review #244.

338. Review #3.

339. Review #4

#340. Review #321 and #312.

#341. buh-tsahl-MOH "in His image" --Review #322 and #128.

#342. buh-TSEH-lehm. Notice the accent. Review #322.

#343. Review #3.

344. Review #2.

#345. oh-TOH "him" Review #204. When for any reason it is better

to put the suffix somewhere else rather than at the end of the

verb, it can be connected with the sign of the direct object ALEF

TAV as here, CHOLOM + ALEF TAV = #345. Review #128.

#346. zah-KHAHR "male"

#347. oo-neh-keh-VAH "and female" from NOON KOOF VET HAY

"female." The inseparable conjunction ("and") VAV before a

consonant with SH'VA becomes SHURUK as here and also in #327 and

#330. When you see the ending KAMATZ HAY as here, it is an

indication of feminine gender. Notice mankind is ma1e and

female, humanity being incomplete one without the other, and the

complex unity of the Echad G-d not reflected without

male-and-female, two who can generate three. A similar

reflexion of G-d and his complex personhood is found in Daniel


#348. Review #2.

#349. Review #204.


350 vah-y'vah-rech 351 oh-TAHM 352 Eh-loh-HEEM 353 vay-YOH-mehr

354 lah-HEHM 355 Eh-loh-HEEM 356 p'ROO 357 oor-VOO

358 oo-meel-OO 359 et 360 ha-AH-rets 361 veh-kheee-vuh-SHOO-hah

362 oor-DOO 363 beed-gaht 364 hay-YAHM 365 oo-vuh-OHF

366 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem 367 oo-veh-khohl 368 chai-YAH

369 ha-roh-MEH-set 370 ahl 371 ha-AH-rets

#350. Review #267.

#351. Review #204.

#352. Review #3.

#353. Review #22.

#354. Iah-HEHM "to them." Review #63.

You need to know these pronominal suffixes.


3mp HAY SEGOL FINAL MEM "their, them" (as in this word #354)

3fs HAY KAMATZ or KAMATZ HAY with mappiq (see #292) "her"

3fp HAY SEGOL FINAL NOON "their, them"

2ms FINAL CHAF with KAMATZ "you, your"

2mp CHAF SEGOL FINAL MEM "you, your"

2fs FINAL CHAF with SH'VA "you, your"

2fp CHAF SEGOL FINAL MEM "you, your"

1cs CHEEREEK YUD "my, me"

1cp NOON SHURUK "our, us" (see #320)

#355. Review #3.

#356. Review #271.

#357. Review #272.

#358. Review #273.

#359. Review #4.

#360. Review #7.

#361. veh-khee-vuh-SHOO-hah "and subdue-you (plural)-her" from

KAF VET SHIN, "he subdues" --Review 3fs pronaminal suffix in

#354. Notice the KUBUTZ under the SHIN and review #15. This is

the SHURUK written defectively. #356, #357, #358 and this word

are all masculine plural imperatives or commands. These are

commandments to the human race. You should be aware of all the

imperatives in the Bible because obeying G-d is your duty. All

these imperatives look like the 2mp imperfect active verb without

the TAV in front.

#362. oo-ruh-DOO "and rule ye." Review #324. Another imperative.

Does not G-d command us to rule and reign and be overcomers?

Remember Revelation's refrain "to him who overcomes I will

give...?" Notice this word and how it unifies the meaning: The

sun rules over the day, the moon rules over the night, the tree

rules over eternal life, mankind rules over creation in the

divine image and after the divine likeness, the husband rules

over the wife, the Moshiach will rule over (actually crush

Satan's head) the seed of the Serpent, and G-d rules over all.

The Fall is rebellion against this G-d-ordained ruling order in

the cosmos. The Olam Hazeh is in rebellion, just as Rav Sha'ul

was as long as he was part of the world and attacking the

Messianic Jewish people. Do you think it's time you stop your


#363. Review #325. Is the SH'VA pronounced? Review #327.

#364. Review #111. Notice the definite article. The article

cannot be prefixed to a noun in the construct state (#363 is in

the construct state--review #109); if the article is needed, it

is given to the noun following, as here.

#365. Review #236.

#366. Review #5.

#367. Review #250.

#368. Review #295 "living."

#369. Review #253.

#370. Review #13.

#371. Review #7.


372 vahy-YOH-mehr 373 Eh-loh-HEEM 374 hee-NAY

375 nah-TAH-tee 376 lah-khehm 377 et 378 kol 379 EH-sev 380

zoh-RAY-ah 381 ZEH-rah 382 ah-sher 383 ahl 384 p'NAY

385 khohl 386 ha-AH-rets 387 v'et 388 kol 389 ha-aitz 390 ah-sher

391 boh 392 p'REE 393 aitz 394 zoh-RAY-ah 395 ZAH-rah

396 lah-KHEHM 397 yee-heh-yeh 398 leh-ohkh-LAH

#372. Review #22.

#373. Review #3.

#374. hee-NAY "Look!" This word means "pay attention."

Unfortunately, we don't pay attention to eating habits, even

though G-d has made the gift of vegetables and green, leafy herbs

and fruits available "for food" to the human race. Nutritionists

know that these will not have the adverse effects on health that

other types of diets have. Obese people often lose weight by

eating lots of vegetables and cutting down on other foods. This

verse needs to be meditated on by people who are foodoholics.

Look at what Prov. 23:20-21 says about the glutton ZAYIN CHOLOM

LAMMED TZAYREH LAMMED who gorges himself on flesh/meat.

#375. nah-TAH-tee "I have given" --Qal perfect 1st common

singular. Someday when you are depressed and you feel you have

nothing, take your Englishman's Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance of

the Old Testament (Baker Book House Publishers) and look up NOON

TAV FINAL NOON "he gives" and see the hundreds and hundreds of

times it occurs on pages 851-863 in that book and you will be

overwhelmed with all G-d has given you and the world and the

Jewish people.

#376. Review #42 and #354.

#377. Review #4.

#378. Review #250.

#379. Review #121.

#380. zoh-RAY-ah "seed-bearing" This is a participle as we see

from the CHOLOM. Participles are also indicated by a preformative

MEM. Review #122.

#381. Review #123.

#382. Review #71.

#383. Review #13.

#384. Review #14.

#385. Review #250.

#386. Review #7.

#387. Review #6.

#388. Review #250.

#389. Review #124.

#390. Review #71.

#391. Review #131. Notice the dagesh makes it "boh" instead of


#392. Review #125. This is in construct with #393. Review #109.

#393. Review #124.

#394. Review #380.

#395. ZAH-rah "seed" Review #123 and #3 (the accent we spoke of

in #3 has lengthed this vowel because it is "in pause").

#396. Review #42 and #354.

#397. yee-huh-yeh "he/it shall be" imperfect 3ms of #24. Is the

SH'VA pronounced? Review #327.

#398. luh-ohkh-LAH "for food" --See the verb "he ate" in #116.


399 oo-leh-khohl 400 chai-YAHT 401 ha-AH-rets 402 oo-leh-KHOHL

403 ohf 404 hash-shah-MY-yeem 405 oo-leh-KHOHL 406 roh-MES

407 ahl 408 ha-AH-rets 409 ah-sher 410 boh 411 NEH-fesh

412 chai-YAH 413 et 414 kohl 415 YEH-rek 416 EH-sev

417 leh-ohkh-LAH 418 vay-yeh-HEE 419 khehn

#399. Review #250. "and-to-every-of."

#400. Review #295.

#401. Review #7.

#402. Review #250.

#403. Review #236.

#404. Review #5.

#405. Review #250.

#406. Review #253. Do you see the CHOLOM that makes this a

participle? Review #380.

#407. Review #13.

#408. Review #7.

#409. Review #71.

#410. Review #131.

#411. Review #234.

#412. Review #235. Translate #234 and #235 as "breath of life."

#413. Review #4.

#414. Review #250.

#415. YEH-rehk "green" from YUD RESH KOOF "green."

#416. Review #121.

#417. Review #398.

#418. Review #79.

#419. Review #80.


420 vay-yahr 421 Eh-loh-HEEM 422 et 423 kohl 424 ah-sher 425

ah-SAH 426 v'hee-NAY 427 tov 428 meh-OHD 429 vah-yeh-HEE 430

EH-rev 431 vah-yeh-HEE 432 VOH-kehr 433 yom

434 ha-shee-SHEE

#420. Review #28.

#421. Review #3.

#422. Review #4.

#423. Review #250.

#424. Review #71.

#425. Review #64.

#426. Review #374.

#427. Review #33.

#428. meh-OHD "very, exceedingly." This 13 an adverb modifying

the adjective #427. The perfection and harmony of the universe

and the earth and all that is in it is "very good."

#429. Review #26.

#430. Review #48.

#431. Review #26.

#432. Review #50.

#433. Review #43.

#434. "ha-shee-SHEE" "the sixth." Go back and make sure you can

count from one to six in Hebrew.


435 vah-yuh-khoo-LOO 436 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem

437 veh-ha-AH-rets 438 vuh-KHOHL 439 tseh-vah-AHM

#435. vah-yuh-khoo-LOO "and they were finished" from the root

CHAF LAMMED HAY "he finished." Review #116 and #267 where you

were introduced various verb stems and the force of their

meaning. In the piel (intensive active) stem, this verb means

finish. In the pual (intensive passive) this verb means "be

finished" which is the meaning here. The KUBUTZ in verbal forms

marks the passive, and under the first radical or letter of the

root, as here, marks the pual stem.

#436. Review #5.

#437. Review #7.

#438. Review #250.

#439. tsuh-vah-AHM "their hosts, array" from TZADE VET ALEF,

"army, host." The L-rd is the L-rd of Hosts or Armies in the

Bible, Adonoy Tz'vaot. --Notice the pronominal suffix, "their

array." Review #354.


440 vah-yuh-KHOHL 441 Eh-loh-HEEM 442 bahy-YOM

443 hah-shuh-vee-EE 444 meh-lahkh-TOH 445 ah-sher 446 ah-sah

447 vahy-yeesh-BOHT 448 bah-YOM 449 hash-shuh-vee-ee

450 mee-KOHL 451 meh-lahkh-TOH 452 ah-sher 453 ah-sah

#440. vah-yuh-KHAHL "and he finished." Review #435.

#441. Review #3.

#442. bahy-YOHM "by the day" Do you see the definite article has

been omitted? When the definite article HAY PATACH DAGESH is

preceded by a preposition (as here) it is omitted and its vowel

is thrown back to fall under the preposition. Do you see the

dagesh of the definite article in the YUD? What two things tell

you the definite article is hidden in this word? Remember it is

not "by day" but "by the day." Moshe Rabbeinu is teaching, "If

G-d can finish all His work by the Sabbath, why can't you

Sabbath-breakers finish all your work by the Sabbath?" #443.

hah-shuh-vee-EE "the seventh". (Jewish people "sit shivah" or

seven days as a period of avelut (mourning) when a loved one

dies). Review #248.

#444. muh-lahkh-TOH "his work" Review #354. This is a noun MEM

LAMMED ALEF CHAF HAY = "work, occupation. workmanship, service."

Shliach Sha'ul says that whoever is not willing to engage in

this, let him not engage in eating either (II Thes. 3: 10).

#445. Review #71.

#446. Review #64.

#447. vahy-yeesh-BOHT "and he rested" Qal imperfect with

CONVERSIVE VAHV. --root SHIN VET TAV "he rested." This is where

we get the noun SHABBAT or Sabbath, which we see begins on Friday

evening and ends on Saturday evening, with Yom Rishon, Yom

HaAdon, actually starting on Saturday evening and ending just

before Sunday evening, according to the Biblical reckoning that a

day begins at evening. The early believers in the Brit Chadasha

observed both days (I Cor. 16:2; Acts 20:7; Rev. 1:l0; Acts

21:20) and, since the thing that ultimately matters is the new

birth, we're warned not to take an arrogant attitude toward

either day or toward anyone who observed either day (Rom.

14:5,l0). However, in Jewish ministry we cannot neglect starting

messianic synagogues with a full array of week-end services where

we minister on both Shabbos and Yom haAdon the days like the

first Brit Chadasha Kehillah in Yerushalayim.

#448. Review #442. The preposition can mean "by, in, on, over,

with." Here it means on.

#449. Review #443.

#450. mee-KOHL --Review #250 and #72. "from all of."

#451. Review #444.

#452. Review #71.

#453. Review #64.


454 vah-y'vah-REHKH 455 Eh-loh-HEEM 456 et 457 yom

458 hash-shuh-vee-ee 459 vah-yuh-kah-DAYSH 460 oh-TOH 461 kee

462 voh 463 shah-VAHT 464 mee-KOHL 465 muh-lahkh-TOH

466 ah-sher 467 bah-RAH 468 Eh-loh-HEEM 469 lah-ah-SOHT

#454. Review #267.

#455. Review #3.

#456. Review #4.

#457. Review #43.

458. Review #443.

#459. veh-yuh-kah-DAYSH "and he made holy, he sanctified, set

apart" --from KOOF DALET SHIN "he was holy." This is the piel

(intensive or causative) stem. Review #267 and look for the

dagesh forte in the second radical or letter of the root.

#460. oh-TOH "it" Review #204 and #354.

#461. Review #32.

#462. Review #32 but here it means "because."

#463. Review #447.

#464. Review #450.

#465. Review #444.

#466. Review #71.

#467. Review #2.

#468. Review #3.

#469. This is the Qal infinitive of the verb you had at #64.

There are two infinitive forms, the infinitive construct and the

infinitive absolute. When you see a preposition (as here) affixed

to an infinitive or pronominal suffixes attached to the end, you

know it is an infinitive construct. The infinitive construct is a

verbal noun, the name of the action or state expressed by the

verb. Here "to make" = "in making. creating." So here we see

that rest is holy, not worldly recreation. Notice the SAMECH in

the right hand margin of BHS next to this word and review #159.

This is the end of the first of 167 Sedarim in the Torah.


470 EH-leh 471 tohl-DOHT 472 hahsh-sha-MY-yeem 473 veh-ha-AH-rets

474 buh-hee-bahr-AHM 475 buh-YOHM 476 ah-SOT 477 Adonoy

478 Eh-loh-HEEM 479 EH-rets 480 v'shah-MY-yeem

#470. EH-leh "these" --This is a demonstrative pronoun. You

need to learn it. Also "this" ZAYIN SEGOL HAY (masculine) and

"this ZAYIN CHOLOM ALEF TAV (feminine).

#471. tohl-DOHT "account/history of generations." Here we see

that the creation of the heavens end the earth was an historic

event as opposed to the Greek idea of the eternality of the

universe. This word #471 is a major organizing word for

outlining the book. See its reappearance 5:1; 6:9; 10:1;

11:10,27; 25:12, 19; 36:1, 9; 37:2.

#472. Review #5.

#473. Review #7.

#474. buh-hee-bahr-AHM "when to be created them" or "in their

being created." Review #2. This is a Nifal (passive stem)

infinitive construct (review #469) governed by the preposition

BET. The nifal NOON has become dagesh forte in the VET (review

#203). The other sign that this is a nifal infinitive construct

stem is the KAMATZ under the first radical with the HAY in front

of it. Do you see that the pronominal suffix is "them" or

"their" (review #354).

#475. Review #448 but here no def. article.

#476. Review #469.

#477. The original pronunciation of YUD HAY VAV HAY is sacred

but we say Hashem (literally, the Name). The JW cult

mispronounces and blasphemes his holy name. Jewish people read

Adonai and put the vowel points of that word under this word in

order to remind them not to use the sacred name itself. Review


#478. Review #3.

#479. Review #7.

#480. Review #5. We need to make this verse more fluent in

English, "This is the history of the generations of the heavens

and the earth when they (the heavens and the earth) were



481 vuh-KHOHL 482 SEE-ahkh 483 hahs-sah-DEH484 TEH-rehm 485

yee-heh-YEH 486 vah-AH-rets 487 vuh-KHOHL 488 EH-sev 489

hahs-sah-DEH 490 The-rehm 491 yeets-MAHKH 492 kee 493 lo 494

heem-TEER 495 Adonoy 496 Eh-loh-HEEM 497 ahl

498 ha-AH-rets 499 vuh-ah-DAHM 500 AH-yeen 501 lah-ah-VOHD 502 et

503 ha-ah-dah-MAH

#481. Review #250.

#482. SEE-ahkh "desert shrub of"--Review #16 to pronounce the

last syllable.

#483. hahs-sah-DEH "the field" Root SIN DALET HAY = "field,


#484. TEH-rehm "not yet" --This is en adverb, here modifying

the verb in #485.

#485. Review #397.

#486. Review #7.

#487. Review #250.

#488. Review #121.

#489. Review #483.

#490. Review #484.

#491. yeets-MAHKH "he sprang up" --Root TZADE MEM CHET "he

sprouted, branched out." This verb has the same root letters

found in the noun for the allegorical name of the Moshiach, "The

Branch" TSEH-mahkh in Jer. 23:5-6 and Zech. 3:8; Ezra 3:8;

6:11-12. and it says Yehoshua/Yeshua is "his" name. In Acts 7:45

we find out that the Greek word for Yehoshua, Joshua, and Yeshua

is all the same word, proving that the Hebrew name of our

Messiah, Yehoshua, according to the Brit Chadasha and the Tanakh

Scriptures is the name of Moshiach. (See HOW TO POINT TO


website at ) This is a Qal imperfect 3ms

verb. Remember the imperfect tense has the incomplete idea that

the action of the verb had not yet come to pass or is not


#492. Review #32.

#493. loh "not, no."

#494. heem-TEER "he had caused rain" --The root is MEM TET RESH

"he/it rained" but the HAY preformative means it is the hifil

stem of the root. Review #116.

#495. Review #477.

#496. Review #3.

#497. Review #13.

#498. Review #7.

#499. Review #321.

#500. AH-yeen "was not" --This is a substantive (noun) meaning

"nothing" but it is used as a predicate "and there was not." See

the word used in Dan.9:26, "And after the 62 heptads Moshiach

will be cut off and there was not to him." Or "Moshiach will be

cut off [violently killed] and not for him [i.e. for himself, see

Isaiah 53:5 "he was wounded/pierced for OUR transgressions," not

for HIS transgressions.]

#501. lah-ah-VOHD "to work" --Qal infinitive construct of the

verb AYIN VET DALET "he worked, served." The CHOLOM is a sign of

the Qal infinitive construct. Review #469.

#502. Review #4.

#503. Review #312. In the beginning, everything is barren

because the L-rd had not yet "worked" the land by causing rain

to fall on it, and there was not yet a man to "work" the land by

tilling it or farming it. We see here that when man comes an the

scene, G-d intends him to be a fruitful co-laborer with G-d (I

Cor. 3:9).


504 veh-EHD 505 yah-ah-LEH 506 meen 507 ha-AH-rets

508 veh-heesh-KAH 509 et 510 kohl 511 p'NAY 512 ha-ah-dah-MAH

#504. veh-EHD "but spring".

#505. yah-eh-LEH "it used to go, rise" --Qal imperfect of AYIN

LAMMED HAY, "he went up." The imperfect in past sense expresses

duration or customary action.

#506. Review #72. #507. Review #7.

#508. veh-heesh-KAH "and He watered" --Root SHIN KOOF HAY "he

gave to drink, he watered." This is the hifal stem. Do you see




same force as the verb in #505. Review #21 for why there's no

dagesh or dot in the HAY.

#509. Review #4. #510. Review #250. #511. Review #20.

#512. Review #312.

GEN. 2:7

513 vahy-yee-TSEHR 514 Adonoy 515 Eh-loh-HEEM 516 et

517 ha-ah-DAHM 518 ah-FAHR 519 meen 520 ha-ah-dah-MAH

521 vahy-yee-PAHKH 522 beh-ah-PAHV 523 neesh-MAHT 524


525 vay-yeh-HEE 526 ha-ah-DAHM 527 luh-NEH-fesh 528 chai-YAH

#513. vahy-yee-TSEHR "and He formed" Root YUD TZADE RESH "he

formed" --This is the Qal imperfect with CONVERSIVE VAHV VAV


#514. Review #477. #515. Review #3. #516. Review #4.

#517. Review #321.

#518. ah-FAHR "dust." If one sees how a dead body decomposes and

in time becomes dust, it does not take much of a chemist to see

that such is the "stuff" of which the body is made and returns.

Man is made of dirt, he works or tills the dirt, and he returns

to it (see 3:19 where the same word is used), but if we are the

clay, G-d is the potter who shapes us (see #513).

#519. Review #72.

#520. Review #312.

#521. vahy-yee-PAHKH "and He breathed" from the root NOON FINAL

NOON FAY CHET meaning "to blow." The NOON is assimilated into

dagesh forte in the PAY. Do you see why it is perfect and not

imperfect? CONVERSIVE VAHV changes imperfect to perfect. G-d

breathed the breath of life into Man's nostrils (Gen.2:7), and it

is through the nostrils that man breathes so also lives. (See

Isa.2:22, which says "Turn away from mortals, which has only the

breath in its nostrils. Of what account are they?") The sneeze of

the son of the Shunammite woman in II Kings 4:35 showsthat life

has returned. But more profoundly Yochanan says, "In Him was (the

breath of divine) life, and the life was the light of Man"

(Yochanan 1:4) and he breathed on them (to regenerate them in the

divine life) and they received the Ruach Hakodesh (Yochanan


#522. beh-ah-PAHV "into his nostrils" --Root is ALEF FINAL FAY

nose. 3rd masculine singular suffix, review #354.

#523. Review #234. This word is in construct with #235.

#524. Review #235.

#525. Review #24 and #26. --"and he became" (the subject of this

verb is #526.

#526. Review #321. #527. Review #234. #528. Review #235.


529 vahy-yeet-TAH 530 Adonoy 531 Eh-loh-HEEM 532 gahn

533 beh-EH-dehn 534 mee-KEH-dehm 535 vah-YAH-sehm 536 shahm

537 et 538 ha-ah-DAHM 539 ah-sher 540 yah-TSAR

#529. vahy-yeet-TAH "and he planted" from NOON TET AYIN "he

planted" Review #203.

#530. Review #477. #531. Review #3. #532. gahn "garden".

#533. beh-EH-dehn "in Eden." Notice the accent.

#534. mee-KEH-dehm "from East, in East" --KOOF DALET FINAL MEM


East. Review #72.

#535. vah-YAH-sehm "and he put" --Root SIN YUD FINAL MEM = he


#536. "shahm" there. #537. Review #4.

#538. Review #321. #539. Review #71.

#540. Review #513.


541 vahy-yahts-MAHKH 542 Adonoy 543 Eh-loh-HEEM 544 meen

545 ha-ah-dah-MAH 546 kohl 547 aitz 548 nehkh-MAHD

549 leh-mahr-AY 550 vuh-tov 551 leh-mah-ah-KHOHL 552 vuh-aitz

553 ha-chai-YEEM 554 beh-TOHKH 555 ha-gahn 556 vuh-aitz

557 ha-DAH-aht 558 tov 559 vah-RAH

#541. vahy-yahts-MAHKH --Review #491. The PATACH under the

preformative is an indicator of the hifil stem. Review #116. "he

caused to sprout forth."

#542. Review #477. #543. Review #3. #544. Review #72.

#545. Review #312.

#546. Review #250. Before an indefinite noun (without the

definite article) this word may mean "all kinds of."

#547. Review #124. "all kinds of trees."

#548. nehkh-MAHD "being pleasant"--from NOON CHET MEM RESH


be desirable" --The NOON indicates nifal. Review #116.

#549. leh-mehr-AY "to sight" Review #28. The noun is formed out

of the verb by the prefix MEM.

#550. Review #33.

#551. leh-mah-ah-KHOHL "for food." "Good for eating." Review


#552. Review #124.

#553. Review #295. Do you see how the plural ending might be a

"plural of extension" (as in AYIN CHOLOM LAMMED MEM YUD


MEM which is the plural of AYIN LAMMED FINAL MEM "ancient time,

ages" and in the plural means everlasting ages or eternity or

forever as in Isaiah 51:9 (cf. Isa. 53:1) regarding the Z'ro'a

Hashem Moshiach)? Remember the plural ending of Elohim is not a

true plural but a plural of majesty or plural of excellence."

The word #553 is in the Hebrew Bible used of endless life not

only in Daniel 12:2 but from the beginning, right here, as is

clear in Gen. 3:22 "he might reach out his hand and take also

from the tree of life, and eat, and live forever." So the notion

that the concept of Chayyei Olam (Eternal Life) is a late idea

in Judaism is a liberal untruth. Such was the Besuras haGeulah

from the beginning. We are making every sacrifice to see Jews

and Non-Jews delivered from judgment because as Daniel 12:2 makes

clear, Shomayim and Gehinnom are forever.

#554. Review #57. "In the middle of" suggests its central


#555. Review #532. #556. Review #124.

#557. ha-DAH-ahs "the knowledge" from the root YUD DALET AYIN

"he knew." Review #248. Notice the accent under the second


#558. Review #33.

#559. vah-RAH "and evil RESH AYIN = evil. Review #124 for the

meaning of this expression.

GEN. 2:10

560 veh-nah-HAHR 561 yoh-TSEH 562 meh-EH-dehn

563 leh-hahsh-KOHT 564 et 565 ha-gahn 566 oo-mee-SHAHM

567 yee-pah-REHD 568 veh-hai-YAH 569 leh-AHR-bah-ah

570 rah-SHEEM

#560. veh-nah-HAHR "and river/stream."

#561. Review #288. "going forth" The CHOLOM tells you this is an

active participle of the Qal stem. Review #406.

#562. meh-EH-dehn "from Eden." Review #72.

#563. Review #508. leh-hahsh-KOHT "to cause to drink, i.e. to

water." This is a hifal infinitive construct (note the

HAY).Review #469.

#564. Review #4. #565. Review #532.

#566. oo-mee-SHAHM Review #72 and #536.

#567. yee-pah-REHD "it divides itself." Note the assimilated

NOON seen as dagesh forte in the PAY. The nifal can be either

passive or reflexive, here reflexive. Review #116. The KAMATZ

under the first radical is the second indicator of the nifal


#568. veh-hay-YAH "and it became" Review #9.

#569. leh-AHR-bah-ah "for four" --Review #228.

#570. rah-SHEEM "heads, head streams" --Review #1. The Zohar

speaks about three heads in Elohim, see EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO



GROW A MESSIANIC YESHIVA on our website. Download the files.

GEN. 2:11

571 shehm 572 ha-eh-KHAD 573 pee-SHOHN 574 hoo 575 ha-soh-VEHV

576 et 577 kol 578 EH-rets 579 ha-khah-vee-LAH 580 ah-sher

581 shahm 582 haz-zah-HAHV

#571. shehm "name" not to be confused with #536.

#572. Review #52.

#573. pee-SHOHN. Scholars believe that this river flowed into

what is today the Persian Gulf, an area which is important in the

beginning of the Bible and may prove important in end-time

prophetic fulfillments in our own day.

#574. hoo "he/it" (is).

#575. ha-soh-VEHV "the one winding" --Root SAMECH VET VET "to

turn around, go around, surround." Do you see this is a

participle? Review #406.

#576. Review #4. #577. Review #250.

#578. Review #7 and #546.

#579. ha-khah-vee-LAH "the Havilah" In Gen. 25:18 Havilah is

Ishmaelite territory and seems to be in southwestern Arabia.

#580. Review #71. #581. Review #536.

#582. haz-zah-HAHV "the gold" --Do you see the definite article?

ZAYIN HAY VET = "gold."

GEN. 2:12

583 oo-zah-hahv 584 ha-AH-rets 585 ha-HEE 586 tov 587 shahm

588hahb-DOH-lahkh 589 veh-EH-vehn 590 ha-SHOH-hahm

#583. Review #582. Remember #38 because it falls before a

consonant with SH'VA.

#584. Review #7.

#585. This is archaic. ha-HEE "the that(f.)" here used as a

remote demonstrative pronoun modifying #584, which is also

feminine. Review #470.

#586. Review #33. #587. Review #536.

#588. hahb-DOH-lahkh "bdellium" --a fragrant yellowish

transparent gum to which manna is compared in Num.11:7.

#589. veh-EH-vehn "and stone of" This word "stone" refers to

the Moshiach in Dan.2:35 and Psalm 118:22. The "Builders" of

Judaism rejected this Stone (Psalm 118:22; Isaiah 53).

#590. ha-SHOH-hahm "the onyx."

GEN. 2:13

591 vuh-SHEHM 592 hahn-nah-HAHR 593 ha-shay-NEE

594 ghee-KHOHN 595 hoo 596 ha-soh-VEHV 597 et 598 kohl

599 EH-rets 600 Koosh

#591. Review #571. #592. Review #560.

#593. Review #90 and #248. Do you the definite article?

#594. ghee-KHOHN --This river is associated with the Nile and

Egypt as is the river at #573.

#595. hoo "that (m.) (was)" --Here the remote demonstrative

pronoun "that (m.)" modifying the masculine noun #592 has the

force of a copula or "linking verb." Review #585.

#596. Review #575. #597. Review #4.

#598. Review #250. #599. Review #7 and #546.

#600. koosh "Cush" (this word may indicate western Iran here

although normally it refers to ancient Nubia or modern northern

Sudan, a land of famine and fundamentalist Islamic despotic

government now. This word describes one of Gog's allies, along

with Iran and Libya in Ezekiel 38:5 when an end-time invasion of

Israel takes place.)

GEN. 2:14

601 veh-shem 602 hahn-nah-HAHR 603 ha-sheh-lee-SHEE

604 chee-DEH-kehl 605 hoo 606 ha-hoh-LEHKH 607 keed-MAHT

608 ah-SHOOR 609 vuh-hahn-nah-HAHR 610 ha-ruh-vee-EE 611 hoo

612 fuh-RAHT

#601. Review #571. #602. Review #560.

#603. Review #159. #604. hee-DEH-kehl "Tigris."

#605. Review #595.

#606. ha-ho-LEHKH "the one running/going" Qal active participle

(see the CHOLOM?) of HAY LAMMED FINAL CHAF "he went, walked."


participle often serves as the equivalent of a relative clause,"

which flows etc" --From this root we get the noun halakhah,

which is the legal part of the Talmud where the rabbis discuss

how one must "walk," according to the laws of the Bible and their

own traditions, which they call "the oral law."

#607. keed-MAHT "eastward of" Review #534.

#608. ah-SHOOR "Assyria" See Micah 5:5. This is Iraq, which

the Bible says will invade Israel. (The Northern kingdom of

Israel and its capital Samaria were invaded and destroyed in 722

B.C.E. as a partial fulfillment of Micah's prophecy.) "The

Assyrian" is the eschatological enemy of Israel, like Gog in

Ezekiel (both invade Israel in the last days). Apparently, Micah

expected the Moshiach to come at the end ofthe Assyrian (Iraqi?)

crisis in the last days.

#609. Review #560. #610. Review #228.

#611. Review #595. #612. fuh-RAHT "Euphrates"

GEN 2:15

613 vahy-yek-KAHKH 614 Adonoy 615 Eh-loh-HEEM 616 et

617 ha-ah-DAHM 618 vahy-yah-nee-KHAY-hoo 619 vuh-gahn

620 EH-den 621 leh-ahv-DAH 622 oo-leh-shahm-RAH

#613. vahy-yeek-KAHKH "and he took" from LAMMED KOOF CHET "he

took" but here the LAMMED is assimilated as in #203. Do you see

the imperfect indicator YUD and the conversive VAV that makes the

imperfect perfect? Review #22.

#614. Review #477. #615. Review #3. #616. Review #4.

#617. Review #321.

#618. vahy-yahh-nee-KHAY-hoo "and He caused to put/rest him"

hifil stem from NOON VAV CHET "he gave rest, put" with 3rd

masculine pronominal suffix ending "him" --Review #354.

#619. Review #532. #620. Review #533.

#621. Ieh-ahv-DAH "to work her (i.e. the garden)" --Review


#622. oo-leh-shahm-RAH "and to cars for/keep her" 9DV "he keeps,

watches" Review #621. The infinitive form ofthe verb is

"infinite," without the limits of person, gender,number, or

tense and does not need to agree with any other word in the

sentence. In English, "I went to serve," serve is an infinitive

indicated by the word "to" and the unconjugated form of the verb.

#621 and #622 are both infinitive constructs. So G-d put man on

earth to till his garden and to keep it. The purpose for which

man was created was to work and take care of G-d's world as

G-d's steward. Ecclesiastes (Kohelet) says man should find

pleasure in this. The Thessalonian epistles says that man, even

regenerate man, must work. Here in this verse we find the

reason. It was for this cause that we were created in the

beginning. One of the things that requires work is Textual

Criticism. This is the task of reconstructing the original

inerrant text of the Bible from the available manuscripts,

versions, and ancient translational clues. If you look at page

192 in your Biblica Hebraica and look at Lev.20:l0 you will see

five Hebrew words sandwiched in between two a's. These five words

are ISH ASHER YINAF ES ESHET. If you look down at the bottom of

the page in the BHS textual apparatus, you will see the note 10

a-a > G min, dl (dttg). This means that these Hebrew words are

absent from the Septuagint, and that you should delete them,

because this is dittography, the accidental duplication of a

letter or letters in a single word or group of words. If you

notice, these five words are an almost exact duplication of the

first five words in the verse. The scribe's eye skipped and he

unwittingly copied these words twice. Now do you see why you need

the Biblica Hebraica? How can we begin preaching a text until we

have first established the text? See p.218.

GEN 2:16

623 vah-yuh-TSAHV 624 Adonoy 625 Eh-loh-HEEM 626 ahl

627 ha-ah-DAHM 628 leh-MOHR 629 mee-KOHL 630 aitz 631 ha-gahn

632 ah-KHOHL 633 toh-KHEHL

#623. vah-yuh-TSAHV "and He commanded" from the root TZADE VAV

HAY, "he commanded." This is imperfect with CONVERSIVE VAV.

The PATACH under the first radical indicates it is a piel

intensive stem. We get the word MITZVAH from this same root,

meaning a deed, duty, or commandment. Orthodox Jews believe they

have found 613 MITZVOT in their Scripture which they must obey.

The problem is that "merit" gets involved in their thinking. In



CONGREGATIONS, NEW YORK, 1981), the comment says that "the

mainstream of Judaism" refused to make the "tale of Eden" an

important aspect of its world view and maintained that the only

road to salvation was through g-dly deeds (mitzvot) rather than

through belief in a Moshi'a (savior), and that "while man tended

to corruption (Gen. 6:5; 8:21), he was not basically a corrupt

creature." Notice the Pelagianism dressed up like Judaism. The

comment goes on to assert that by carrying out G-d's commandments

man can overcome or at least control the yetzer hara and thereby

develop his impulse for good. In this view mitzvot innoculate

against sin. Later we will analyze the Pelagian error in this

statement. For right now, realize that the early Jewish

followers of Moshiach in the first century had zeal for the

mitzvot (Acts 21:20) but did not rely on mitzvot for salvation

(Eph. 2:8-9). To reach the Orthodox Jews and the Chassidic Jews

with the Good News, messianic synagogue planters need to be

raised up by G-d and trained to establish shuls that are zealous

for the mitzvot and which put themselves as if subject to the Law

to win those who are under the Law (I Cor. 9:20). To see what

that entails, one must ask, "When we see the Orthodox Jewish man

hurrying to shul every day, which laws is he so zealous to

observe?" To answer the question, start by reading Abraham

Chill's THE MITZVOT, the commandments and their rationale, Keter

Publishing, 1974.

#624. Review #477. #625. Review #3. #626. Review #13.

#627. Review #321 #628. Review #270.

#629. Review #72 and #250. #630. Review #124.

#631. Review #532.

#632. Review #116. Remember we said an infinitive can be either

an infinitive construct or an infinitive absolute. This is a Qal

infinitive absolute (the form that stands alone without pronouns

or prepositions) and we translate it "to eat." The KAMATZ under

the first radical and the CHOLOM between the second and third

radicals are the indicators.

#633. same root as #632. VERY IMPORTANT: the imperfect active

2ms. Do you see the TAV preformative? G-d is talking to the man

as the kohen of his own household and he is giving the

commandment to him, not to his wife. The man is the head of the

household, not the wife. Later we will see that the woman does

not check with the head of her household, her husband, before she

gets involved with the forbidden tree and the Tempter. She in

effect goes over the head of his office, like Korah in the

wilderness with Moses. She does not respect her head. I Cor. 11

is on this problem. And the man does not function as the kohen

of his bayis (household). Look at the verb --"you (masculine

singular) may eat." Notice the infinitive absolute emphasizes the

verb. This is why the translations say "you may indeed eat" or

"you may freely eat." Do you see the same root ALEF CHAF LAMMED

"he ate" used in both #632 and #633?

GEN. 2:17

634 oo-meh-AITZ 635 ha-DAH-aht 636 tov 637 vah-rah 638 lo 639

toh-KHOHL 640 mee-MEHN-noo 641 kee 642 buh-YOM

643 ah-KHOHL-khah 644 mee-MEHN-noo 645 MOHT 646 tah-MOOT

#634. Review #72 and #124. #635.Review #124.

#636. Review #124. #637. Review #124.

#638. Review #493. #639. Review #633.

#640. Review #72 and #354. MEM CHEEREEK FINAL NOON (MIN)


a special form before suffixes. The HAY is assimilated and

represented by dagesh forte in the NOON. mee-MEHN-noo = "from


#641. Review #32. #642. Review #1 and #43.

#643. ah-KHOHL-khah "your eating" --This is an infinitive

construct. Review #469.

#644. Review #640.

#645. Review #633 on the force of the infinitive absolute. The

root in both #645 and #646 is MEM VAV TAV "he died." It looks

different because it is a so called "hollow verb. "dying."

#646. tah-MOOT "you will die." This is also an imperfect

active 2nd person masculine singular verb as in #633. Because

the infinitive absolute in #645 emphasizes the verb, the root of

which is repeated in #646, we should translate, "dying you will

die" into more fluent "you will indeed die." G-d is emphasizing

the lethal aspect of disobeying his commandment. So the text of

Gen. 2:17 is saying that the man who scorns G-d's sovereign and

revealed will in the Holy Scriptures and instead chooses moral

autonomy will eat the corrupting fruit of his sin. This is an

epochal commandment to the entire old humanity in Adam. We will

soon see in the narrative that man by nature is lost in the fall

and eats of this tree by nature and has a blind and stubborn

heart needing spiritual circumcision and a Deliverer. When the

Moshiach comes on the scene as the new Adam with the tevilah of

the Ruach Hakodesh and the spiritual rebirth for man, a new

humanity will begin to be fruitful and multiply all over the

earth in anticipation of the new heavens and the new earth and

the new Jerusalem coming down from heaven. This new Adam will

say, "My food (not from the tree of the knowledge of good and

evil) is to do (not my own will as in moral autonomy) but the

will of him who sent me" (Yochanan 4:34).

GEN. 2:18

647 vahy-YOH-mehr 648 Adonoy 649 Eh-loh-HEEM 650 lo 651 tov

652 heh-YOHT 653 ha-ah-DAHM 654 leh-vah-DOH 655 EH-eh-seh

656 lo 657 AY-zehr 658 keh-nehg-DOH

#647. Review #22. #648. Review #477. #649. Review #3.

#650. Review #493. #651. Review #33.

#652. Review #9. This is an infinitive. "to be"

#653. Review #321.

#654. leh-vah-DOH "in his separation, i.e. alone" BET PATACH

DALET = separation (noun). Review #354. It may not be G-d's

will for every person to marry, but it is G-d's will for people

not to be separate from Messianic fellowship. It is not good to

separate oneself from G-d's people and be alone. The mental

illness and spiritual immaturity we see even in believers often

stems from this problem, where people willfully cut themselves

off from Messianic chavurah and the Moshiach's Tish and go their

own way and stubbornly do what is not good for them.

#655. Review #64, especially Imperfect active 1cs, EH-eh-seh "I

will make." The mappiq dot in the last HAY in BHS is unusual and

is not followed by most manuscripts. It is not the feminine

singular suffix "her" as in "her seed" in Gen. 3:l5. Ignore it


#656. Review #44 and #354.

#657. AY-zehr "helper." Man needs help. In separation he is

weak and not adequate, in the sense that he is in a situation

that is not good.

#658. keh-nehg-DOH "like opposite to him" NOON GIMMEL DALET =

"opposite to." Review #354 and #323, which can also mean

"like." This has the idea of complementary as opposed to

identical. The helper corresponds to and complements the

opposite sex. We will see later in the Torah (Deut. 22:5) that

G-d does not want the sexes to dress alike because to do so

obscures this aspect.

GEN. 2:19

659 vahy-yee-TSEHR 660 Adonoy 661 Eh-loh-HEEM 662 meen

663 ha-ah-dah-MAH 664 kohl 665 chai-YAHT 666 hahs-sah-DEH

667 vuh-et 668 kohl 669 ohf 670 hahsh-sha-MY-yeem

671 vahy-yah-VAY 672 el 673 ha-ah-DAHM 674 leer-OHT 675 mah

676 yee-krah 677 lo 678 vuh-KHOHL 679 ah-sher 680 yeek-RAH

681 lo 682 ha-ah-DAHM 683 NEH-fesh 684 chai-YAH 685 hoo

686 sh'MOH

#659.Review #513. #660. Review #477. #661. Review #3.

#662. Review #72. #663. Review #312.

#664. Review #250. Remember this word can also mean "every."

#665. Review #295. #666. Review #483. #667. Review #6.

#668. Review #250. #669. Review #236.

#670. Review #5. Here the word means "the air."

#671. vahy-yah-VAY "and He caused to come/He brought" --Hifil

imperfect 3rd. masc. singular with VAV conversive of the root BET

CHOLOM ALEF he "he brought in." Normally you would have PATACH

under the preformative in a hifil stem (Review #541) but because

it is in an open syllable (a syllable without a consonant at the

end) it becomes KAMATZ here.

#672. ehl = "to" --This is a preposition. #673. Review #321.

#674. Review #28. This is an infinitive construct "to see."

Notice man is not predisposed by an eternal decree to do

everything. G-d watches man exercise a certain amount of

freedom here, which is something hypercalvinists don't allow G-d

the freedom to do. Even now we are "in the garden" under

surveillance in a sense, because G-d is watching to see if we'll

use our freedom to name sin in our lives and turn in teshuvah.

#675. mah "what~ (This is the interrogative "what?", a word

you will need to use a great deal in speaking conversational

Modern Hebrew.) For the task of learning this, you may want to

acquire Haiim B. Rosen's A textbook of Israeli Hebrew, University

of Chicago Press, 1966.

#676. Review #40. There is no VAV reversive so we translate it

imperfect "he would call/name" --Is the SH'VA pronounced? Review

327. yee-kuh-rah

#677. Review #131. This is "to it." Review #42.

#678. Review #250. #679. Review #71. #680. Review #676.

#681. Review #677.

#682. Review #321.

#683. Review #234. This word can also mean "creature."

#684. Review #235. #685. Review #595.

#686. Review #571 and #354. The CHOLOM pronominal suffix

changes the TZAYREH under the SHIN in "name" to SH'VA.

GEN. 2:20

687 vahy-yeek-RAH 688 ha-ah-DAHM 689 sheh-MOHT 690 leh-CHOHL

691 ha-beh-he-MAH 692 oo-leh-OHF 693 hahsh-shah-MY-yeem

694 oo-leh-KHOHL 695 chai-YAHT 696 has-sah-DEH 697 oo-l'ah-DAHM

698 lo 699 mah-TSAH 700 EH-zehr 701 kuh-nehg-DOH

#687. Review #40. #688. Review #321.

#689. Review #571. Notice the feminine plural ending on

CHOLOM TAV on this noun as opposed to the masc. p1. ending in

#553. Because man is able to label the rest of his world, he has

discernment on a completely different level than that of the

animal kingdom. Part of the divine image in man is the G-d-like

ability to assign names (cf.#40-#46).

#690. Review #250. #691. Review #293. #692. Review #236.

#693. Review #670. #694. Review #250. #695. Review #295.

#696. Review #483. #697. Review #321. --"but for the


#698. Review #493.

#699. mah-TSAH "he found" --MEM TZADE ALEF "he found"

#700. Review #657.

#701. Review #658. "to correspond to" "to suit" "matching him."

As far as the animal kingdom is concerned, man is matchless. He

is not an animal. There is nothing in the animal kingdom that

corresponds to him. You could wait a billion years and the ape

family could not join and become part of the human family because

the human family is matchless and nothing in the animal kingdom

corresponds to it. Unlike an animal, "the human spirit is the

lamp of the L-rd, searching every innermost part" (Prov. 20:27).

GEN. 2:21

702 vahy-yah-PAYL 703 Adonoy 704 Eh-loh-HEEM 705 tahr-day-MAH

706 ahl 707 ha-ah-DAHM 708 vahy-yee-SHAHN 709 vahy-yee-KAHKH

710 ah-KHAHT 711 meets-tsahl-oh-TAHV 712 vahy-yees-GOHR

713 bah-SAHR 714 tahkh-TEHN-nah

#702. vahy-yah-PAYL "so He made/caused fall --root NOON FAY

LAMMED, "he caused to fall."The PATACH under the preformative

YUD tells you the verb stem is hifil (causative force). Do you

see how the first radical of the root is a NOON that has

assimilated to dagesh forte in the YUD? Do you see the PATACH

hifil indicator under the preformative? Review #541 and #203.

#703. Review #477. #704. Review #3.

#705. tahr-day-MAH "deep sleep"

#706. Review #13. #707. Review #321.

#708. vahy-yee-SHAHN "and he slept" --root YUD SHIN FINAL NOON

"he slept"

#709. Review #613.

#710. Review #52. Notice this word is in construct with

#711 so we supply an "of." This is feminine of ECHAD.

#711. meets-tsahl-oh-TAHV "from ribs of him." Here we have a

feminine noun TZADE LAMMED AYIN. Review #689, #354 and #77.


word can also mean "side" as in Exod. 26:20 "the (north) side of

the tabernacle...," suggesting that male and female are made

equal, out of essentially the same essence, and are

complementary, different "sides" of the same thing, with humanity

incomplete without both, just as Elohim is incomplete without his

Dvar Hashem Moshiach and his Ruach Hakodesh (Gen. 2:24; Deut.


#712. vahy-yees-GOHR "and He closedup" from SAMECH GIMMEL


"he shut/closed".

#713. bah-SAHR "flesh." This is a very important theological

word in the Bible. It can mean 1) meat or muscle of animals or

man; 2) humanity at large 3) what is frail or perishable about

the human race 4) in the Brit Chadasha Scriptures it is

translated with the Greek word SARKS and is a technical term for

the life of the old human nature unrenewed by the Ruach


#714. tahkh-TEHN-nah "in place of it (rib). The word can mean

"under" (Review #72). It can also mean "below, instead of," and

here it means "in place of." Review #354. Do you see the

pronominal suffix "her" referring to the rib which is a feminine

noun? The NOON is a connecting letter.

GEN. 2:22

715 vahy-yee-VEHN 716 Adonoy 717 Eh-loh-HEEM 718 et

719 hats-tseh-LAH 720 ah-sher 721 la-KAHKH 722 meen

723 ha-ah-DAHM 724 leh-eesh-SHAH 725 vah-y'vee-EH-hah 726 el

727 ha-ah-DAHM

#715. vahy-yee-VEHN "then He made/built" from the root BET NOON

HAY "he made/built." The Stone that ha-Bonim (the Builders)

rejected has become the chief cornerstone. (Ps. 118:22) The word

ha-Bonim in that verse is from this same root. The builders of

Judaism were destined to reject the Moshiach. See Isaiah 53.

#716. Review #477. #717. Review #3. #718. Review #4.

#719. Review #711 and #21 on the definite article.

#720. Review #71. #721. Review #613. #722. Review #77.

#723. Review #321.

#724. leh-eesh-SHAH "into woman"--ALEF SHIN HAY, means "woman"

(see #738). The word sounds like the word for "man" (see #740),

and the author will make a word play in Gen. 2:23 on these two

words "nashim" = plural.

#725. Review #671 and #354.

#726. Review #97. #727. Review #321.

GEN. 2:23

728 vahy-YOH-mehr 729 ha-ah-DAHM 730 zoht 731 ha-PAH-ahm

732 EH-tsehm 733 meh-ah-tsah-MAHY 734 oo-vah-SAHR

735 mee-beh-sah-REE 736 luh-ZOHT 737 yee-kah-REH 738 ee-SHAH

739 kee 740 meh-EESH 741 loo-kah-CHAH 742 zoht

#728. Review #22. #729. Review #321.

#730. Review #470. This is the first time a human being speaks

in the Bible, so we should expect it to be an important saying,

"This (one)"

#731. See the definite article. PAY AYIN FINAL MEM = "time,

stroke." Here the article has demonstrative force "this time."

See Gen.29:34, where Rachel says, "Now HAY PAY AYIN FINAL MEM

this time my husband will become attached to me."

#732. EH-tsehm "bone" --Do you see the accent on the first

syllable. Look at your Biblica Hebraica.

#733. Review #732, #354, #72. #734. Review #713.

#735. Review #713, #354, #72.

#736. Review #470, #42.

#737. Review #40. "it (i.e. the flesh/bone) shall be called."

The KAMATZ under the first radical is a sign of nifal imperfect


#738. Review #724. #739. Review #32.

#740. "Ish" = "man" --Review #72.

#741. Review #613. The KUBUTZ under the first radical of the root

indicates the pual verb stem (Review #435). "she was taken"

#742. "this (one)" --Review #470 and #730. Notice this is the

subject of #741.

GEN. 2:24

743 ahl 744 ken 745 yah-ah-zahv 746 eesh 747 et 748 ah-VEEV

749 vuh-et 750 eem-MOH 751 vuh-dah-VAHK 752 beh-eesh-TOH

753 vuh-ha-YOO 754 luh-vah-SAHR 755 eh-KHAHD

#743. Review #13.

#744. Review #80. This is an idiom (an expression whose

meaning cannot be derived from its constituent elements, as "kick

the bucket" is an idiomatic expression meaning "to die." "upon

so (#743 and #744)" means "therefore." Memorize it. These means

that Gen. 2:23 explains Gen. 2:24. "Therefore" means for this


#745. yah-ah-zahv "he will leave/forsake" AYIN ZAYIN VET =

leave. Notice the "he." It does not say the woman will achieve

the detachment from parents that the man achieves or should

achieve when he stops being a child and marries and starts his

own family. The woman may cling to her husband but she does not

forsake her parents as completely as the man does. This is a

shrewd psychological insight and means that in marriage

counselling the man should be advised to take a good look at his

prospective father-in-law and especially his prospective

mother-in-law since his fiancee is not likely to forsake either

one of them, especially her mother.

#746. Review #740. #747. Review #4.

#748. Review #354. ALEF VET = "father." Review #354. Moshiach

Yehoshua called G-d by the intimate and affectionate word for

Father (AB-bah) "dear Father." Can you?

#749. Review #4.

#750. Review #354. ALEF TZAYREH FINAL MEM = mother. Mommy

in modern Hebrew is EEM-mah.

#751. The VAV reversive makes it imperfect "and he will unite."

DALET VET KOOF = "he united."

#752. Review #724, #448, #354

#753. Review #171. Notice #525 and #527 where this verb is

often followed by LAMMED SH'VA in which case we do not translate

LAMMED SH'VA in English.

#754. Review #713.

#755. Review #52. Notice that a cluster of grapes is a

complexunity in Num. 13:23.

GEN. 2:25

756 vahy-yee-huh-YOO 757 sheh-nay-HEM 758 ah-roo-MEEM

759 ha-ah-DAHM 760 veh-eesh-TOH 761 veh-lo

762 yeet-bo-SHAH-shoo

#756. Review #171 with VAV conversive.

#757. Review #188, #354.

#758. AYIN RESH CHOLOM FINAL MEM = "naked, nude."

#759. Review #321.

#760. Review #724, #354. "his woman, his wife"

#761. Review #493.

#762. The root is VET CHOLOM SHIN = "was ashamed." This is the

hitpael stemnamed after the "hit" HAY CHEEREEK TAV that precedes

the perfect, imperative, and infinitive forms of the verb and

tells you that the verb has an intensive reflexive force as in

#762 which is a hitpael 3mp "they were intensely ashamed of

themelves". First there was the primal innocence before the Fall.

"The fall of mankind" refers to that sense of primal shame and

lost innocence that rebellious morally autonomous Man experiences

as part of his ontology (nature of existence). This verse

together with Gen. 3:7 tells us that there is now deep primal

guilt in every human being and that this is part of our very

nature as members of the race of Adam and we cannot be truly

happy and at peace with ourselves or anyone else until we have

regeneration and reconciliation with G-d.

GEN. 3:1

763 veh-hahn-nah-KHAHSH 764 ha-yah 765 ah-ROOM 766 mee-KOHL

767 chay-YAHY 768 has-sah-DEH 769 ah-sher 770 ah-SAH 771 Adonoy

772 Eh-loh-HEEM 773 vahy-YOH-mehr 774 el 775 ha-eesh-SHAH

776 ahf 777 kee 778 ah-MAHR 779 Eh-loh-HEEM 780 lo

781 tohkh-LOO 782 mee-KOHL 783 aitz 784 ha-gahn

#763. veh-hahn-nah-KHAHSH "now the Snake" (Deut. 8:l5 speaks of

poisonous snakes.) The word for snake is NOON CHET SHIN,

Nah-KHASH. But we are going to see that this Snake has enough

power in his venom to bite the whole human race and therefore

enslave them all to the fear of death, because he is "the devil

that ancient serpent" (Rev. 12:9; 20:2; Heb. 2:l4-l5). See also

Isa. 27:1 and Job 26:13.

#764. Review #9.


MEM "crafty, shrewd in the sinister sense of full of wiles, very

tricky." The author seems to be making a word play on "nude" AYIN



Compare words #758 and #765.

#766. Review #250 and #77. "more than all of" (notice that

comparison is expressed by means of the MEM CHEEREEK FINAL



#767. Review #295. #768. Review #483.

#769. Review #71. #770. Review #64. #771. Review #477.

#772. Review #3.

#773. Review #22. #774. Review #97. #775. Review #724.

#776. Indeed?

#777. really? (#776 and #777 are together an idiom--review #744

-- with the thought something like, "Really? Just to think that

(G-d gave you such an unreasonable commandment)..." The Serpent

is acting shocked with G-d's supposedly severe commandment, which

he twists in a subtle lie that makes the commandment seem severe,

which it really isn't. The commandment is generous. Everything

is given to them except one thing: the license to be disobedient

and morally autonomous, proudly thinking that they are shrewd

enough to discern good from evil without G-d's teaching or the

Torah of his mitzvot.

#778. Review #22.

#779. Review #3. (Notice He is not called by His personal

covenant name (see #477) used by those who know Him but by a

remote label, which tells you something about the Adversary's

relationship with G-d.)

#780. Review #493.

#781. Review #116. This is imperfect 2mp ["you (plural) shall

eat"]. Notice Gen. 2:16 and see how the Snake twists the mitzvah

(commandment). The woman also garbles it. The reason that neither

one of them know it is because it was not given to either one of

them but to the kohen of the Bayis, the mashgiach ruchani

(spiritual overseer) of the mishpachah family unit, the man. Look

at #639 and #633 which shows that the commandment was 2ms, given

to the man, who is not even included in the discussion but these

two kehillah spliters. Don't miss this nuance in the Hebrew.

In a way, this is the first "Brit Chadasha kehillah split" in the

Bible, since the one in charge, the mashgiach ruchani of the

home, has his authority ignored, and a rebellious, demonic plot

is carried out with the help of a presumptuous "congregant" in

league with the devil and, moreover, a "congregent" who is not

in charge and has no kehillah office to be in charge but takes

over at Satan's urging.

#782. Review #72 and #250.

#783. Review #124.

#784. Review #532.

GEN. 3:2

785 vah-toh-MEHR 786 ha-ee-SHAH 787 el 788 hahn-nah-KHAHSH

789 mee-p'REE 790 aitz 791 ha-gahn 792 noh-KHEHL

#785. Review #22. With verbs that have it for the first radical

of their root ALEF you will often see the CHOLOM after TAV in the


#786. Review #724. #787. Review #97.

#788. Review #763.

#789. Review #125 and #72. #790. Review #124.

#791. Review #532.

#792. Review #116. lcp imperfect "we may eat"

GEN. 3:3

793 oo-mee-p'REE 794 ha-AITZ 795 ah-sher 796 beh-TOHKH

797 ha-gahn 798 ah-mahr 799 Eh-loh-HEEM 800 lo 801 tohkh-LOO

802 mee-MEH-noo 803 v'lo 804 teeg-guh-OO 805 bo 806 pehn

807 teh-moo-TOON

#793. Review #125 and #72. #794. Review #124.

#795. Review #71.

#796. Review #57. #797. Review #532.

#798. Review #22. #799. Review #3. #800. Review #493.

#801. Review #116.

#802. Review #640. #803. Review #493.

#804. teeg-guh-OO "you shall touch" --Note how the NOON is

assimilated into the GIMMEL by means of dagesh forte. 2mp

imperfect of NOON GIMMEL AYIN, "he touched." Note that SHURUK


TAV = imperfect 2mp. Look at Gen.2:16-17 again and you will see

that she is adding to G-d's word, something Deut.4:2 specifically

forbids, and something Rabbinic Judaism and all non-Biblical

religions do. When Rabbinic Judaism at Yavneh (near Jaffa,

Israel), around the year 100 C.E., began formulating the liturgy

so that Yom Kippur, the Day of Atonement, could be transferred

from the Beis Hamikdash in Yerushalayim to the synagogue,

effectively substituting prayer and good deeds, confession and

repentance, for Lev. 17:11 "It is the blood that makes atonement

for the soul," the rabbis followed the sin of the woman in our

text here, Gen. 2:16-17, and added to G-d's word. They should

have believed Isaiah: Moshiach "gives his life as an asham guilt

offering for sin" (Isaiah 53:10). Remember the Reformation

watchword Sola Scriptura (the Bible alone is authoritative for

faith), which means that only the Bible can tell us how to 1ive

or how to interpret Scripture. Rom. 4:17 has to tell us how to

interpret Gen. 1:1. If we trust some liberal commentator we are

letting his words add to G-d's word. An even so helpful a

commentary as the Talmud must not be placed on the same par as

the Bible. We devote our attention not to man's word but to

G-d's inspired and anointed Word.

#805. Review #131. #806. pehn "lest/so that ...not"

#807. Review #645. This has an archaic ending in the final NOON

at the end. This verb is imperfect 2mp. Look at the indicators

and review #804. Note how KUBUTZ can be SHURUK as here.

GEN. 3:4

808 vah-YOH-mehr 809 hahn-nah-KHAHSH 810 el 811 ha-ee-SHAH

812 lo 813 moht 814 eh-moo-TOON

#808. Review #22. #809. Review #763.

#810. Review #97. #811. Review #724.

#812. Review #493.

#813. Review #645. (This is a Oal infinitive absolute--Review

#632.) Here the Snake implies that G-d is a liar not to be

trusted and, surprisingly, the woman doesn't resist this idea or

the devil who conceived it.

#814. Review #807 and especially #646 ("you will indeed/surely

not die"--a direct contradiction).

GEN. 3:5

815 kee 816 yoh-DAY-ah 817 Eh-loh-HEEM 818 kee 819 beh-YOHM

820 ah-khohl-KHEHM 821 mee-MEH-noo 822 veh-neef-kuh-KHOO

823 ay-nay-KHEHM 824 vee-h'yee-TEHM 825 kay-loh-heem 826 yod-AY

827 tov 828 vah-rah

#815. Review #32. "For" (what follows is the secret evil reason

G-d supposedly has for giving his allegedly unreasonable mitzvah

commandment, according to the devil's big lie)

#816. Review #557. "he knows" yoh-DAY-ah (see accent in BHS,

Biblica Hebraica Stuttgartensia).

#817. Review #3.

#818. Review #32.

#819. Review #412.

#820."of your eating" This is a Qal infinitive construct with

the pronominal suffix given to you in #354.

#821. Review #640.

#822. veh-neef-kuh-KHOO "they will be opened" nifal perfect with

VAV reversive 3p from root ~ "he opened" --Which SH'VA is

pronounced? Review #327.

#823. Review #354. ay-nay-KHEHM your eye: from AYIN YUD FINAL

NOON = "eye".

#824. Review #171. Notice 2mp perfect with reversive VAV.

Notice in #822 and #824 the conjunction VAV is used to connect a

statement of time with the clause to which it relates. Note: in

the day of your eating then will be opened your eyes and then you

will be like G-d (morally autonomous).

#825. Review #32 and #3. "like G-d" Satan is saying that

equality with G-d is a thing that can be grasped (Phil. 2:6).

However, instead of becoming like G-d we are a race condemned to

"eternal shame" (Gen. 2:25; 3:7; Dan. 12:2) unless we have that

primordial shame washed away by the Moshiach's blood (Lev. 17:11;

Isaiah 53:10; Heb. 9:22; Babylonian Talmud Yoma 5a, Menahoth 93b,

Zebahim 6a), which is the only acceptable blood we have, now that

the center of Judaism, the Beis Hamikdash, has been taken away.

#826. Review #557. #827. Review #33.

#828. Review #124.

GEN. 3:6

829 vah-TEH-reh 830 ha-ee-SHAH 831 kee 832 tov 833 ha-aitz

834 leh-mah-ah-KHOHL 835 vuh-KHEE 836 tah-ah-vah 837 hoo

838 lah-ay-NAHY-eem 839 vuh-nehkh-MAHD 840 ha-aitz

841 leh-hahsh-KEEL 842 vah-tee-KAHKH 843 mee-peer-YOH

844 vah-toh-KHOHL 845 vah-tee-TEHN 846 gahm 847 luh-ee-SHAH

848 ee-MAH 849 vahy-yoh-KHAHL

#829. Review #28. Imperfect 3fs with VAV conversive.

#830. Review #724. #831. Review #32.

#832. Review #33. #833. Review #124.

#834. Review #398. #835. Review #32.

#836. tah-ah-vah "delight" The verb ALEF VAV HAY for "want" or

"desire" (as found in the tenth commandment against coveting--see

Deut.5:21 "you shall not desire your neighbor's house etc") is

turned into a substantive or noun "delight" with the prefix TAV.

#837. hoo "he" (this refers to the tree). You need to learn some

of the independent pronouns: anachnu (we 1cp), ani, anochi (I

1cs), atem (2mp), atah (2ms), aten (2fp) at (2fs), hem hemmah

(3mp), hoo (3ms), hen hennah (3fp), hee (3fs)

#838. Review #823 and #42. #839. Review #548.

#840. Review #124.

#841. leh-hahsh-KEEL hifil infinitive construct of "to make or

cause to be wise" SIN CHAF LAMMED -- The way of death offers a

false wisdom and a g-d-like knowledge and beckons with

eye-catching, desirable allurements and pseudo-wisdom as well as

individualistic ethics.

#842. Review #613. #843. Review #125 and #72 and #354.

#844. Review #116.

#845. Review #203 and compare #375. First one person corrupts

himself/herself and then becames a "serpent of temptation" to

corrupt someone else.

#846. gahm "also"

#847. Review #325 and #42 and #354. "to her man/ her husband"

#848. ee-MAH "together with her" Review #354. = AYIN CHEEREEK

FINAL MEM "with, together with." "who was with her"

#849. Review #116. Compare #22 to see imperfect with reversing

VAV. "and he ate."

GEN. 3:7

850 vah-tee-pah-KAHK-noo 851 ay-NAY 852 sheh-nay-HEHM

853 vahy-yay-duh-OO 854 kee 855 ay-roo-MEEM 856 hem

857 vahy-yeet-peh-ROO 858 ah-leh 859 tuh-ay-NAH

860 vah-yah-ah-SOO 861 la-HEM 862 chah-go-ROT

#850. Review #822. imperfect passive (nifal) 3fp with VAV

CONVERSIVE "and they were opened." This is a nifal stem

imperfect (note the dagesh forte in the first radical of the root

and also the KAMATZ under it).

#851. Review #823. Do you see how the form changes when it is

in contruct with the following word and we have to translate by

adding an "of"?

#852. Review #188 and #354.

#853. Review #557. Oal imperfect 3mp with VAV conversive.

Figure out the pronunciation. "vahy-yay-duh-OO" Do you see that

the SH'VA has to be pronounced and is just a silent syllable

divider. Review #327. #854. Review #32.

#855. Review #758. The plural is somewhat irregular here.

#856. Review #837.

#857. vahy-yeet-puh-ROO "and they sewed" root TAV FAY RESH; "he

sewed" This is Qal imperfect 3mp with VAV conversive. Yochanan

3:19 says that unregenerate fallen Man tries to use darkness as a

covering of evil deeds. Man is always sewing a web of concealment

to try to mask, even from his own eyes, his primal guilt and

fear before a Holy G-d.

#858. AYIN LAMMED HAY = leaf. Notice it is the contruct state

with #859.

#859. TAV ALEF NOON HAY = "fig (tree)" Is there any symbolic

significance of this verse in the Brit Chadasha Scriptures in

that the fig tree Moshiach Yehoshua curses (Mark 11:13-14,21) and

the one that blooms in the "summer" of the last days (Mark

13:28-29) as Israel comes to faith in our Moshiach is the

"covering" of the world, namely a symbol of the people both of

the Temple and the Jerusalem atonement, the Jews?

#860. Review #64. #861. Review #837.

#862. CHET GIMMEL CHOLOM RESH HAY = "loin covering girdle or

loincloth" The kohen wore a linen ephod as did King David. The

Second Adam Moshiach Yehoshua may or may not have had one (Roman

victims such as he was were often naked) but He knew only our

primal shame in such nudity, for he had none of His own.

GEN. 3:8

863 vah-yeesh-meh-OO 864 et 865 kol 866 Adonoy 867 Eh-loh-HEEM

868 meet-hah-LEHKH 869 bah-gahn 870 luh-ROO-ahkh 871 ha-YOHM

872 vah-yeet-chah-BEH 873 ha-ah-DAHM 874 vuh-eesh-TOH

875 mee-p'NAY 876 Adonoy 877 Eh-loh-HEEM 878 buh-TOHKH 879 aitz

880 ha-gahn

#863. SHIN MEM AYIN = he heard. This word is found in the "Shema"

confession in Deut.6:4. vahy-yeesh-muh-OO "and they heard."

#864. Review #4.

#865. KOOF CHOLOM LAMMED = "sound, voice" Deut.4:l2 says that

this is the way G-d revealed himself, by his voice from the fire,

with no idolatrous form or image. In the Day of the L-rd, which

will be inaugurated with plagues and will climax in fire, there

will be the voice of the L-rd and the archangel(I Thes.4:16).

#866. Review #417. #867. Review #3.

#868. Review #606. This is a hitpael (Review #762) participle

meaning "walking." Review #762. This is a masculine singular

hitpael participle, as is indicated by the MEM.

#869. Review #532.

#870. Review #16. "In the breeze of" i.e. the windy or breezy

cooler early evening as opposed to "the heat of the day." This is

the word for wind or Spirit.

#871. Review #442.

#872. This is the hitpael of CHET VET ALEF, "he hid" --Review

#762, "he intensively hid himself." Notice Adam is supposed to

be the kohen of his home, but ironically the only thing he takes

the lead in is hiding from G-d."

#873. Review #321. #874. Review #724 and 354.

#875. Review #14.

#876. Review #477. #877. Review #3. #878.

Review #57."among"

#879. Review #124.

#880. Review #532. Notice that Man hides among the trees of the

garden. Like a modern day atheist hiding out in his faculty post

at the local university, Man uses his source of self-sufficient

knowledge and moral autonomy (a tree) to flee and hide from G-d.

GEN. 3:9

881 vah-yeek-RAH 882 Adonoy 883 Eh-loh-HEEM 884 el

885 ha-ah-DAHM 886 vahy-YOH-mehr 887 lo 888 ah-YEH-kah

#881. Review #40. #882. Review #477. #883. Review #3.

#884. Review #97.

#885. Review #321. #886. Review #22. #887. Review #42 and


#888. "where (are) you? ALEF TZAYREH YUD = "where?" also ALEF


KAMATZ HAY is a fuller way to write the pronominal suffix for

2ms. Review #354. Morally autonymous man is lost and condemned

under the wrath of G-d, without a relationship of mishma'at and

shalom with the G-d he has offended and forfeited personal

knowledge of.

GEN. 3:10

889 vay-YOH-mehr 890 et 891 kol-KHAH 892 shah-MAH'tee

893 bah-gahn 894 vah-ee-RAH 895 kee 896 ay-ROHM 897 ah-NOH-khee

898 vah-eh-chah-VEH

#889. Review #22. #890. Review #4.

#891. Review #865 and #354. Notice how this word, which is the

direct object of the verb, should be in italics in your

translation because it is put before the #892 verb rather than

after it as in the normal manner. Sinners fear not idols but the

voice of the one true G-d who did not show his form or any

idolatrous image either to Adam or on the holy mountain in


#892. Review #863. This is a perfect active Ics verb.

#893. Review #448 and #532.

#894. YUD KAMATZ RESH TZAYREH ALEF = "he feared" Qal

imperf 1cs with VAV conversive. The tragedy of man is that he

knows about G-d's existence but, unless G-d opens his heart, he

hides from G-d and shamefully flees from His presence. #895.

Review #32.

#896. Review #758. #897. Review #837.

#898. Review #872. This is the nifal imperfect 1cs with VAV

conversive. Notice the nifal (passive) often has a reflexive

force. We translate "I hid myself." We hide the self but G-d

wants the self made completely new in G-d's perfect image, the

Son of Man, the Son of G-d, His Word, Moshiach


GEN. 3:11

899 vay-YOH-mehr 900 mee 901 hee-geed 902 leh-CHAH 903 kee

904 ay-ROHM 905 AH-tah 906 ha-meen 907 ha-aitz 908 ah-sher

909 tsee-vee-TEE-chah 910 leh-veel-TEE 911 ah-KOHL

912 mee-MEH-noo 913 ah-KHAHL-tah

#899. Review #22. #900. mee = "who?"

#901. This is a hifal (causative) perfect 3ms of NOON FINAL

NOON GIMMEL DALET "he made known" with the NOON assimilated


the GIMMEL. Remember if aletter elides, it simply disappears; if

it assimilates, it leaves a dagesh behind; if it is quiescent the

letter can be seen but is not heard, as is the case with the ALEF

in #899.

#902. Review #42 and #354. #903. Review #32.

#904. Review #758.

#905. Review #837 (notice: G-d is talking to the head of the

house, the man).

#906. Review #72. Notice the HEH interrogative HAY CHATAF


prefixing the preposition. This signals a question being asked.

#907. Review #124 and #21. #908. Review #71.

#909. Review #623 and #354. This is a piel perfeat lcs. Notice

the suffix. He is still talking to the man. The dagesh forte in

the second radical is characteristic of the piel which has an

intensive active force.

#910. BET LAMMED TAV YUD is the negative "not" used with

inseparable prepositions such as #42.

#911. Review #116. #912. Review #640.

#913. Review #116. (Notice the absolute infinitive #911 and verb

#913 together emphasize the verb "I commanded you not to EAT"

--Review #633.)

GEN. 3:12

914 vahy-YOH-mehr 915 ha-ah-DAHM 916 ha-ee-SHAH 917 ah-sher

918 na-TAH-tah 919 ee-mah-DEE 920 hee 921 nah-t'NAH 922 lee

923 meen 924 ha-aitz 925 vah-OH-khehl

#914. Review #22. #915. Review #321.

#916. Review #724. #917. Review #71.

#918. Review #375. Qal perfect active 2ms.

#919. Review #848 and #354.

#920. Review #837. The independent pronoun used as subject of a

verb is expressed whenever, as here, it is emphatic. "The woman

whom You put with me she gave to me from the tree and I ate."

Man blames both G-d and others for his sin, thus excusing

himself and trying to justify himself.

#921. Review #375. #922. Review #42 and #354.

#923. Review #72. #924. Review #124.

#925. Review #116. Notice this is a VAV conversive but the dagesh

forte has been rejected by the ALEF (Review #21) and the VAV

conversive has a VAV KAMATZ instead of a VAV PATACH in this verb.

While you may be sure that VAV PATACH DAGESH in front of a verb

makes it VAV conversive, not every prefixed VAV indicates VAV

reversive and you have to look at the context to see which are

simple conjunctions and which reverse the tense of the verb.

GEN. 3:13

926 vah-YOH-mehr 927 Adonoy 928 Eh-loh-HEEM 929 lah-ee-SHAH

930 mah 931 zot 932 ah-SEET 933 vah-toh-MEHR 934 ha-ee-SHAH

935 ha-nah-KHAHSH 936 hee-shee-AH-nee 937 vah-oh-KHEL

#926. Review #22. #927. Review #477.

#928. Review #3. #929. Review #42 and #724.

#930. mah = what? Review #900 for another interrogative pronoun

you need to memorize.

#931. Review #470.

#932. Review #64. perfect active 2fs. "what this you did?"

#933. Review #22.

#934. Review #724. #935. Review #763.

#936. Review #354. NOON SHIN ALEF = "he deceived" See the HEH?

hifil perfect 3ms. Do you see the assimilated NOON of the root?

Notice the warp in mankind. Instead of repenting, demonic powers

are blamed. The nature tendency to sin that we will see in

Mankind from here on until we get to Moshiach is already in

operation. This is the doctrine of Chet Kadmon, Original Sin,

Rom. 5:12.

#937. Review #116.

GEN. 3:14

938 vah-YOH-mehr 939 Adonoy 940 Eh-loh-HEEM 941 el

942 ha-nah-KHAHSH 943 kee 944 ah-see-TAH 945 zot 946 ah-ROOR

947 ah-TAH 948 mee-KOHL 949 ha-beh-heh-MAH 950 oo-mee-KHOHL

951 chay-YAHT 952 has-sah-DEH 953 ahl 954 geh-khoh-NEH-chah

955 teh-LEHKH 956 vuh-ah-FAHR 957 toh-KHOHL 958 kol 959


960 chay-YEH-chah

#938. Review #22. #939. Review #477. #940. Review #3.

#941. Review #97.

#942. Review #763. #943. Review #462.

#944. Review #64 2nd person masculine perfect. See how the

personal indicators of the perfect are affixed at the end

instead of the beginning as in the imperfect.

#945. Review #470. This is a demonstrative adjective, pointing

out the thing that the Snake did.

#946. This is a Qal passive participle of ALEF RESH RESH, "curse"

"being cursed" --In the Bible when one curses someone or

something, one invokes G-d's judgment on that person or thing.

Notice how similar this word looks to #765. Do you think Moses

is making a point with this word-play? What is it?

#947. Review #837.

#948. Review #77, #250. In Hebrew we compare and say "more than"

by using the particle MEM CHEEREEK FINAL NOON in front of a noun

or adjective. "more than all"

#949. Review #293.

#950. Review #948. In front of the letters VET MEM FAY the

conjunction VAV SH'VA becomes the long vowel SHURUK.

#951. Review #295. #952. Review #483.

#953. Review #13.

#954. Review 2ms suffix in #354, telling you G-d is referring to

the belly of the masculine Snake and not the woman. GIMMEL CHET


#955. Review #606. imperfect 2ms.

#956. Review #518. #957. Review #116. #958. Review #250.

#959. Review #43.

#960. Review #295 and #354. The snake was worshipped as a g-d in

Egypt but Moses is saying that the "shrewd g-d of this world" is

cursed (the word "shrewd" and the word "cursed" sounding alike in

Hebrew). To crawl and eat dust is a figurative way of saying

"live in abject humiliation and defeat" as a vanquished enemy

(Ps. 72:9; Isa. 49:23; Mic. 7:17). The Snake g-d of the Olam

Hazeh this world is defeated by the true G-d, the G-d of Israel.

GEN. 3:15

961 v'ay-VAH 962 ah-SHEET 963 bey-neh-CHAH 964 oo-VAYN

965 ha-ee-SHAH 966 oo-vayn 967 zah-ah-CHAH 968 oo-vayn

969 zahr-AH 970 hoo 971 yeh-shoof-CHAH 972 rosh 973 v'ah-tah

974 teh-shoo-FEH-noo 975 ah-KEV

#961. ALEF TZAYREH YUD VET KAMATZ HAY = enmity, personal

hostility. This is the "ancient enmity" (Ezek. 35:5) that is at

the center of this life and which only the death of Moshiach and

his love can excise. We are going to see this hatred and

hostility erupt in bloodshed and fratricide in the next chapter.

(See Brown, Driver, and Briggs, Hebrew Lexicon, p.33, Oxford,

1972, and its Index by Bruce Einspahr, Moody Press, 1976. See

also below in chapter five the additional material on Gen. 3:15.)

#962. SHIN YUD TAV "he set/put" imperfect 1cs.

#963. Review 136 and #354 2ms suffix "between you (snake)."

#964. Review #38.

#965. Review #724. Notice it is "the woman" with a definite

article just as it is "the virgin" with a definite article in

Isaiah 7:14, as if a Messianic allusion to this verse is implicit

in the definite article in Isaiah 7:14.

#966. Review #38.

#967. Review #763 and #354. 2ms suffix again "your (snake)

offspring." This word leads us to believe that we will see people

arising later in the story who are full of wiles and have a

nature that is wickedly shrewd, like the Snake (3:1). The

offspring of the Snake is set in contrast with the "Seed of the

Woman" here and with the "sons of G-d" in Gen. 6:2 and with the

seed of Moshiach in Isaiah 53:10, the Messianic believers. The

first such offspring of the Snake will be Cain the murderer. The

first "son of G-d" will be Abel the first g-dly worshipper to

offer an acceptable blood sacrifice and in a sense the first

martyr for true Messianic religion. The enmity between the sons

of G-d and the offspring of the Snake will continue throughout

the history of Man until the Seed of the Woman crushes the head

of the serpentine anti-G-d humanity, the Anti-Moshiach.

Expectation is building in this verse for a coming eschatological

Redeemer-Ruler, a Moshi'a Savior from sin and death, a "Great

Descendent" or "Seed" ZAYIN SEGOL RESH PATACH AYIN. In Genesis


see the "Fall" or "creation being subjected to futility" (Rom.

8:20) and the whole human race being brought under the bondage of

the law of sin and death (Rom. 6:23) and all this occurred long

before the death-dealing Law of Moses was given at Mt. Sinai.

Romans 5:12 tells us how to view this chapter. Adam is an

epochal figure whose failure and fall determines the character of

all encompassed in his epoch; that is, all of G-d-alienated

humanity is in need of the epoch of the second Adam, the New Man,

the Moshiach, and especially in need of the new life that flows

from him. When we look at the first man lying on the ground dead

(Gen. 5:5), the Bible is showing us the first sinner of a

sinning/dying epoch which only the Moshiach's death brings to an

end (II Cor. 5:14). This verse contains a promise so vast that

the Exodus from Egypt, the conquering of the land of Israel, the

building of the Beis Hamikdash, and the return from the Exile,

are all part of the process of making the way straight for the

coming of this One who will crush Satan's head. The theme of the

eschatalagical Deliverer is enlarged by Isaiah. Since Satan

deceives and tempts to sin, death is both sin's penalty and

Satan's power (Isa. 27:1). Isaiah shows us a deliverer coming

who can wrest this Satanic power away, pay sin's penalty, defeat

both sin and death itself (Isa. 53:10-12), and so reveal the new

life where the exile of sin (Isa. 59:2) is ended in a mighty

exodus from death's eternal torment (Isa. 66:24; 14:11; 48:22;

50:11; 57:21; 1:31). This deliverer will come from the line of

Seth (Gen. 4:25), from the offspring of Shem (Gen. 9:26), from

the family of Abraham (Gen. 12:3), from the seed of Isaac (Gen.

26:3) and from the sons of Ya'akov (Gen. 46:3) and from the tribe

of Judah (Gen.49:10), and of course, he must be Jewish and an

Israelite living on the land (Deut. 17:l5;l8:15).

#968. Review #38.

#969. Review #292. Notice the suffix #354. Keep in mind that

Khavvah (Eve) is a virgin here. The seed of the virgin is an odd

phrase, since the seed is in the man unless G-d works a miracle.

This is one of the first Biblical references to the Moshiach who

will be referred to again later in verses that seem to have this

passage in mind: Gen.49:10 (obedience of the wicked peoples

belongs to him), Isa. 7:14 (the "G-d-with-us" miraculous ben

haAlmah will be born of a virgin to the House of David and

Judah's enemies will be defeated) and Mic. 5:3 ("G-d will

abandon His people only until she who is imminently about to go

into labor and bring forth" finally gives birth to the Moshiach).

This is no etiological myth explaining why there is hostility

between the serpent world and mankind. The Serpent was no

ordinary serpent and the Seed of the Woman will be no ordinary

man. In both the Palestinian targums (Targum Pseudo-Jonathan,

Targum Neofiti, and Fragment-Targum) and in rabbinic literature

(Babylonian Talmud, Sot. 49b) is a Messianic interpretation given

to this text. Rom. 16:20; Yochanan 2:4; 6:70; 8:44 are some of

the Brit Chadasha passages that corroborate the interpretation

that sees both Satan and his "children" and the Moshiach and the

"seed" of the elect woman Israel that are with him (Isaiah


#970. Review #837 and #920 on emphatic force of the pronoun. "As

for him (the Seed of the Woman Moshiach)" he...

#971. SHIN VAV FINAL FAY "bruise/crush." Notice the object

suffix and review #354. Qal imperfect 3ps. Compare Isa. 53:5

"he was crushed for our iniquities" using another word meaning

"crushed" DALET CHAF ALEF. That the same word is used in #974

and a serpent would not ordinarily "crush" a human heel is beside

the point. This is no ordinary serpent but the Tempter of the

whole human race.

#972. Review #1. This is called accusative of specification. "As

for him, he will crush you, that is, (your) head (,Snake)."

#973. Review #837. Because this is a 2ms we know it refers to

the Snake.

#974. Review #971. Qal imperfect 2ms with object suffix that is

3ms "him." Note the pronominal suffix HAY SHURUK (him) with the

connecting syllable SEGOL NOON.

#975. Review #972. "As for you, you will crush him, that is

(his) heel" This implies that the Moshiach will have to be

utterly crushed, he will have to die, but the lethal blow will

hit the site of his heel, one of the five wounds of Moshiach at

Golgotha. Ya'akov is the word for Jacob, and it means "he

grasps the heel."

GEN. 3:16

976 el 977 ha-ee-SHAH 978 ah-mar 979 hahr-bah 980 ahr-BEH

981 eets-voh-NEHCH 982 veh-he-roh-NEHKH 983 beh-EH-tsehv

984 teh-luh-DEE 985 vah-NEEM 986 veh-el 987 ee-SHEHKH

988 teh-shoo-kah-TEHKH 989 veh-hoo 990 yeem-SHOHL 991 bakh

#976. Review #97. #977. Review #724.

#978. Review #22.

#979. Review #272. See #645 and #646 on the infinitive

absolute and verb, which together emphasize the idea of the

action. "to cause to multiply" hifil infinitive absolute.

#980. Review #272. "I will cause to multiply" hifil imperfect




#354. Notice this is a 2fs pronominal suffix. Compare it to the

2ms pronominal suffix in #971.

#982. HAY RESH CHOLOM FINAL NOON = "pregnancy,conception,

childbearing" Review #354.

#983. Review #981, #448.

#984. YUD LAMMED DALET = "bear, beget, father someone" imperfect

3ms. In Isaiah 7:14 it says that the virgin will be with child

(pregnant) and will bear (using this word #984) a son and she

will call his name Immanuel.

#985. plural of BET TZAYREH FINAL NOONi; = son (BET PATACH


bat = daughter).

#986. Review #97. #987. Review #740 and #354.

#988. TAV SHIN SHURUK KOOF HAY = "longing, urge, desire"

Review #354. Notice 2fs pronominal in #988 and #991 also. This

same word will be used in Gen. 4:7 when it says that "sin is

crouching at the door and its desire/longing is to have you." It

could have a negative meaning of wanting to control and

dominate. Her husband, however, is the one to whom she is

accountable, and her desire is for him (see #990).

#989. Review #837 and #920 on the emphatic use of the pronoun.

#990. Review #194. imperfect 3ms.

#991. Review #354. "over you (f.s.)"

GEN. 3:17

992 oo-leh-ah-DAHM 993 ah-mahr 994 kee 995 shah-mah-TAH

996 leh-KOHL 997 eesh-teh-KHAH 998 vah-toh-KHOHL 999 meen

1000 ha-etz 1001 ah-sher 1002 tsee-vee-tee-CHAH 1003 leh-MOHR

1004 lo 1005 toh-CHOHL 1006 mee-MEH-noo 1007 ah-roo-RAH

1008 ha-ah-dah-MAH 1009 bah-ah-voo-REH-chah

1010 beh-eets-tsah-vohn 1011 toh-chah-LEH-noo 1012 kol

1013 yeh-MAY

#992. Review #42 and #321. Moses will make a play on words

with "Adam" in verse 19.

#993. Review #22. #994. Review #462. #995. Review #863.

#996. Review #865 (see #997. He listened to the voice of his wife

rather than to the voice of G-d, whom Adam hides from in Gen.

3:10 just as the children of Israel similarly hide in Deut

5:24-21, a point in favor of common authorship, but more

importantly an important insight about fallen man).

#997. Review #724 and #354.

#998. Review #116. Do you see the VAV conversive?

#999. Review #77.

#1000. Review #124. Do you see the definite article? Adam's sin

was listening to a human voice rather than G-d's word, thus

effectively adding to the Bible (Deut. 4:2). This is where

Rabbinic Judaism and Biblical Judaism parts company. He chose a

life wherein he could obtain his own knowledge of good and evil

apart from the abundant life that G-d provides through his word.

Whoever chooses that life will find death, and whoever tries to

keep his life and go his own way searching for a knowledge of

good and evil will lose his life.

#1001. Review #71. This is a relative pronoun, introducing the

clause that follows, with the antecedent "tree (of the knowledge

of good and evil)" being referred to. G-d wants to talk about

the way of moral autonomy that he specifically forbade.

#1002. Review #623 and #354. Notice the 2ms suffix. G-d is

talking to the man, the priest of the home. The woman is ignored.

The father is ultimately responsible.

#1003. Review #270. What follows is direct speech.

#1004. Review #493. #1005. Review #116.

#1006. Review #640.

#1007. Review #946. Qal passive participle

#1008. Review #312. This is a feminine noun, as you see from

its KAMATZ HAY ending and from the 3fs suffix in #1011.

#1009. Review #354. BET AYIN VET SHURUK RESH = "because of"

#1010. Review #981 and #448. "by painful toil"

#1011. Review #116. Notice 3fs suffix referring you back to


#1012. Review #250.

#1013. Review #43. Do you see the plural construct ending?

#1014. Review #295.

GEN. 3:18

1014 chai-YEH-chah 1015 veh-KOHTS 1016 veh-dahr-DAHR

1017 tahts-MEE-ahkh 1018 lach 1019 vah-ah-khahl-TAH 1020 et

1021 EH-sehv 1022 hahs-sah- DEH

#1015. "and thorn"

#1016. "and thistle"

#1017. Review #491 hifil. she (the ground) will cause to spring


#1018. "for you (2ms)" It looks like 2fs but the atnah puts the

word in pause and changes the vowel. This is why it is a FINAL


#1019. Review #116.

#1020. Review #4. #1021. Review #121. #1022. Review #483.

GEN. 3:19

1023 beh-zeh-AHT 1024 ah-PEH-chah 1025 toh-KHOHL 1026 LEH-chem

1027 ahd 1028 shuv-CHAH 1029 el 1030 ha-ah-dah-MAH 1031 kee

1032 mee-MEH-nah 1033 loo-KAHKH-tah1034 kee 1035 ah-far

1036 AH-tah 1037 veh-el 1038 ah-fahr 1039 tah-shuv

#1023. ZAYIN AYIN HAY = "sweat, perspiration" Review #448 "by

sweat of" Do you see the TAV contruct ending?

#1024. Review #522. literally "nostrils, nose" we translate"

brow" 2ms suffix.

#1025. Review #116.

#1026. literally "bread" we translate "food" In Mic.5:2 the

place of the Moshiach's birth is Beth-Lechem "house of bread"

#1027. "until"

#1028. SHIN SHURUK VET = "to turn beck, return" From this word

we get the word repentance teshuvah TAV SHIN SHURUK VET HAY =


#1029. Review #97.

#1030. Review #312. Do you see the play on words? It's like

saying "Mr. Mudd, by the sweat of your face you shall eat bread

until you return to the mud."

#1031. Review #462.

#1032. Review #640 and #354. "from her (the ground)"

#1033. Review #613 and #435 on pual. "you were roughly taken"

pual perfect 2ms passive intensive. The KUBUTZ under the first

letter tells you it is a pual. Notice also the dagesh forte in

the middle letter of the root. Remember the difference between

the active and the passive voice. In the passive voice the

subject is the recepient of the action of the verb rather than

the agent. The active voice is the state of the verb in which the

subject is doing the action.

#1034. Review #462. #1035. Review #518.

#1036. Review #837 and #920 on emphatic use of pronouns.

#1037. Review #97. #1038. Review #518.

#1039. Review #1028. Having completed this short Introduction

to Biblical Hebrew course, it is our hope that you see that "all

we like sheep have gone our own way" (Isaiah 53:6) eating from

the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, but that Hashem has

laid on Moshiach the iniquity of us all (Isaiah 53:6), and

therefore the Aitz of Moshiach Yehoshua (Deut. 21:23) has become

for us who are being delivered from Judgment the Aitz haChayim.


If you look on the bottom of page 3 of the BHS you will see

various abbreviations. A few of them are important to recognize

now. For example, look at the symbol for the Samaritan

Pentateuch, a 5th century Hebrew document, and the Septuagint

(G), a 3rd-2nd century Greek translation. In Genesis 2:2, in the

fourth Hebrew word in the verse, HAY SHIN VET YUD AYIN YUD, we

see an a superscript pointing us to the bottom of the page in the

BHS textual apparatus. There we see that the Syriac (S) Aramaic

translation also supports the reading HAY SHIN SHIN YUD ("the

sixth") rather than the seventh day. This appears to be a

"correction" in these versions to make it clear that G-d was not

active on the seventh day. In this case the Masoretic reading is

preferable. At the front of the BHS, on pages XLIV-XLVIII, you

see other abbreviations, such as that for the Dead Sea Scrolls

(Q). Some of these you will begin to recognize.


Before we begin studying the Bible together, let us remember the

danger that lies in only reading about the Bible. If you read

the notes we've given you and do not read what the notes are

derived from, i.e. the entire text of Scripture (in this case the

entire book of Genesis), then you are like the person born

without a tongue who did not eat the ice cream but only had the

experience described to him in a book. G-d wants to speak to you

directly through "every word that proceeds from the mouth of

G-d." His words are inerrant and will stand forever in the

theatre of mankind. All that our fallible little notes can do is

help to set the stage for you and to possibly raise the curtain.

If you don't have an on-going schedule to keep you actually

reading the Bible itself cover to cover, you may possibly "miss

the show" and these pages will be useless in the end, like

program notes given to you by an usher for a play you never saw.

So sit down now and read the book of Genesis, all fifty chapters.

Put the food of the Word of G-d directly into your mouth. Then we

can talk about it. We will proceed only on the assumption that

you have done that and will continue to do that as we go along

from book to book.


....B'ray-SHEET ("in the beginning") is the Hebrew name for

Genesis. Many of the books of the Hebrew Bible are named from

their first words. This Hebrew word begins the first fifth of

the so-called "book of the Law of Moses" SEFER TORAT-MOSHE

II Kgs. 14:6). In view of the watchword Sola Scriptura (the

Bible alone is authoritative for faith), we must allow inerrantly

inspired authors of Scipture to give us our normative

interpretation of Scripture. For example, when we look at Genesis

1:1, we should remember Rav Sha'ul's teaching of the doctrine of

creation ex nihilo (Latin, "from nothing") that G-d "calls into

being that which does not exist" (Romans 4:17). With Rav Sha'ul's

inerrant teaching to guide us, we will not be tempted to

interpret Genesis 1:1 in any way that would have G-d creating the

cosmos from pre-existing materials. The book of Romans would

have us see the book of Genesis in terms of the sovereignty of

G-d, that G-d created the cosmos out of nothing and the chosen

nation of Israel out of nothing, since Abraham and Sarah were old

and "as good as dead" (Romans 4:19). So Genesis chps 1-11 are

about the creation of the inhabited world. And the book begins

with Adam, who is told to govern the world as the son of G-d,

being a type of "the one who is to come" (Romans 5:14; Genesis

3:15; 49:10 NIV), as expectation begins to build about a promised

eschatological Redeemer-Ruler, a Savior from sin and death, a

Great "Descendant" or "Seed" ZERAH. In Genesis we see the

"fall," that is, "creation being subjected to futility" (Romans

8:20) and the whole human race being brought under the bondage of

the law of sin and death (Romans 6:23) and all this occurred long

before the death-dealing Law of Moses was given at Mt. Sinai.

Romans 5:12 tells us how to exegete (interpret) Genesis 3. Adam

is an epochal figure whose failure and fall determines the

character of all encompassed in his epoch; that is, all of

God-alienated humanity in need of the epoch of the second Adam,

the New Man, the Moshiach, and especially in need of the new life

that flows from the Kingdom of G-d and G-d's great King Moshiach

and the Messianic Adamic fountain head. When we look at the

first man lying on the ground dead (Gen. 5:5), the Bible is

showing us the first sinner of a sinning/dying epoch which only

the Moshiach's death brings to an end (II Cor. 5:14). The six

days of creation may also stand for creationary epochs because

the Seventh Day or Shabbos may also point toward the millennial

epoch at the end of this age, if the book of Revelation (Rev.

20:4) and its creation theology is allowed to exert any force as

an interpretive key to the meaning of Gen. chp. 1-3. YOM can be a

period of in definite length in the Hebrew Bible. The age-day

interpretation fits well with the geological record. Moreover, if

the sun had not yet been created on Day One, you could hardly

have a 24-hour solar day on that "day" of no sun! If the sun were

not visible until day #4 (as in a long period where thick clouds

constituted the primordial atmosphere) such a description as

Genesis gives us could be reconciled with science. However, we

need to remember in all of this that Moses is not conducting an

amoral science lecture but rather is preaching a life-or-death

sermon (Deut. 30:l5) to get his Jewish people to stop violating

the law and get delivered from the wrath of G-d.

In a sense it would be better to read the book of Genesis last

instead of first. The reason is that Genesis answers all kinds of

questions that only get raised for the reader later in the Bible.

So it is only when you read Obadiah and Malachi that you really

start asking, "Who are the Edomites and when do we first hear of

their patriarch Esau?" Similarly, when Gog and Magog are

mentioned in Ezekiel, when Javan (Greece) is mentioned in

Zechariah, when Babylon (Shinar--Gen. 14:1) is mentioned in

Isaiah, when the Canaanites and the Moabites and the Amorites

(Noah's son Ham is the father of the Amorites) are discussed in

the rest of the Scriptures, Genesis is the place to turn to get

the Bible's theological introduction and overview of their

significance and determinative character. Genesis introduces us

theologically to all the major questions of life. What is

mankind? What is marriage? What is work and rest from work in

relation to G-d? In Proverbs it says that wine is a mocker

(20:1). How does the Bible first introduce us to that fact?

(Hint: see Gen. 9. Read also Lev. 10:8-11; Num. 6 :l-4; Luke

1-15; Rom. 14:2l.) How did the evil of polygamy begin? (Note

Gen. 4:19 and Lamech's overweening desire for both women and

violence--see Gen. 2:24 on monogamy.) What is sin? What is guilt?

Does man have to sin? (See Gen. 4:7). How in the human heart

did wickedness begin and proliferate over the earth? How did it

happen that the life-blood was set apart as holy in the

beginning, when G-d began to institute blood sacrifice as a

necessary aspect of the faith of Abraham? Where did Moses and

Joseph and the children of Israel come from? How did bondage,

especially bondage in Egypt come about? How can it be circumcised

and rolled away from the human heart so that we might know G-d

personally and become his true sons? Adam, Abel, Seth, Enosh,

Enoch, Noah, Shem, Arphachshad, Shelah, Eber, Peleg, Reu, Serug,

Nahor, Terah and Abraham show us sons of G-d, whereas the sons of

the Serpent become a brood of "Lamech's" swallowed in a flood of

wrath. The coming "Descendant" is "the seed of the woman" and

"the son of Man" and is also part of the promise given to


Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua tells us this when he

says, "Abraham your father rejoiced at the thought of seeing the

day of my coming" (Yochanan 8:56) See correct spelling of the

Moshiach's name in the Hebrew Bible Neh. 7:39; see prophecy

regarding this name as Moshiach's name Zech. 6:12; Ezra 3:8. Now

this is important: Galatians 3:16 interprets in this Messianic

sense Genesis 12:7;13:15; 17:7; 22:18 and 24:7. G-d promised

many descendents but the fact that the word ZERA or SPERMA is

singular Shliach Sha'ul takes as a Messianic reference, not

merely a reference to the nation. Shliach Sha'ul sees the notion

of promise, including a promised esohatological covenant (Genesis

17:2), as central to the book of Genesis, because the Exodus from

Egypt, the conquering of the land of Israel, the coming of the

King Moshiach, and his inheritance of the nations are all an

unfolding of the promise that has its beginning in Genesis (the

word "Genesis" is from a Greek word meaning "origin"). Since a

gracious promise from a sovereign G-d who creates out of nothing

negates any notion of salvation through meritorious

works-righteousness, Shliach Sha'ul has Moses and Habakkuk to say

"amen" when Shliach Sha'ul teaches that righteousness was

credited to Abraham's faith when Abraham became the father of all

(Jewish people and Gentiles alike) who believe (see Genesis 15:6;

Deuteronomy 7:7-8; 9:4-6; Habakkuk 2:4). This is the teaching of

Yehoshua in Yochanan 6:28-29. Although the book of Genesis tells

us the origin of everything from marriage to polygamy and from

the Edomites to the Sodomites, Shliach Sha'ul shows us the most

important doctrine that originates from Genesis, the doctrine of

justification by faith alone (Romans 3:28).

Important prophecies in Genesis are these: one descendent of

Abraham will bless the nations (see Genesis 12:1-4; Isaiah

49:5-6); Abraham's descendants will be slaves 400 years in a land

not their own (Genesis 15:13); Abraham's descendants will be

delivered in the fourth generation (Genesis 15:14-16); the land

of Canaan would be given to Abraham's descendants as an

inheritance (Genesis 15:16-21) and the promise would be given

graciously and miraculously through Isaac (17:21; 21:12). If the

book of Revelation reads Genesis 3 with an apocalyptic symbolic

interpretation (see Revelation 12:9 and 20:2) then we should not

read it with an empty literalism as though it were just a story

about the origin of lethal snake bites (some famous rabbis have

made this mistake). On the other hand, we would make a big error

if we read Genesis 3 as a fictious myth, as though it weren't

dealing with facts and with the sober historical reality of the

human condition. Just because something is told in picture

language fraught with symbolism rather than with scientific

mathematical formulas does not mean that it is any less true or

that it did not in fact occur. The story in Genesis 3 is not a

mere parable. However, like a parable, the story points beyond

itself to its practical lesson, that the fruit of going our own

way (Isa. 53:6) against G-d's Word is death, and there is a way

that seems right to a man, but in the end it leads to death

(Prov. 16:25). For Man must live by every word that proceeds from

the mouth of G-d (Deut. 8:3). Satan is not literally a snake.

If he were, we wouldn't need the new birth, just medicine to

neutralize the venom. But Moses talks about the need for

hitkadeshut when he uses the metaphor of the "circumcision of the

heart" in Deut. 10:16; 30:6 and when he talks about the spiritual

change or new birth indicated when Abram and Jacob received their

new names as Abraham (father of many") and Israel ("he strives

with God"). On this, see Gen. 17:5;32:28.

Man is morally responsible before G-d and is commanded to yield

his heart in obedience. On the other hand, G-d is free to choose

and to judge. G-d is free to judge the attitude of Cain or to

sovereignly choose the younger rather than the elder son as the

heir of the promise. Judging from what we are saying here, would

you say that Shliach Sha'ul is dealing with the issue of the new

birth versus a works-righteousness religiosity when he refers to

Genesis and to the "children of the promise" in Romans 9:8? Is

Shliach Sha'ul seeing in Genesis the idea that only a sovereign

Creator can effect the new creation, and that self-righteousness

and self-efforts can never be our savior?

The world offers various g-dless cosmogonies (theories of the

origin and development of the universe) such as evolution. But

the Bible declares that without regeneration from G-d, Man is not

evolving upward from the beast but downward toward the Beast, and

the number of his name is 666, the number of unregenerated

Mankind at his most bestial. Without regeneration, man tends

away from the likeness of G-d and toward the likeness of the

unreasoning beast (Jude 10). If you come to the Bible looking for

information to support the latest scientific theory instead of

approaching the Bible to look for Yehoshua (Yochanan 5:39) and to

gather fruit from the Aitz HaChayim (the tree of life), you are

reading the Bible the wrong way, like a woman trying to find a

recipe in a telephone directory. The Bible was not written to

form us into gods who know exactly how old the universe is or how

scientists might someday create a human being from the mud of

matter. The Bible was written to give assurance of salvation and

to equip the man of G-d for every good work (Yochanan 20:31;

I Yochanan 5:13; II Tim. 3:16-11). Any fool might believe that

such a complex organ as the human eye could by evolution

spontaneously generate itself to see and rationally comprehend

the world, but a miracle is needed before a depraved heart can

believe that it has a need for G-d's Moshi'a (Deliverer), the

Moshiach. The Bible was written to tell us what is man,

something paleoanthropologists only pretend to know. They try to

divine that what differentiates humanity from the animal kingdom

is human speech or rational thought or the ability to use complex

tools or to walk in an upright manner on two feet. They can't

agree, however, and tend to put clever extinct species of apes

and "near-men" and "cave men" and modern man all in the same

genus, Homo (man). However according to the Bible, the genus of

Man is not alone defined by his rationality (which serves a

depraved will) but by the fact that Man is something that animals

are not: man is a sinner needing the covering of G-d's saving

hand, that is, a sinner needing the Moshiach. If we ask

ourselves, where does the notion of a suffering yet innocent

redeemer of the world originate, the answer again is Genesis.

Starting in chp 37, Joseph, like Yehoshua son of Joseph, is an

incognito prophet and savior, unrecognized by his own people,

envied and rejected as not from G-d, buried as dead, but raised

up by G-d to the right hand of supreme power to feed the bread of

new life to the whole world, including at last his own people who

do not recognize him until the end. (Rav Sha'ul may have had

this Joseph cycle in mind when he wrote Romans 11.)

This Anointed King, this Deliverer, will come from the line of

Seth (Genesis 4:25), from the offspring of Shem (Genesis 9:26),

from the family of Abraham (Genesis 12:3), from the seed of Isaac

(Genesis 26:3) and from the sons of Jacob (Genesis 46:3) and from

the tribe of Judah (49:10). Are you staying with me? Got a

dictionary? The word ZERA means what? ______________________

What does ex nihilo mean? _____________________

Read Gen. chps 6-10. Archaeologists are not ignorant of flood

strata in the geological record of ancient Mesopotamia. There

definitely was some kind of horrific flood in antiquity. Flood

stories are part of the memory of the human race and are almost

universally known. The death that swallows Adam and the

generations after him nearly swallows the whole human race in the

wrath of G-d unleashed in the great deluge. But once again there

is a Moshi'a savior figure, a kind of second Adam, and those who

find salvation in his ark survive, while all those outside him

are destroyed. See II Shimon Kefa 3:6. Possibly around 2166

B.C.E. Abraham was born in what is today modern Iraq. His home

was in the city of Ur of the Chaldees (part of today's Iraq and

Kuwait) and his people were Arameans, a Semitic group spreading

out from the Euphrates in Iraq. His family migrated to Haran (an

area near the Turkey-Syrian border 20 miles southeast of Urfa in

modern Turkey), where his father died, where his brother Nahor

settled, and where this Gentile named Abraham received his call

to make aliyah [he was the first foreign emissary of Moshiach's

shlichut (mission) to the Holy Land.] G-d chose to save Abraham

and to make him the founder of a nation (Israel) and the father

of many peoples (the Arab people come through his son Ishmael,

born when Abraham was 86). G-d chose to make him a prophet and

to give to him and to his "seed" both a covenant and a land and

various promises, including the promise of a Moshiach and

universal salvation, including the inheritance of the Gentile

nations. These covenant promises were renewed to Abraham's son

Isaac and Abraham's grandson Jacob. Jacob's name was changed to

Israel. The area of Haran is important because it was from this

region that Nahor's granddaughter Rebecca came, and she was

destined to become the wife of Isaac and the mother of Jacob.

Also, Leah and Rachel, the wives of Jacob, came from this region,

because the father of these girls was Laban, Rebecca's brother

and Jacob's uncle/father-in-law.

When we study Genesis, we see this 75 year old Abraham leaving

Haran and being guided by G-d to the land of Canaan with stops at

Shechem, the vicinity of Bethel, the Negev desert to the south of

Israel, Egypt, Bethel again, and then Hebron, where Abraham spent

most of his life. He is a prophet, proclaiming G-d to the heathen

Canaanites by "calling on the name of the L-rd." He acts not only

like a prophet (notice his prophetic intercessory ministry in

20:17 and in 18:23-32) but also like a kohen, building altars and

making sacrifices. But then appears a greater kohen, a

mysterious royal figure ruling almost messianically over the city

that became known later as Jerusalem. This kohen, a type of the

Moshiach, takes Abraham's tithe and blesses him (Gen. 14). Four

eastern kings then attack Sodom and, because Abraham's nephew Lot

lives there, Abraham rescues him. But the same G-d who leads Lot

to escape that homosexual stronghold Sodom, leads Abraham to

miraculously father a son (Isaac) in his old age and then to send

his servant (possibly the Eliezer of Gen. 15:2) to Laban to get

Isaac a bride (see Gen. 24). With the birth of Isaac (a promise

25 years in coming), the promise of the rise of the nation, the

possession of the nation's land (Israel), the coming of the

Moshiach, and the inheritance of all the nations of the

world--this great unfolding promise and its fulfillment--is

assured. This is why the visit of the Angel of the L-rd in Gen.

18 is so important (18:2,17,22,33; 19:1 seems to make the

inference that the Angel of the L-rd is G-d himself). Under the

guidance of G-d we see Abraham moving around to different places,

Hebron, the Philistine territory in Gerar, Beersheba, and Mount

Moriah (later the site of the Beis Hamikdash mount--II Chron.

3:1). This is where his faith endured its most difficult test,

prefiguring the vicarious, substitionary sacrifice in the coming

Beis Hamikdash, prefiguring the sacrifice of the Moshiach, and

prefiguring the sacrifice of every true believer who must put all

on the altar to follow the L-rd. But G-d's guidance, made real

to Abraham by the intervention of an angel (Gen. 22:11), came to

his rescue even in the midst of severe testing. Abraham was put

in the right before G-d by faith (15:6), as are all his Messianic

heirs and spiritual children according to the promise (Gal.


Isaac's movements are also under the guidance of G-d from the

time he narrowly escapes death as a child until his dying day:

Mount Moriah, Gerar (Philistine territory), Beersheba. When his

servants dig a well, the L-rd invariably leads them to water and

the eyes of the heathen see "plainly that the L-rd has been with

you" (26:28). Even as a blind old man, Isaac's hands were guided

by the L-rd (see Gen. 27).

The Edomites, a people south and southeast of the Dead Sea, in

the country called Edom or Seir, raided Judah at the time of the

Babylonian invasion (Obad.11) in the 6th century B.C. and

possessed lands in the Negev desert (Ezek.35). But any claim they

might have made on the territory of Israel was forfeited by the

founder of their nation, Jacob's brother, Esau, who despised his

birthright and was supplanted by his twin brother Jacob. We see

the hand of G-d protecting Jacob, sending him away from Esau to

Haran, prospering him in spite of all Laban's deceptive

practices. As G-d was with Abraham and Isaac, so G-d guided

Jacob. Just as both Sarah and her maid-servant, Hagar, gave

Abraham offspring, so from Leah was born Reuben, Simeon, Levi,

Judah, Issachar, and Zebulun. From Rachel was born Joseph and

Benjamin. From Rachel's maid-servant Bilhah was born Dan and

Naphtali. From Leah's maid-servant Zilpah was born Gad and Asher.

When Jacob's caravan left Haran, G-d was with him as he headed

for Gilead, protecting him from Laban. "The L-rd watch(ed)"

(31:48) and angels met him at the place he named Mahanaim and he

strove with G-d and prevailed until he received the blessing as

"Israel." G-d guided Jacob to Shechem and met him at Bethel,

leading him to Hebron. Through his son Joseph, G-d led Jacob even

to Pharaoh's court in Egypt. And the same G-d that led his son

Joseph to become a prophet in Egypt led Jacob's body to be

returned for burial in the promised land, where his tomb (Gen.

50) would become a sign pointing to the Moshiach's tomb and the

Exodus from sin and death. The tribes of Israel that Moses led

out of Egypt in the Exodus were given much assurance by these

stories from G-d's prophetic Word: G-d was likewise leading and

guiding and providing for them as he had for their fathers.

Joseph's movements under the guidance of G-d can be seen in three

days: the day his brothers rejected him as a prophet and as their

savior, refusing to do obeisance, selling him as a slave, and

burying him as dead; the day he was falsely accused and

imprisoned in Egypt; and the third day, the day he was raised to

the right hand of supreme power as a vindicated prophet and the

Moshi'a Savior of the world, ruler of all (Gen. 45:8). (See

I Cor. 15:4 "the third day")

The inference of Gen. 49:10 is that Judah's sovereignty

(shepherd's staff) will remain with that tribe until the coming

of David and the Son of David the Moshiach. See Ezek. 21:27 and

its near quote of Gen. 49:l0, "until he comes to whom it

rightfully belongs." Gen. 49:l0 says "the obedience of the

peoples" is his, that is the Moshiach's. In the Babylonian

Talmud, Sanhedrin 98b says that this is indeed a Messianic



And I will put enmity between thee (the Serpent) and the woman,

and between thy seed (the children of the evil one--Yochanan

8:44) and her seed; it (the seed of the woman) shall bruise thy

head (the Serpent), and thou shalt strike his heel. ["The Son of

the promise" is an important Messianic theme. The "seed of the

Woman" who is promised in Genesis 3:15 is to crush the Serpent.

This idea of the "Son of the Promise" underscored in Genesis

18:14 points toward the Deliverer foreshadowed also by others,

like Samson and Samuel, whose supernaturally orchestrated births

were a sign of divine rescue on the way. Moses tells us in

Genesis 49:10 that the Deliverer will come through Judah. But

here, even before Judah or Jacob, G-d miraculously brings into

being Isaac, just as G-d miraculously brings into being his true

people of the new birth. The supernatural birth of both people

(from the exile of sin) and the Moshiach (Immanuel) is a key

theme related to the doctrine of salvation in Isaiah.]


The scepter shall not depart from Judah, nor a ruler's staff from

between his feet until Shiloh (or if Shelo "until he whose it

is") come and the obedience of the nations (peoples) is his.


G-d's blessing on the people of Abraham (Gen. 12:3; 15:5) is such

that, according to Ex. 1:12, "the more they were oppressed, the

more they multiplied and spread." We see this in our own day in

the way the Nazi Holocaust of 1933-1945 led to the thriving

nation of Israel in 1948, growing with a vast exodus of diaspora

Jews from the Soviet Union, Ethiopia, and other lands. G-d keeps

his promises as we see in Gen. 15:13 and Ex. 12:40. There are

modern liberal scholars (not too many of them) who believe that

the Exodus from Egypt did not take place historically. Abraham

is declared to be a fictional character and his prophecy in Gen.

15:13-16 about the Egyptian Exodus is declared to be a post

events literary creation. But we know that it is an historical

fact that the Exodus from the Babylonian Exile began around 538

B.C.E. (see Ezra 1:1-4) and that Jeremiah was a real historical

character and his prophecy about the coming Babylonian Exodus in

Jer.16:14-15 can be dated before 586 B.C.E. when Jerusalem's

destruction made the Exile in Babylon complete. Now if G-d can

prove to us that the latter Exodus is historical, why should we

be skeptical that the former Exodus is historical? The doubters

living in the last decade of the 20th century are without excuse

for their unbelief, since they are themselves eye-witnesses of a

full scale Russian Exodus that promises to double Israel's

population in just a few years.

This book tells of the enslavement and deliverance of a people

and the birth and preparation of their deliverer. We hear of a

contest between the G-d of the people of the coming Moshiach and

the people of Pharaoh and his fals g-ds We learn of a

miraclous deliverance out of Egypt and the journey to Mt. Sinai

(Mt. Horeb). It is on this mountain that G-d reveals Himself

first to Moses and then to the people, requiring by means of a

covenant or contract that they be exclusively devoted to Him as a

holy nation, with His holy presence accompanying them on the

march by means of the mishkan and the kehunnah (priesthood)

carrying the law of Moses. As men had to enter the ark of

Noah's salvation to be saved from death, so we must enter the ark

of the true Messianic deliverance to be saved. And another

deliverer, the baby Moses, [MOSHE has the idea of "drawing out

(of the water)], was also in a tiny ark (the same word is used in

both stories: TEVAH meaning "vessel" is probably from an Egyptian

loan word meaning "chest" or "coffin"). In the case of both Noah

and Moses, the people would have to be submerged in a tevilah

into covenantal fellowship with their deliverer to be saved (see

I Corinthians 10:2; I Shliach Kefa 3:20f; II Shliach Kefa 2:5).

And just as the Noah cycle in Genesis shows a glimmer of

Messianic typology (see Matthew 24:38; Luke 17:27), so the book

of Exodus is also Messianic and eschatological. Both stories

point toward a new world coming which only a remnant preserved

through judgment will inherit. Moses is depicted not merely as a

prophet but as a mediator and judge/ruler who does a kohen's work

as well. When he says "a prophet like me" in Deut. 18:15, this

would include all these facets and by necessity would refer to

the Moshiach. This is confirmed by Isaiah, who declares that the

Prophet Moshiach will be a new Moses (Isa. 49:9-10). Look at

chapter 24:2, where Moses is a type (a perfect model pointing to

something higher) of Messiah because he symbolizes G-d's

mediator. Like the expected Moshiach-Prophet, Moses is also a

Mediator and law-giver (see Isaiah 42:4; Deuteronomy 18:18-19;

Isaiah 49:8-9), liberator, the inaugurator of the Kingdom of G-d,

the bringer of the covenant, the one delivered in order to be

G-d's deliverer, the one who rules and judges G-d's people and

raises up the divine dwelling of G-d in their midst, the

tabernacle, the MISHKAN OHEL MO'ED (the sanctuary of the tent of

meeting). Actually, Moses and Aaron together give us a picture

of the ruler-kohen Moshiach of Zechariah 6:13

(Yehoshua-Zerubbabel) and Psalm 110.

There is a recapitulation of the life of Moses in the life of

Moshiach Yehoshua. Both are saved from a slaughter of innocents,

both are called out of Egypt; Herod is a latter-day Pharaoh.

Twelve disciples to match the twelve tribes; there are forty days

in the wilderness to match the forty years of wandering, etc.

However, Moses is not a mere political leader bringing in a

this-worldly national liberation or revolution (this is only the

"Moses" of the "liberation theology" of Roman Catholic liberalism

in South America). He is a mediator pointing toward an

other-worldly G-d (G-d's angel goes before the Israelites--see

23:23; 33:2 and they see God--24:10). This G-d descends from

heaven and pitches His tent with His people, Himself dwelling

over the Aron HaEdut (ark of the testimony) where He sits

enthroned between the cherubim and over the Word He inscribed on

stone tablets. Moses sprinkles the elect nation (Exodus 24:8)

just as the Moshiach will sprinkle the elect nations (Isaiah

52:15). In both cases the elect are redeemed as a

blood-covenanted possession. Furthermore, in the book of Exodus,

Egypt's "new king who knew nothing of Joseph" (Exodus 1:8) is a

prefigurement of the Anti-Moshiach of the book of Revelation,

where the Exodus-like plagues of G-d's wrath (angry judgment)

fall on the Anti-Moshiach Beast's end-time Sodom civilization.

So Pharaoh's fall gives us a foreglimpse of the fall of the Beast

and his last-days "Babylon" civilization we see pictured so

vividly in Revelation 16 (see also Rev. 11:8). The Besuras

Hageulah of Yochanan is also organized much like Exodus, with

"signs" in both books convincing the people of the credibility of

each saving Mediator. While there are seven signs in Yochanan

there are ten signs building up to the Exodus of Moses. These

ten are Dahm (blood 7:14-24); Z'fard'im (frogs 8:1-15); Kinim

(gnats 8:16-19); Arov (flies 8:20-32); Dever (pestilence on

livestock 9:1-7); Sh'chin (boils 9:8-12); Barad (hail 9:13-35);

Arbeh (locusts 10:4-20); Chosech (darkness 10:21-29) Makat

B'chorot (slaying of firstborn 12:29-32). These are recited every

year in the Passover Seder, which is eaten with matzah and

M'rorim bitter herbs (see 12:8). Read carefully 12:1-27. Notice

the mixed crowd or rabble Erev Rav (large motley group) in 12:38

and remember the parable of the tares and wheat in Matt. 13:25.

Not all were prepared for holy battle (13:18).

Normally, passages like 12:37-39 are used in the Seder to explain

the matzah or unleavened bread. Ex. 12:42 explains why some

Jewish people stay up all night for the Chag festival. Read the

breath-taking description of the parting of what is traditionally

called the "Red Sea" (Yam Soof in Hebrew) in Ex. 14. and the

"Mi-chamochah Ba'Alim Adonai song in Ex. 15:11 found in the

synagogue liturgy. Notice a key theme of the entire Torah in

Ex. 15:13, "You guided them by Your strength to Your Holy Abode."

A Messianic theme in Exodus is the refrain we heard in Genesis

37:8, where Joseph's brothers taunt Joseph with the question: "Do

you think that you will indeed be king over us and rule us?" In

Exodus 2:14 Moses, even though he has been raised in a palace as

a prince, is likewise taunted, "Who set you as an official and

judge over us?" This is a continuation of the theme we will see

again in King David's life and in Isaiah 53 where, once again,

the spiritually anointed Leader is sent by G-d but rejected by

the people. In the case of both the Mediator of the Sinai

Covenant and also the Mediator of the (Jer. 31:31-34) Messianic

Brit Chadasha, the Savior-figure who "sprinkles" ["NAZAH"], with

the blood of the Covenant (Ex. 24:8; Isaiah 52:13) is called the

Eved (Servant) of the L-rd (Ex. 14:31; Isa. 52:13). Prince

Moses will be a type of the Moshiach, just as Joseph "prince

among his brothers" (Gen. 49:26) was. Genesis 49:10 tells us

that the obedience of the nations will come to the Moshiach

descended from the tribe of Judah, but Scripture gives us various

pictures of him. For example, the Jewish people (some of them,

that is) meant to do Yehoshua Son of Joseph harm, but G-d meant

to bring good out of it by saving many people (Genesis 50:20).

Also, Genesis offers the promise of land and life but ends with

everyone being sucked into a tomb (see Genesis 49:29-33), and the

body of Joseph going back to that tomb in a 400 year long trek

(Genesis 50:24-26; Exodus 13:19). But a victory over the defeat

of that tomb will occur when "the 70" (Exodus 1:5) burst forth

from the tomb of Egypt in a great exodus of "600,000" (Exodus

12:3?). This was possible because of midwives who didn't believe

in abortion (1:17), who did believe instead in the G-d of

Abraham, Isaac and Jacob as the G-d of the living. This awesome

G-d commissions Moses (1:23-2:15) while he is a shepherd in

Midian on Mt. Sinai (Horeb) to deliver His people with Match

Ha'Elohim (the rod of God) performing signs and wonders (this

word wonder" mofet in Ex.7:3 we will see again in a key

Messianic passage in Zechariah 3:8). The G-d of Israel reveals

to Moses his personal covenant Name which contains his character,

that he is the G-d who always is (Ex. 3:14), the eternally

self-existent true G-d. This one true L-rd is the author of

salvation (Ex. 6:1-8), and he explains that he is going to

remember his covenant with the Patriarchs (Ex. 2:24) and then he

will plunder the Egyptians (3:21-22; 11:2-3 12:35-36) and harden

Pharaoh's heart before he brings out Israel from Egypt with a

mighty hand. G-d has many marvelous reasons for this (see 6:1;

7:3; 9:16; 10:1-2; 11:9; 14:4; 18:11). The plagues of the Exodus

were acts of judgment. The plagues were also deliberate

denigrations of the destructive deities and idol religion of the

Egyptians (12:12), the kind of Holy War that Moses and Joshua

will be continuing as preparations are made to invade the Holy

Land. Ex. 6:6 says "I am the L-rd, and I will free you from the

burdens of the Egyptians and deliver you from slavery to them. I

will redeem (I will be the Go'el) Redeemer, literally buying you

back from slavery by putting a blood sacrifice ransom on every

door). I will redeem you with an outstretched arm and with

mighty acts of judgment." But in doing these acts of judgment, in

pouring out the plagues, G-d promises to "make a distinction

between my people and your (Pharaoh's) people" (Ex. 8:23; Gen.

3:15). This is the key to what Yochanan means in Rev. 3:10,

"Because you have kept my word of patient endurance, I will keep

you from the hour of trial that is coming on the whole world to

test the inhabitants of the earth." Believers have been taken

out of judgment and they will not be "destroyed with those who

destroy the earth" (Rev. 11:18); just the opposite, they will be

raptured first (Rev. 11:12). G-d will "take" them like he took

Enoch and Elijah. However, not all the tribulation plagues of

Exodus necessitate evaculation for G-d's people to escape them

(see 8:22; 9:20-21,26,34; 10:23; 11:6-7). This should prompt us

to anticipate an imminent rapture but not to presume that rapture

is the only way G-d can protect his kedoshim while He pours out

bowls of wrath and plagues of judgment on the worldly people all

around his chosen ones. Like a typical reprobate who continually

refuses to humble himself before G-d (10:3), the proud

unregenerate Pharaoh does not believe even though all the

terrible plagues of judgment and wrath fall on him. But these

plagues the L-rd uses to distinguish between Egypt and Israel

(11:7), for He is redeeming a people of slaves set apart to

worship Him (10:26) and to become a free nation of kohanim to

G-d. The L-rd will make his covenant with his redeemed people,

and they will remember the covenant in a solemn covenant meal,

the Pesach Seder (chapter 12 Pesach). Chapter 13 hearkens back to

Genesis 22 and shows that only the first-born of the redeemed

will be included in the Pidyon HaBen redemption of the son--see

22:29b-30). When the first-born of Pharaoh and Egypt were struck

down while the first-born of Israel was preserved alive even

before the Red Sea parted, these events showed the Israelites

that they were being delivered from destruction by One who is

omnipotent and can alone assure their future (their future lay

with the ruling heir, the firstborn). The early Messianic Jews

had the same realization when they saw G-d likewise save and

raise his own firstborn Son from the dead and effect their and

His "exodus"--see Luke 9:30 and I Cor. 5:7. Matthew also

presents Moshiach Yehoshua as the New Moses, just as Isaiah looks

forward to a new exodus of salvation and the Moshiach to lead it

(see Isaiah 49:9-10). The Pesach lamb was a vicarious sacrifice

for the first-born heir, who represented the whole community and

its future. The Pesach Lamb purchased the redemption of those who

were saved and its blood on their houses literally bought them so

that they became the people whom G-d bought or acquired ["KANAH"]

Ex. 15:16; 12:23-27). Atonement money (30:11-16) was meant to

remind the Israelites of the ransom given in the blood sacrifice

of the Pesach lamb and in the tent of meeting, that is "the kofer

(ransom) given for your lives" (30:12). Trace the word for lamb

in Hebrew Seh from Genesis 22:7 to Exodus 12:3 to Isaiah 53:7.

Moshiach is the coming Passover Lamb, the redemptive-savior of

Abraham's progeny. He is the one that Isaac asks for (unwittingly

not only for his own redemption but also for the purchased

redemption of all Abraham's children by faith).

Sometimes, as in the case of the detour the Israelites took

through the desert rather than the more direct route to Israel,

G-d has a reason for making us take longer to reach our

objectives. The disheveled ex-slaves needed time to get

disciplined and organized. We talmidim also sometimes need more

time and therefore should not get discouraged when our long-range

goals are not reached over-night. See 13:17-18. The important

point is that we must wait on the L-rd who will remember his

people (2:24). The L-rd works very quickly when he wills to do

so. It took only three months for the L-rd to bring his

Lamb-redeemed (13:13-14) and Red Sea-mikvehed people to Mount

Sinai (Horeb) where he met with their mediator Moses for one year

and where Israel became a blood-covenanted nation! These latter

two events look forward to the mediator Moshiach on the Mount of

Transfiguration and the remnant Shluchim of Israel at the

Moshiach's Last Passover Seder, when we too became a

blood-covenanted people.

One of the twelve sons of Jacob was Levi. He had a son named

Kohath who had a son named Amram whose children were Aaron and

Miriam and Moses. Aaron had a son named Eleazar who had a son

named Phinehas (read about Eleazar's death in the last verse of

Joshua). In the book of Exodus Moses is depicted as a Levite who

in chapter 32 leads a vanguard of zealous Levites in setting the

standard of kedushah for the Israelites in the wilderness. Many

Hebrews are still slaves in Egypt, spiritually speaking,

worshipping the Egyptian bull G-d Apis (the golden calf) with

orgiastic worship (the Hebrew word L'Tsachek in 32:6 has,

according to the medieval rabbinic commentator Rashi, sexual

connotations). The point is that the called out kahal of the

Exodus is in need of a second Exodus, a new creation Exodus from

the "Egyptian" idolatry and bondage within and the hard-hearted

"Pharoah" of their own proud and unspiritual nature. Moses has

been to the mountaintop and has seen the pattern of G-d's coming

salvation (25:9,10; 26:30), but the people, lacking his vision,

murmur against G-d's leader, break the covenant, and perish

("without a vision the people perish" [Prov. 29:18]--not

realizing that there is a spiritual march and a discipleship

discipline necessary to reach salvation's goal.) The people

develop increasing carnality, rebelliousness, faithlessness,

ingratitude, unteachability, anger and cowardice until G-d

condemns them and replaces them with a new-born people that

emerges at the end of the forty year wilderness wanderings. Only

the new-barn "inherit the earth" of the land of Israel in the

end! But G-d is the Prime Mover of the Exodus; it doesn't depend

on Moses' eloquence (or lack of it--4:l0; 6:30) or even on

Israel's competence. He will say, "Israel, come forth!" and she

who was dying in chains in an unclean land of idols will come

forth living and free, destined for kedushah and hitkhadeshut.

Notice the power encounter is between the "New Age" Anti-Moshiach

pseudo-miracles and occult arts of magicians in Pharaoh's court

and the power of the Ruach Hakodesh (7:11; see II Thes. 2:9-10;

Rev. 13:11-18). We see that Anti-Moshiach oppression is of a

political and religious kind, and that it is diabolically

designed to hinder worship of the true G-d and His Moshiach (See


In many ways Moses prefigures the Moshiach. Moses himself is no

messianic hero, however, but a limited man who needs Aaron as his

press secretary and spokesman, and Miriam as his music and

choreography worship leader. Through Jethro's advice, Moses

wisely admits his need for a vast division of labor as far as

leadership is concerned (18:18, 21), because the job of Shofet

(Judge) was getting too large for him. So we see Moses as a

model of the true spiritual leader, one who spends time on the

mountaintop alone in intercessory prayer and devekut with G-d as

well as in meditation on the Word, and then allows a host of

others to help him carry the load of work, which would be too

heavy for him to bear alone. He does this by supervising their

work which is compartmentalized and graded in complexity under

properly fitted leadership so that as problems go up the

hierarchy, most get solved before they reach him. Exodus 29:4

shows the kohen's total abulation looking forward to Moshaich's

tevilah. This kohen's washing is the source of the consecration

ritual for service to G-d (19:14) and the proselyte initiation

ritual which is Brit Chadashah tevilah. See the word (mikveh) in

Exodus 7:19 and Genesis 1:10. There is typology for this in the

parting of the Red Sea and in the washings of the kohanim as they

are installed in their ministry. Deliverance and redemption,

however,are not ritually received (rituals are commanded but as

"wilderness tests" of obedience and faith, not for their supposed

magical properties). Deliverance and redemption come through

emunah in the ransom of the Passover Lamb (later fulfilled in the

Moshiach) that heals us from the plagues of sin and death (Ex.

15:26; 23:25; Isa. 53:5,7).

The promised life G-d offers (later fulfilled in the mavet,

kevurah and techiyas hamesim of the Moshiach) is symbolized in

time (Shabbos and Festivals of Sacred Calendar) and in space

(Holy Camp, Mishkan and Promised Land).

In front of the OHEL MO'ED was the KIYYOR for washing and the

MITZBE'ACH of the burnt-offering. In the Holy Place was found the

golden SHULCHAN with the LECHEM PANIM and beside it, the


In front of the PAROKHET on the KODESH HAKODESHIM was a


ark of the

covenant with the ASERET HADIBROT on the LUCHOT AVANIM

inside and

the KAPPORET functioning as its lid, with the two cherubim facing

each other on top of the KAPPORET. Typology of Moshiach is seen

in the MISHKAN's construction, since he is the perfect pattern of

G-d's saving presence with men; he is the bread of life, the

Lechem Panim, bread of the Presence and he is the Shulchan upon

which all our sustenance rests; he is the menorah, the Lampstand,

the light of the world; he is the Mizbe'ach Haketoret (the altar

of incense), He is the sweet fragrance of salvation's incense; He

is the Mizbe'ach Ha'Olah, (the altar of burnt-offering); he is

the great Kohen Gadol, the acceptable sacrifice, the one MELITZ,

the kiyyor (basin) who washes us with the Ruach Hakodesh, the

law-giver, the door, the KAPPORET, the blood, the victim, and the

Word as well as the Presence who tabernacled with us in the

flesh. Isaiah says He is even the covenant (Isa. 42:6).

Exodus 30:30 is the origin of the word Moshiach. Kohanim were

anointed with a special oil, and among laymen only the Davidic

King (Himself a kohen after the order of Malki-tzedek) was

anointed. When David's dynasty became acknowledged as the

Messianic line, "G-d's anointed" (Moshiach) became a portentous

way of referring to David's Moshiach-bringing dynasty. (See the

Hebrew word in Psalm 2:2 and Daniel 9:26).

In the theology of Exodus, Egypt is not just exited; it is judged

and condemned, just as is the old humanity in the momentous

sacrifice of the Lamb of G-d. The true people of G-d is a

remnant within the "rabble." Not all Israel is Israel. The royal

idol of Pharaoh was a serpent g-d, a cobra, and the most

important of all Egyptian devils was Apophis represented by a

serpent. Genesis 3 has this in its background since Moses is the

author. The Serpent g-d of this world is being rejected.

Ironically, Moses finds he has a more gruelling challenge in

dealing with the people of G-d than he did with the people of

Pharoah. Nearly stoning him, they crave the sensual delights of

their former life of slavery, not realizing that these will bring

upon themselves the evil diseases of Egypt (see Exodus 15 and

Deuteronomy 7). The murmurers are always yearning to get out of

the ministry and have a "normal life." Doubting that G-d can

furnish a table in the wilderness" (Psalm 78:19), many fail to

endure to the end and be saved.

As we see in the Servant Songs of Isaiah, both Israel and

Moshiach are G-d's first-born Son (see Exodus 4:23; Psalm 89:27).

They are both the "seed" of Abraham, but Isaiah 53 says that

Moshiach makes atonement for the people. "For the transgression

of my people was he stricken" (Isa. 53:8). We see much typology

of Moshiach in Exodus: the Pesach lamb chavurah meal (with blood

protection for covenant-keepers), the manna "test of obedience"

meals (teaching not to "gather" faithlessly in the flesh but to

wait on the L-rd and trust in the L-rd's providence and his

provision), and the legislation about strangers and outsiders

needing to be consecrated in the covenant initiation of

circumcision to partake of Pesach, as well as the sections on the

Zekenim eating and drinking with G-d.

Exodus 36:2 speaks of the artists G-d used to make His worship

beautiful and acceptable to Him (see also Ex. 35:10-19;

35:30-36:7). If the worshipers sacrificing and meeting G-d at

the MISHKAN are a prophetic foreshadow or type of the people of

G-d, then each KEHILLAH should have its artisans and artists

today to coordinate and embellish the gifts and talents that each

worshipper is prompted by his own heart to bring to G-d's

service. In Exodus we see the leaders coordinating the arts and

the artistic contributions of the people for the esthetic

enhancement of worship. It's important to remember that

Solomon's Beis Hamikdash and other artistic achievements of great

beauty (such as the Bible itself as a literary achievement) are

used by G-d to attract the heathen to come and taste and see that

the L-rd is good. No Brit Chadasha kehillah should underestimate

the power of the arts in attracting outsiders.

Exodus chps. 35-40 tells about the building of the mishkan (a

type of portable royal pavilion-palace for G-d to dwell in as His

people travelled with Him toward the Promised Land of new life).

The fire and cloud (Ex. 40:34-38) associated with it from the

time of its completion are a sign that G-d indeed dwells there.

At the end of Deuteronomy we find Moses, old and ready to die and

yet not entering the promised land. G-d had almost killed him

once before (possibly in a deadly illness) over the mitzvah of

Bris Milah (circumcision) [Ex. 4:26]. In the book of Exodus we

learn about many Jewish matters of importance: the L-rd calls

Himself the Elohei Ha'Ivrim (G-d of the Hebrews) (7:16); the L-rd

gives the prohibition on travel and fire-building on Shabbos

(16:29-30; 35:3); the testing of Moses occurs (compare Ex. 17 and

Num. 20); we see the Amalek (17:14) people over whom King Saul

got in trouble for not killing their king (I Sam. 15:8), There

are other important themes. The people of G-d are called to be a

malchut of kohenim and a holy nation (19:6). The reverential

glory attached to the ministry is seen in the striking ceremonies

and clothing of the kohanim (28:40-43). We see the trumpet or

shofar and catch its esohatological significance (see 19:13,16

and I Thes. 4:16).

The Aseret haDibrot which form the basis of all other laws in the

Bible are introduced (20:1-17). A depiction of G-d's nature is

given to us (34:6-7). The fear of the L-rd is seen as a

preventative against sin (20:20). The redemption price of a slave

is thirty shekels of silver (see Zech. 11:12 and Matt. 26:15;

27:3,9). The typology of Moses the Judge points to Moshiach the

Judge, since, to come before such a Judge means to come before

G-d (see 22:9); the Angel (Messenger) of the L-rd will have the

Name or Presence of G-d in Him and will be virtually the

equivalent of the L-rd Himself and therefore a picture of Mal.

3:1--see Ex. 23:20-21.

The reason for the Holy War In the Holy Lend concerns the seven

indigenous peoples there who were made Charem (devoted under the

ban of destruction--Ex.23:32-33).

Much of this book is taken up with the detailed plans for

building the Mishkan as an acceptable place for G-d to dwell and

be met by His people. In fact it is called Ohel Mo'ed the tent of

meeting." Notice the fulfillment that comes with serving the L-rd

there. "The Israelites had done all of the work just as the L-rd

had commanded Moses. When Moses saw that they had done all the

work just as the L-rd had commanded, he blessed them" (Ex.


On Moses' authorship, see 24:4,7 which says "Moses wrote down all

the words of the L-rd"..and read from "the Sefer HaBrit (Book of

the Covenant)." On the other "book," the Sefer HaChayyim,

referred to elsewhere in Scripture, see Ex. 32:33.

The Moshiach is Immanuel ("G-d-with-us"), the Word of G-d (G-d's

Wisdom, His Son) who descended from heaven to Mount Sinai to

dwell "with us" in the Devir (Kodesh HaKodeshim) of the

Tabernacle of the Tent of Meeting, where G-d pitches His Royal

Pavilion among His people and can only be approached with

Biblically specified blood sacrifice acceptably mediated.

The temporary Tent of Meeting that Moses set up before the

tabernacle was erected is mentioned in Ex. 33:11.


And Moses said unto G-d, Behold, when I come unto the children of

Israel, and shall say unto them, The G-d of your fathers hath

sent me unto you; and they shall say to me, What is his name?

what shall I say unto them?


And G-d said unto Moses, I AM WHO I AM: and he said, Thus shalt

thou say unto the children of Israel, I AM hath sent me unto you.

EXODUS 25:40

And see that thou make them after their pattern, which was shown

thee on the mountain.


A whole book of the Bible is devoted to underscoring the fact

that Biblical (as opposed to Talmudic) Judaism is a faith

requiring shefikhat dahm (shedding of blood) for the SELICHAT

AVON. On Mt. Sinai the L-rd made it clear that He could not be

truly honored as G-d without blood (7:37-38). We were bought at

great price, and all the blood of bulls and goats pointed to the

blood of the Lamb of G-d who takes away the sin of the world.

When we meditate on this book we see at what great price of blood

the world was redeemed. For, as in the institution of the Brit

Chadasha (Matt. 26:28), so the Sinai Covenant was instituted by

blood sacrifice (Ex. 24:3-8). In Leviticus we see that this is

emphasized with no less than eight types of offerings: the sin

offering [CHATTAT] (Lev. 4:1-35; 6:24-30) to atone for specific

unwitting sin; different animals or offerings were required,

depending on the rank of the offender--ruler, kohen, or common

person, poor person, very poor person; the offerer laid his hand

on the victim and identified with it (as we must identify with

Moshiach); this blood alone was put on the horns of the incense

altar (4:16-18) in the Holy Place; on the Yom Kippur, this blood

was taken into the Kodesh HaKodeshim and manipulated as for a

leprous unclean people (Lev. 14:7; 16:14). The kohen performed

ritual eating with part of the meat in the Beis Hamikdash area;

the Moshiach's Seder looks back to this since we are Brit

Chadasha kohanim (Yochanan 6:49-58).

Next, the guilt or trespass offering [ASHAM] (the same word is

predicted about the Moshiach in Isaiah 53:10) to atone for

unwitting sin requiring restitution (this was also eaten; read

Lev. 5:14-6:7; 7:1-7; whenever G-d or someone else was defrauded

or cheated of what was rightly his, this sacrifice was necessary.

Like the leper who, because of his uncleanness, defrauds G-d of

acceptable service and needs the cleansing blood applied to his

ears, hands, and feet (see 14:12-14), so we, who have defrauded

G-d of much service because of our uncleannesses, need the blood

of the Moshiach applied to our whole being.

Next, the holocaust [OLAH or burnt offering] to atone for

unwitting sins in general; the kohen had to keep the fire burning

continuously (Lev. 6:8-13) because the victim had to be burned

completely and there were sacrifices morning and evening. In the

L-rd's work the minister has to keep the fire of spiritual

awakening burning continuously by not neglecting the Word and

prayer and other ministry duties (see Acts 2:42; Heb. 10:25).

Next, the cereal offering [MINCHAH] to secure or retain good will

(not a blood sacrifice but fine flour, olive oil, and

frankincense offered along with such); unless the offering was

for his own sin, the kohen could eat part of it (6:16; 1:9), and

this was one of his "mitzbe'ach rights," just as we have certain

mitzbe'ach rights at the Table of the L-rd that unbelievers have

no right to share (Heb. 13:10).

Next, the peace offering [SHLOMIM] or fellowship offering to

render thanks to G-d; the kohen took the sacrificial meat and the

cakes or wafers and gave them back to the repentant choteh to eat

wherever he chose. This is a picture of the privileges and

benefits that accompany the ministry of the laity and also points

to the Moshiach's Tish.

Next, the drink offering [NESECH] was denied the kohen and

completely poured out, just as our lives must be wholly expended

for the L-rd (see II Tim. 4:6) and we must not get involved in

civilian pursuits (II Tim. 2:4); (in addition there was the thank

offering [TODAH] for a blessing received,

Next, the vow offering [NEDER] upon completion of a vow, and the

freewill offering [N'DAVAH]"from a glad heart" (a voluntary

offering, such as was given at the three major feasts: Pesach,

Shavuos and Sukkot).

In some of these sacrifices, hands are laid on the victim, which

must be without flaw, and the victim then, with this physical

contact, becomes (through the gracious gift of saving emunah) a

substitute, and a vicarious kapporah is thereby appropriated for

the choteh (see Leviticus 1:4). With the touch of the hand and

the emunah of the believer, the sin transfers to the victim whose

bloody death expiates (removes) the chet from the choteh and

propitiates (appeases) the wrath or anger of G-d against sin.

Thus the sin is covered or atoned for. In Leviticus 4:1-3 we see

that sin doesn't get off scot-free...somebody has to pay. We see

the bull come forward to pay, just as later we see the perfect

victim, the filial Word of G-d the man Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach

Yehoshua, come forward to pay (as foretold in Isaiah 53). In

Leviticus 4:15 we see the zekenim of the community lay their

hands upon the head, just as later they unwittingly laid their

hands upon the head of the eternal Word Himself, the Moshiach

Kohen-Lamb. In this respect the Moshiach's death was not only an

Asham it was also a Chattat that is, a sin offering for the whole

community. In fact all of the sacrifices find their fulfillment

in the death of the Moshiach. On Yom Kippur, the Kohen Gadol

lays both of his hands on the head of the victim, confesses over

it all the perverse sins and transgressions of the people,

transfering them to the head of the doomed victim, who will bear

[NASAH] them away outside the makhaneh (camp) to the wilderness

where it will die (notice Lev. 16:22 and Isaiah 53:12 "He bore

the sin of many"). The covenant of salt referred to in Lev. 2:13

symbolizes permanence, which is an aspect of both salt's

preservative quality and G-d's covenant love for his people.

G-d spoke to Moses about such critically important matters from

the Ohel Moed (Tent of Meeting) (Lev. 1:1). And the chesed

Hashem is emphasized in the fact that Aaron, although he had made

a golden calf for the people and was completely unworthy to be a

minister (like Shliach Kefa and Rav Sha'ul), and although he in

no way earned by zechus the personal relationship to the King of

Kings that the Covenant offered, nevertheless, the grace of G-d

was such that G-d revealed to Moses how He wanted to be

worshipped in the Mishkan. Then G-d had Moses ordain Aaron and

instruct him to perform the holy duties of a kohen as are written

out in this book, the book of Leviticus. Nevertheless, not many

should become teachers and engage in the kohen's service of

teaching, since those who teach will be judged with greater

strictness (Ya'akov 3:1), and Leviticus warns us several times

about what will happen to kohanim who are careless in their

duties. In Leviticus 4:31 it says, "Thus the kohen shall make

atonement for him and he shall be forgiven." The perfect Word of

G-d, who came to Moses with this oracle, Himself came later as

our eternal kohen (Psalm 110:4) and made expiation for us with

his own flawless life poured out in a bloody death so that we

could be forgiven. This is "the ram of the guilt offering" (Lev.

5:16) that G-d promised to provide for Abraham (Genesis 22:11-14;

Isa. 53:l0). Leviticus 9 promises the glorious Presence of the

L-rd will appear to you if the enjoined sacrifice is accepted

(9:1,5-7, 23); Yehoshua is the Word of G-d's Presence appearing

among us as Immanuel (God-with-us). Notice I Cor. 15:5f says "he


In chapter 10 we see that two kohanim went beyond what is written

and the L-rd permanently retired them from their S'MICHA

(ordination), just as many great spiritual leaders, involved in

the "illicit fire" of wine, women and financial corruption, have

likewise been ingloriously defrocked and wiped out of the

ministry by the L-rd. If we know the Moshiach and we are kohanim

who have entered the Tent of Meeting, then why do we break the

law and drunkenly crave wine (Lev. 10:9)? If you are in the

L-rd's ministry, you cannot go anywhere you want or do anything

you want; you must not go outside the entrance of the Tent of

Meeting lest you die" (10:7). We must not touch anything

unclean, lest we grieve the Ruach Hakodesh and break our Rev.

3:20 communion with the L-rd, to which Lev. 10:17 points. If

anyone thinks that he is so gifted and invaluable to the L-rd

that he can get away with secret sin, he should remember that G-d

had for kohanim only Aaron's four sons and G-d put half of them

to death! No man is indispensible with G-d; all of us can be

eliminated and replaced (G-d replaced the whole people of Israel

in the wilderness); so we should meditate on this book and fear

G-d. G-d seems to be saying in Lev. 10:2-3, "Offer right

sacrifices, O ministers, or you will be sacrificed." The

eye-witnessed detail in Lev. 10:5 reminds us of Acts 5:1-11 where

two other ministers committed high-handed sin. Aaron's sons

deliberately shunned the fire from G-d (Lev. 9:24) and offered

unholy fire (10:1) of their own choosing.

In chapter 13, we see that G-d's minister must examine the flock

and sometimes infected members must be quarantined and dealt with

apart from the others. Suppose you as a spiritual leader

interviewed a lonely bachelor with a history of fornication and

suppose he was seeking admission to your ministry because he was

"lonely" for lady companionship. Would you see this as "leprosy"

and quarantine him? Or would you play the Jewish matchmaker and

rush to "meet his needs?" We need to make sure that all of us

keep our "itch" (Lev. 13:30) under the examination of the Lord's

body through faithful submission to the House of G-d where we've

been called. Lev. 16:2 tells us about the Parokhet (or curtain

veiling the Kodesh HaKodashim) and about the Aron Kodesh (the

Holy Ark) and regarding the atonement cover or Kaporet where G-d

Himself appears. In Rom. 3:25 the word (ilastE/rion is the word

for Moshiach's sacrifice of atonement, and it is a direct

reference to this Greek word which is also found here in the

Septuagint translation of Lev. 16:2. So Yehoshua is where G-d

appears in holy sacrifice. Yehoshua sprinkles the nations in a

cosmic Yom Kippur sacrifice, according to Isaiah 52:15, since he

is the cosmic and eternal kohen of Psalm 110:4. Aza'zel is

generally translated "scapegoat" in Lev. 16:10. It cannot mean

demon (see Lev. 17:7).

In chapter 18 polygamy (18:18) and homosexuality (18:22) are

condemned and sexual sins are made one of the grounds for exile

which is threatened (compare 18:25 to 18:28; also 26:34). Since

the illicit and incestuous unions in Leviticus 18 seem to be

referred to in Acts 15:20 and Matthew 19:9, a case can be made

that Moshiach Yehoshua allowed no other grounds for divorce and

remarriage (other than porneia). Porneia would have been the

grounds for the annulment of Yosef's marriage to Miryam had she

been guilty of this kind of sexual deception during the

engagement period (see Matthew 1:19), and in that case had he

remarried he would be considered married only once (I Timothy

3:2). Other than these types of exceptions, Yehoshua considered

the marriage vow indissoluble. If one intends to be a leader in

G-d's work and if one knows that his calling entails it, one

should seek ordination, not necessarily a prestigious academic

degree. The Bible says nothing about prestigious degrees (except

that Moshiach Yehoshua condemns the idolatrous and caste-creating

use of titles in the L-rd's House -- Matthew 23:5-12), but it

says plenty (even in Leviticus) about ordination! Do you think

someone should not have to possess a medical license (that can be

revoked if they engage in malpractice) if they want to be a

doctor or a medical healer of bodies? If this is true, why do

you think you should be able to lead in the L-rd's work without a

similar recognized appointment holding you accountable for your

moral and doctrinal integrity? Just as Exodus gives minute

details for the building of the Mishkan, so Leviticus gives

minute details for how the kohanim are to be ordained so they can

be overseers who inspect the worshippers according to the exact

laws and regulations protecting the holiness of G-d's people.

G-d wants quality control and quality control inspectors to

insure holiness in his worshippers. This is why Shliach Sha'ul

lays down qualifying principles for the standards ministers must

keep (see 1 Timothy 3 and Titus 1). Anti-clericalism is the

renunciation of the ordained ministry and is a reaction against

clericalism, wherein the clergy is turned into a caste system

that abuses ministerial privileges and lords it over the laity.

But anti-clericalism is itself a sin against G-d's Word because

G-d does want mesharetim (ministers, servants) and G-d does want

them authorized and accountable to those who appointed them.

In Lev. 8:22-32 we see the ordination ceremony. Moses

officiates. (See also Ex. 29:19-34 and its description.) Notice

that a man cannot ordain himself. Aaron and his sons are

dependent on the G-d who called them to dress them in the holy

garments of a kohen using his "dresser" Moses. The minister's

hands, ears, end feet are made holy and sanctified and

consecrated for avodas kodesh by the purifying blood. From now

on, everything the minister touches, or listens to, and every

place he frequents must be part of his holy business as a kohen

because it is all under the blood (see Lev. 8:23,30). The

minister's hands have been filled with holy work and he must be

about G-d's holy business (see 8:26-28). G-d will uniquely

sustain the minister in all this (Ex. 29:33), but the minister

must eat the offering G-d provides in the place where G-d assigns

him (8:31-36) and not journey out in his own stubborn will to

minister wherever he pleases. To do so might mean the death of

his ministry (see Lev. 8:35). These are some of the many deep

spiritual truths in Lev. 8, and there is a sense in which these

truths apply to both lay and ordained ministers, though the

specific teachings regarding ordination are emphasized.

In Leviticus 26:39-45, G-d promises he will expel and return the

Jewish people to the land of Israel as part of his moral dealings

with the world. Therefore, how can anyone write a treatise on

ethics and leave such matters out entirely? Shliach Sha'ul

didn't in his treatise on ethics called the Letter to the Romans

(Romans 9-11).

G-d is a land leaser and a leaser of harvests, according to

Leviticus 25:13-24. The Holy Land belongs to Him, and even the

Jewish people are aliens there resident with G-d. He will throw

unclean tenants out of his Holy Mishkan (dwelling, tabernacle)

and off of His Holy Land (Admat Hakodesh). Therefore, we must

repent of all our uncleanesses and tremble at His Word.

Against the rationalizing reductionism of the Midrash (Leviticus

Rabbah vii), Leviticus does not say the study of the Torah will

fulfill the imperatives of its commands. Leviticus 17:11 demands

divinely acceptable sacrificial blood, not mere Torah study.

Those who say that Leviticus gives no warrant for a Messianic

re-interpretation of its text should remember one important fact.

If a later canonical prophet of the Holy Tanakh points to the

Torah and gives it a typological Messianic meaning (as Isaiah

does by apocalyptically applying the word (asham) from Leviticus

to the Davidic Servant of the L-rd in Isaiah 53:10 and the word

NAZAH "sprinkle" from Leviticus to Isaiah 52:15), then a

Messianic re-interpretation of Leviticus is in fact implicit in

the Tanakh, and is not merely read in gratuitously by Messianic

believers. In the Torah, and especially in Leviticus, blood was

always associated with G-d's saving covenant and Holy Word, and

the Sovereign L-rd enthroned above the atonement cover over the

ark of testimony cannot be approached without biblically

prescribed blood acceptably mediated (note the Kohen Gadol on Yom

Kippur -- Lev. 16).

Since G-d is holy, there is no shadow or unclean thing in Him.

He is living; the unclean are dead. He must cover or remove or

atone for sin to stay in contact with unclean sinners seeking His

fellowship. We cannot experience His presence in congregational

worship unless we approach Him with acceptable sacrifice removing

our uncleanness. We bring the sacrifice he requires to his House

but not merely to the minister; we bring this sacrifice to the

L-rd Himself as the worshippers do in the book of

Leviticus. Meditating on Leviticus can help any believer

maintain a sacrifice of holiness: a clean mind, a clean body, a

clean house, clean clothes, and clean contacts (see Leviticus 15)

because we have been made clean and then holy or set apart for

exclusive service in Yehoshua, and every aspect of our lives must

reflect this. However, the dirty, the poor, the helpless are not

excluded from G-d's concern and neither should they be from ours

(19:14,32; 25:17,36,39-43).

Jewish feasts are Pesach and Chag HaMatzot, Shavuos (variously

called First Fruits or Feast of Weeks or the Feast of Harvest,

Rosh Hashanah (Trumpets) or the Jewish New Year, Day of Atonement

(Yom Kippur), Tabernacles or the Festival of Booths (Sukkot) (see

the reference to this festival's esrog and the lulav or palm

branch in Lev. 23:40), with its concluding day, technically a

holiday in itself, Shemini Atzaret, the Eighth Day of Assembly

referred to in Yochanan 7:37 and Lev. 23:39. (Purim is in Esther

and Channukah is predicted in Daniel 8:11 and mentioned in

Yochanan 10:22). The Jewish people rest on Shabbat (pronounced

Shabbos by Ashkenazic [European-origin] or Yeshiva-trained Jews).

Seven weeks after Pesach is Shavuos, the rest period for

harvesters, and this period is supposed to be literally counted

day by day from the waving of the sheaf (Hebrew Omer -- Lev.

23:10) by the kohen when the coming harvest is dedicated to the

L-rd until Shavu'os? when the harvest arrives. (In the Brit

Chadasha the Lamb of G-d was offered at Pesach and the Harvest

arrived seven weeks later at Shavu'os?). The nation itself rests

on the seventh month at Rosh Hashanah. Every seventh year is a

sabbatical when the land is to rest, and every seventh seven of

years everything is to rest, slaves are to be released, etc--this

is the year of Jubilee (see the 70 weeks of sevens in Daniel 9

when the Messianic Age brings in the final rest.) [On Shemittah

see Deut. 15:1f]

The Ner Tamid, or perpetual light above the synagogue ark and its

Torah scroll derives from Lev. 24:2.

Notice this key verse.

"You shall be holy because I am holy" (Lev. 19:2). The word

"holy" is a key word in Leviticus, appearing there more than any

other word. But Leviticus 19:15 is the "kingly law" of Yehoshua:

"You must love your neighbor as yourself." (Also see Deut.10:19.)

To love our neighbor there are times when we must with gentleness

and love, respecting his dignity as a creature in the divine

image, nevertheless rebuke him. G-d warns that we will incur

guilt ourselves if we don't rebuke him (Lev. 19:17). Sins of a

deliberate, willful, "high-handed" nature (remember Korah? --

Nu.16) could not be atoned for (Num. 15:30-31) and the book of

Hebrews uses this fact to warn the apostate against any

deliberate, willful renunciation of the L-rd. Deliberate

idolaters, Shabbos-breakers, blasphemers, murderers, adulterers,

false-witnesses and the like who disobeyed the Aseret HaDebrot

(the Ten Commandments) with a high hand were put to death in the

Sinai Covenant dispensation, and their sins were not atoned for

(see also Heb. 5:2; 6:4-6: 10:26-31; Deu. 17:12; Ps. 19:13).

This is why Shliach Sha'ul is quick to point out that his violent

crimes against the Messianic Jews were done in ignorance (I Tim.

1:13). The way some of the Pharisees are speaking against the

Ruach Hakodesh prompts Moshiach Yehoshua to warn them about

sinning beyond the reach of atonement and forgiveness.

Moses completed the building of the Mishkan (a type of portable

royal pavilion-palace for G-d to dwell in as His people traveled

with Him toward the Promised Land of new life) just as G-d showed

him on the holy mountain of Sinai, exactly one year after the

Exodus (Ex. 40:l7). But, just as G-d sometimes gives us

something first and only then shows us what to do with it, Moses

did not receive all these detailed instructions in Leviticus

until the month following the completion of the building of the

tabernacle. Lev. 27:34 tells us that these are the mitzvot? that

G-d gave Moses during the year that the people of Israel were at

Mount Sinai. These were given to insure the purity of the kohen

and the nation of kohanim, and to insure that G-d's House would

be kept clean enough for such a holy G-d to dwell there. The

decontamination process we see in Lev. 14:34 for houses infested

with dry-rot or fungus is necessary for these houses to be

inhabitable by a clean and holy people; similarly the Day of

Atonement provides a function to make it possible for G-d to

continue to dwell in His House in the midst of His people.

G-d made sure the book of Leviticus was included in the Bible so

that the people might be "no more dull of understanding" when it

comes to His Holy Covenant faith, His Holy presence, His

holiness, and His acceptable sacrifice.

I Yochanan 1:7 sees the death of the Moshiach as a sin offering.

Yochanan 1:29 sees it as a vicarious burnt offering, and Hebrews

sees it "outside the camp (Lev. 4:12; Heb. 13:13). The author of

Hebrews proves that Yehoshua was a kohen, for only kohanim could

offer the blood. As Ps. 110:4 and Isaiah 53 was fulfilled in our

Moshiach Kohen so this verse in Lev. 1:20 was fulfilled in Him:

V'Chiper Aleichem HaKohen V'Nislach Lahem. The kohen shall make

atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven. The Kohen Gadol

was anointed with oil (Lev. 8:10-12) just as the coming Moshiach

("Anointed One") Kohen would be the king anointed by the Ruach

Hakodesh (Isa. 42:1; Ps. 110:4).

Everything starts when you are confronted by sin (Lev. 4:28).

Then there is the vicarious part (you must touch Moshiach

Yehoshua -- Lev. 4:29) and the mediatorial part (the kohen makes

the kill and offers the blood, which is what He did).

When the kohen changes clothes, this typifies our regeneration as

kohanim of the Brit Chadasha (Lev. 6:10; Rev. 1:6).

Notice Lev. 9:l-6 gives us the order of G-d's salvation in that

first there is sacrifice and suffering, then there is theophany

and glory. This is one of the passages Shliach Sha'ul is

referring to in I Cor. 15 when he says the Moshiach died, was

buried and appeared, according to the Scriptures. Which

Scriptures? Scriptures like these in Lev. 9:1-6. Lev. 14:34 says

that Israel has been given to the Jewish people as a homeland but

Lev. 26:32-39 makes the point that by no means will they have

unconditional security in Israel if they sin in their unbelief in

the Scriptures (see 18:24-25,29; 20:22-26). The land will cry

out as it did against Cain and vomit them out.

This is a summary of some of the Mitzvot or commandments and

other points of interest to us in the book of Leviticus.

The Mikveh is variously prescribed in Lev. 15.

The key purpose of much of Leviticus is given in Lev. 15:31,

"Thus you shall keep the people of Israel separated from their

uncleanness, so that they do not die in their uncleanness by

defiling my mishkan that is in their midst. The law of kashrut?

(fit, proper foods) comes from Lev. 17:13 and 11:1-47.

Why many ultra-orthodox Jews wear the Pa'ot is given in Lev.


Hebrews 10:25 was written with Lev. 19:30 in mind.

Astrology, New Age practitioners and every kind of occult lure is

rejected by Lev. 19:31; 20:6,27.

Sacrificing children (as in abortion) to the G-d Molech is

forbidden in Lev. 20:2-5.

Homosexuality is forbidden in 18:22 and 20:13.

Modern day Israeli jurisprudence needs to study Lev. 24:22 and

19:34 and look more kindly on Gentile believers? who want to live

in the Holy Land. Also see Ex. 12:49.

Lev. 27:30 mentions the tithe called Ma'aser meaning one-tenth.

LEVITICUS 16:14-17

14. And he (Aaron the Kohen Gadol) shall take of the blood of

the bull, and sprinkle (see Isa. 52:15, same word) it with his

finger on the front of the atonement cover; and before the

atonement cover shall he sprinkle of the blood with his finger

seven times.

15. Then shall he kill the goat of the sin offering, that is for

the people, and bring his blood within the veil, and do with that

blood as he did with the blood of the bull, and sprinkle it upon

the atonement cover and before the atonement cover.

16. And he shall make an atonement for the holy place, because

of the uncleanness of the children of Israel, and because of

their transgressions in all their sins: and so shall he do for

the tabernacle of the congregation, that remaineth among them in

the midst of their uncleanness.

17. And there shall be no man in the tabernacle of the

congregation when he goeth in to make an atonement in the holy

place, until he come out, and have made en atonement for himself,

and for his household, and for all the congregation of Israel.


Numbers tells the story of a remnant going forward while most

people backslide or lose their way in rebellion and self-will.

Israel is on her way from Mount Sinai to the plains of Moab on

the border of Canaan, where, through the temptations of the

Moabites and Midianites, many will succomb to "Balaam's error" of

idolatry and immorality (see Numbers 25; 31:16 and II Shliach

Kefa 2:15 and Jude II) and rebel against the L-rd and His leaders

and die in the wilderness. "Balaam's error" surely turned the

L-rd against Israel then and it will turn the L-rd against the

Brit Chadasha kehillah today, though many who are lukewarm in the

Brit Chadasha kehillah think such sins are not so serious. But

Phinehas was the zealous minister (he was a kohen and, as the

grandson of Aaron, he serves as a "military chaplain" in Num.

31:6) who put to death Cozbi the immoral Midianite woman and her

Israelite lover (25:1-15), because of this same kind of sin,

which precipitated the holy war against the Midianites. Num.

10-21 tells of the 38 years, almost 40 years (1447-1407 BCE) of

wandering that the rebellious Israelites were divinely

sentenced to, wandering not only in the Transjordan but

particularly in the five different wildernesses of the Sinai

Peninsula: the Wildernesses of Zin, Shur, Etham, Paran, and Sin.

In eleven days they traveled from Mt. Sinai (Horeb) to the hill

country of the Amorites, Kadesh-barnea, which is about 40 miles

south of Beersheba. G-d had given the Amorites over to them, but

this became the fateful turning point of unbelief, and it was not

till near the end of Moses' life, some thirty-eight years later,

that these Amorites (both Sihon and Og were Amorite kings--see

Deut. 3:8; 4:47) were defeated. The people of Israel were so

close and yet so far from the Promised Land, but it was at this

time that they rebelled and were defeated by the Amalekites (Num.

11:39-45). It says these latter defeated them because they

"presumed to go up to the heights of the hill country, even

though the ark of the covenant of the L-rd, and Moses, had not

left the camp." If we run ahead of the leadership the L-rd has

assigned over us, we run the risk of spiritual defeat as


From the book of Numbers we can learn much about the function of

administration (Greek diakonia), meaning the spiritual authority

to rule or administer a ministry--see Romans 12:7). Those who say

they lack this gift (and can therefore excuse themselves) are

wrong, because the Parable of the Talents emphasizes that we all

will have to give an accounting for our stewardship of our

talents (Matt. 25:14-30; Rom. 14:10; II Cor 5:10) and this would

include the way we administer the ministries G-d entrusts with

us. The message of Numbers is that we must humbly learn to

administer our assigned duties, because unclean rebellion will

bring chaos and death in the wilderness.

Num. 1:2 says, "Take a census of the whole Israelite community."

A first principle of Brit Chadasha kehillah growth strategy is to

count what you've got, and then to count what you've had, and

then to see if you are growing, and if so, at what rate. Here it

is ominous statistics gathering indeed, because we know from

14:29 this is in reality a body count of those rebels who would

be put to death in the wilderness for failing to carry their

burden of obedience in order to see the Promised Land (see

26:63-65). Compare the army muster in chapter 1 with the army

muster in chapter 26. In the L-rd's march to victory, the rebels

fell out of step with their G-d and were "numbered" for death and

were not called out to be part of the victorious assembly (kahal

or ecclessia from the root meaning "called out," that is, a

congregation called out from a world alienated from G-d, the Brit

Chadasha kehillah, the community of the elect, the chosen

people). G-d "had their number." Moses makes the first count

with Aaron and then, a generation later, shortly before his own

death, makes the last count with Aaron's surviving son Eleazar

(Aaron's generation having died off) serving as kohen gadol.

When you look at the white hair of the aging Moses and when you

look at Joshua and Caleb, you see that only non-rebels live to

see the promise fulfilled. The rebels lose the vision and perish

in the wilderness (Prov. 29:18). This is an important theological

idea in the book. The Levites are numbered in chapters 3 and 4,

and they are literal stand-ins for the Firstborn of Israel who

were in turn given to the L-rd in exchange for the Firstborn of

Egypt (see 3:11-13). Chapter 2 shows the "decent and in order"

way the tribal camp was masterfully arranged and administered by

their true Leader, the L-rd of Glory.

Num. 1:16 speaks the chieftains elected by their tribes, so the

election of zekenim (elders) and leaders by ministers and

congregations is not the injection of unbiblical politics into

Brit Chadasha kehillah polity or government. Therefore, we are to

be members of a congregation, having been "enrolled" or "counted"

or "numbered" [PAKAD] for war (1:3). The idea here is of a group

of troops divinely summoned into assembly to be counted and

enlisted by means of a military roll call and we are not to sniff

at or run from congregational business meetings and elections as

beneath us, though the danger of overweening bureaucratic control

and politicking in the L-rd's body is real.

Num. 1:47-53 shows there has to be a set-apart leadership to

protect the purity of the faith from the distortions of the

ignorant and the unqualified. The ministers literally camp around

the Word (the Aseres Ha-Dibros or Ten Commandments are in the Ark

of the Covenant) to protect sound doctrine. Therefore, semicha or

ordination is G-d's will for those accountable for sound doctrine

and the care of souls. Aaron and his sons (the kohanim descended

from Levi through Kohath and Aaron--see Ex. 6:16-20; Num.

4:5,15,19; 18:1-20) are distinguised from the Levites, who do not

touch the holy things or enter the sacred areas, on pain of

death, but assist the kohanim (see 1:47-53; 3:5-37; 18:2-7),

which non-Levites are not permitted to do. This is important to

keep in mind to understand the sin of Korah because as a Levite

he tried to usurp the kohen's authority. This was also the sin of

Antiochus Epiphanes who allowed the kehunnah to be usurped. "He

has allowed you to approach him, and all your brother Levites

with you; yet you seek the kehunnah as well" (16:10). Every

minister-baiting rebellious layman, every false teacher and false

prophet commits the sin of Korah (see Jude 11).

Chapter 2 highlights the wisdom of G-d as an administrator with

each tribe given its own position, each person his own clan,

family, and tribal grouping, each tribe its own order of breaking

camp, its own assigned leadership hierarchy, its own identifying

banner, its own order of march, its own position relative to the

mobile central sanctuary, with the Levites in the middle

protecting the Mishkan (Tabernacle) and with the tribe of Judah

(the tribe of G-d's anointed leader, the Moshiach) leading out as

the vanguard and with the tribe of Dan coming last as the

rearguard. Here is a place where the Word of G-d and the Moshiach

are connected in the Tanakh, as in the Logos-Moshiach in Yochanan

chapter 1. Judah is the tribe of the Moshiach (Genesis 49:10)

and is therefore the first to break camp (Numbers 2:3,9) and

makes the first offering (7:12) and sets out first in the march

from Sinai (10:14). See Proverbs 8:23 where G-d's Wisdom, His

Word, is "first" as well as Judges 20:18, where the Moshiach's

tribe is likewise called "first."

Notice in 3:5-10 there is full delegation of the work of the

ministry throughout the tribe of Levi, just as there should be

today in the Body of the L-rd. 4:16 says, "Responsibility shall

rest with Eleazar son of Aaron the kohen for the lighting oil."

Each believer has a responsibilty in the ministry that should be

delegated to him. Shliach Sha'ul says, "See to it that you

fulfill (the responsibilities) of your ministry (Col. 4: 17)."

In 3:11-13 we see the Levites as a type of the elect, those

called to be G-d's own possession, those who are not their own,

but have been bought with a price (3:44-51). However, since they

have no land and receive the MA'ASER (tithe) in compensation

(18:21-24), there is a definite corollary between them and the

L-rd's ministers.

In chapter 5 we witness a trial by ordeal for an allegedly

unfaithful wife that points forward to a better kind of probe,

the word of knowledge, a spiritual gift that has replaced this

Sinai Covenant lie detector test and, moreover, has made it as

applicable to men as to women. (See I Cor. 12:8)

In chapter 6 we see an example of a vow of commitment that the

laity, men or women, could take, the ascetic NAZIR (Nazarite)

vow, where they set themselves apart for temporary withdrawal

from the world unto G-d and this included avoiding intoxicating

beverages, contact with the dead, and cutting the hair.

Chapter 7 emphasizes that when one initiates any type of new

ministry one should first dedicate it formally to the L-rd.

Moreover, every Sabbatical year (seventh year) the unfarmed land

rested (Lev. 25:1-7 on Shemittah, see also Deut. 15:1f) and the

children of Israel rededicated themselves by gathering on Sukkoth

(the Feast of Tabernacles) and publically reciting the covenant

provisions of the Torah to which Israel under Moses had committed

itself (see Deut. 31:10; 15:9-18.). Also at the end of seven

Shabbaths of years of seven times seven years, the so-called Year

of Jubilee [Yovel] the Hebrew slaves went free, debt was

forgiven, and land was returned to the original tribal occupants

(Lev. 25:8-54). The poor were liberated from the debts and the

enslavement to the rich into which they had fallen, and the rich,

who had accumulated vast land acquisitions, were divested of some

of their filthy lucre. All this happened on Yom Kippur every 49

years (Lev. 25:8-9) and such is the essential background for

understanding Isa. 61 as Moshiach Yehoshua quotes it in Luke

4:18. This was theoretically how the law worked, if it were

actually enforced, which would keep too much wealth from falling

into the hands of a few. Unfortuately evil rulers do not always

enforce just and merciful laws, and the period of the 70 years of

Exile was actually a punishment for violating this part of the

Torah, as G-d said in effect, "I am not mocked: if you will not

give me my Sabbaths and let the land rest every seven years, I

will take my Sabbaths anyway and you will sit in Exile waiting

for the land to rest until its appointed Sabbaths are completed"

(see Lev. 26:34-35; II Chron. 36:20-21).

Chapter 8:6,15,21,22 show that your ministry begins with your

water initiation, and therefore we need to create pre-tevilah

instructional materials and classes so that we give Moshiach's

tevilah only to serious people willing to became serious talmidim

and lay ministers, not double-minded people intent on

backsliding. This means we must have pre-tevilah as well as

post-tevilah classes.

Chapter 8:19 shows where Shliach Sha'ul gets his ecclesiology.

He sees ordained ministers as MATANOT (gifts) to the Brit

Chadasha kehillah in Ephes. 4:11.

Chapter 9:15-23 shows that we must stay deep in prayer in order

to discern when the L-rd is moving us out in a new venture and

when he is encamping us. Many prayerless grumblers, their

feelings or their pride hurt by some imagined slight, stay with a

congregation only until their patience runs out or they get bored

and then they drift to something else, which instead of another

congregation may be the world, because these malcontents often

backslide completely. They moved without looking for the cloud

ascending from the Mishkan, without watching for the place where

it settled down (9:15-23). Their ears were not attuned to the

sound of the two silver trumpets, one blowing to assemble the

leaders (which departing backslider cares if he is a leader?) and

both trumpets blowing to assemble the whole congregation to move

out together (10:1-10). See I Thes. 4:13-18 on how our ears are

to be tuned to the rapture's trumpet. Read Ps. 90 to see the

wrath of G-d being revealed from Shomayim (Rom. 1:18) against

Israel in the wilderness.

Chapter 10:8 says that the Israelites didn't make war without

music. This shows how important the ministers of music are in

the L-rd's body. From 10:11 to 14:45 we march with the

Israelites from Sinai to Kadesh-barnea, which takes us no more

than 2 months. The complaining started here in the wilderness of

Paran and the Israelites provoked G-d to anger (11:1-3,4-35; Psa.

78:26-31; 106:13-l5). But, when Moses is rebelled against, we are

told that Moses is greater than a prophet and in this sense a

unique mediator of revelation (12:6-8); it surely is in this

sense that the Moshiach will be "like me" (Deut. 18:15), but he

too will have his Shliach Kefa's and his Judas's rebel against


Chapter 11:25b says of those set apart for ministry with the 15th

century BCE lawgiver Moses, "And when the Spirit that was on him

(Moses) rested upon them, they prophesied but did not continue."

Is this unfortunate situation also true of you? Yehuda 1:20 says

that we should continue to daven in the Spirit (meaning leshonot)

as we build ourselves up in the most holy faith, studying and

meditating on the Scriptures.

In chapter 12 Miriam the prophetess has to be physically healed

to cure her of a rebellious mouth. Her offense was that she

slandered G-d's leader. 13:32 says that 10 of the 12 spies

slandered the vision of G-d's prophet and so turned the people

away from it, refusing to urge the people to conquest. For that

crime a whole generation wandered in the wilderness under divine

wrath and a death sentence (14:21-23, 34-35). Let us not give an

evil report by saying, "It can't be done here, the giants are too

big!" Such an unbelieving leader will be doomed to become a mere

caretaker of wandering dead men walking in their own blind flesh.

Numbers is a book that shows the folly of wandering in the lusts

of one's flesh. Num. 15:1-21:20 tell the story of this wilderness

wandering. And, lest the backslider harden his heart and go all

the way and apostatize, Num. 15:22-31 warns (along with Heb.

10:26) that there is no kapporah for deliberate, defiant sin. The

wilderness period was remembered by some of the prophets as the

time of Israel's apostasy (Amos 5:25-26), when she did not keep

covenant faithfulness with her L-rd (see Josh. 5:2-9 and compare

Acts 21:21). The TSITSIT (Num. 15:38) were to be worn to remind

the Israelites not to forget the word and follow their own lusts.

But the final refutation to the folly of the old-timers who focus

on the "giants" and say "it can't be done" is that it in fact was

done, with 1,820 fewer people the second time around, when the

Israelites finally went in and possessed the Promised Land

(compare the census in 26:51 and 1:46).

Chapter 18:21-32 says that not just anyone is to receive the

MA'ASER [tithe] but only G-d's ordained leadership. Some love the

tithes but not the years of ministerial training and the

accountability of ordination that goes with them.

Chapter 19:1-10 shows that because of our uncleanness we must

have faith in the kaparrah of Moshiach and have a tevilah into

him, for he is the antitype of the red cow who died outside the

camp and became the tevilah that cleanses us from our sins


Chapter 20:12 gives the ominous warning that even Moses would die

outside the Promised Land like Miriam (20:1) and Aaron (20:22)

because, although he was beseiged by rebellion from his own

mishpochah and others, Moses did not trust G-d enough to keep his

head in all situations (II Tim. 4:5) and did not obediently honor

the L-rd who delivers us from all our critics and slanderers.

Moses did not honor G-d as holy before the people and so he too

lost a blessing (27:14) Moses should have known that no weapon

formed against us will prosper. Then he would have honored G-d

as holy before the people no matter how they taxed their leader's

patience. The disobedience of the people does not excuse the

disobedience of the leader.

Notice that bitterness against G-d's leaders is just a step

removed from bitterness toward G-d himself (21:5).

Chapter 21:8 points toward the One who, though He was the Ben

HaElohim and without sin, yet he took the form of the likeness of

sinful flesh (Romans 8:3), the flesh of the corrupt children of

the Serpent (Gen. 3:15; Yochanan 8:44), and was lifted up, so

that men might look on him and live. See Yochanan 3:14-15. The

snake Moses lifted up on a standard at the end of the wilderness

wanderings, before the the conquest of the Transjordan began,

points to the Ben HaAdam Moshiach being lifted up and drawing all

men unto himself (Yochanan 12:32).

Balaam's donkey speaks because "the L-rd opened its mouth"

(22:28). The Syrian prophet Balaam with his talking donkey

points toward Saul the persecutor, who, on his horse on the way

to Damascus, wanted to curse the people of G-d, the Messianic

Jews, but could only bless them (24:9). Like the talking snake in

Gen. 3, this talking donkey is placed at a cross-roads as far as

human destiny is concerned. Those who make the decision of faith

will be blessed (24:9; Gen. 12:3). Balak (bah-LAHk) is king of

Moab (his G-d is Chemosh--Num. 21:29). And he looks down from a

mountain and sees Israel camping tribe by tribe on his territory

as they are passing through on their way to the Promised Land.

He in league with the Midianites, whom Moses will defeat in Num.

31 and whom Gideon will have to fight later in the time of the

Judges. King Balak knew he needed divine help to oppose Israel,

so he looked for the type of professional preacher who is always

harshly denouncing everybody, so he could unleash such a maggid

on Moses and the Israelites and defeat them with curses. So

Balak begins by trying to tell Balaam what to preach and what to

prophesy and attempts to persuade this Gentile prophet Balaam

(beel-AHM) to curse the chosen people. Of course, we know that

Balaam will be killed later (31:8) and G-d knows that even his

donkey knows the fear of the L-rd better than Balaam, but for the

moment money does not corrupt his ministry (22:18). Later, even

illicit sex will become a source of corruption to the true faith

as well (25:1). The most important prophecy Balaam utters is

24:17 which is the KOKHAV (star) that shall come out of Jacob and

shall become the star of David, the Moshiach.

Notice how Korah starts a rebellion against Moses in chapter 16

even though Moses has taken nothing for himself (16:15). It is

important to note that the only thing that keeps the people from

going down to Sheol is that they do not rebel against G-d and his

leadership (16:26-34). Our muttering can be the death of us

(17:25). The battle cry of Brit Chadasha kehillah-splitting

rebels is Numbers 12:2-3.

Chapter 27 (also 36) speaks of the equal inheritance promised to

women, so the laws of inheritance included provisions for

daughters. This should be seen within the larger context of the

book as a whole, since Israel was herself nearly disinherited as

a nation on at least two occasions (see chapters 11 and 14).

Moses had married a non-Israelite (12:1) woman, a fact that might

have set a bad example for the people about the sanctity of their

inheritance, but this was actually just a pretext Aaron and

Miriam used to challenge the authority of Moses for the sake of

their own personal ambitions. We see that G-d grants us our

inheritance as a gift, but we still have to fight the good fight

and seek first the kingdom in order to enjoy it (note the tribes

of Gad, Reuben and the half tribe of Manasseh son of Joseph

received the Transjordan land as a gift but they still had to

fight with the other tribes first before, they could enjoy their

inheritance--see Num. 32).

Chapter 27:15-23 teaches that leaders should have assistants they

are equipping to take over their ministries (as Moses equipped

Joshua). The ministry can continue in a manner that is decent

and in order only when these transitions are anticipated and

prepared for.

See chapters 25 and 31:15-16 on the consequences of sexual sin.

Notice the Levites were given 48 towns but no land allotments.

Would it be a bad application of exegesis to say that the

Levitical towns and pastures (chapter 35) might be warrant for a

congregation providing its spiritual leader with a place to live


In 35:13 we see there were six cities of refuge. Even today,

people who have disagreements in one congregation seek refuge in

another. But where there has been a case of unrepented sin and a

person flees one congregation to join another as a kind of "city

of refuge," spiritual leaders should co-operate in matters of

intra-congregational discipline.

Notice that the kohanim and Levites are responsible to Aaron

(18:3). A congregational board and its shammashim should be

responsible to the congregational leader. A "board-run"

congregation is not Scriptural, because they can make the

congregational leader a mere errand boy to do their bidding, and

he loses his prophetic voice in the body. However, leadership

must be shared, as Jethro emphasized to Moses.

Yehoshua (Joshua) (called Yeshua in Nehemiah 8:17) is called the

Servant of the L-rd in Numbers 27:18, "the man in whom is (the)

Spirit," making him a prophetic sign of the One who is to come,

the Servant of the L-rd filled with "My Spirit" (see Isaiah

42:1). See also Zechariah 3:8; 6:12 where another later

Yehoshua is similarly pointed to as a portent or ominous sign of

the Moshiach.

The Bible of the Jewish Diaspora from the third century B.C.E.

until the Messianic era of Moshiach Yehoshua was the Greek, the

Septuagint. In Greek the name of Joshua/Yeshua/Yehoshua in

Nehemiah 8:17 and in the Torah is IEsous or Moshiach Yehoshua.

G-d always has his two witnesses because Deuteronomy 19:15 says

that everything has to be supported by two witnesses. So at

crucial junctures, like at the transition from the wilderness

into the Promised Land or at the return from the Exile, G-d had

as his two witnesses one man from the tribe of the Moshiach and

one man bearing the personal name of the Moshiach: that is, Caleb

from the tribe of Judah and "Yehoshua" (Joshua) entering the

Promised Land; and Zerubbabel from the tribe of Judah with

"Yehoshua" (the Kohen Gadol Joshua) returning from the Exile (see

the book of Zechariah). One set of two witnesses were raised up

from the "tomb" of Egypt and the wilderness, and the other set

were raised up from the "tomb" of the Babylonian Exile. Wherever

at least two witnesses meet, there is the L-rd with his true Brit

Chadasha kehillah in their midst.

Notice the elaborate dedication of the altar HAMITZBE'ACH in

Numbers 7.

The Israelites leave Mt. Sinai and eventually arrive in Moab

(Num. 22-36), with major stops at Hazeroth (10:11-12:15), Paran

(12:16-19:22), and Kadesh (20:1-21:4). There are some 18

encampments from Kadesh-barnea to the wilderness and back to

Kadesh-barnea (33:18-36). It is in the wilderness of Zin, at the

end of the wanderings, that Moses and Aaron anger G-d and are

also sentenced to die in the wilderness. Moab is the last stop,

where Moses' last will and testament, the book of Deuteronomy,

will be delivered. G-d commanded Moses to keep this travel diary

(Luke kept one undoubtedly in writing the book of Acts), and you

may wish some day that you had kept a spiritual diary. How could

Wesley have benefited the Brit Chadasha kehillah as he did with

his writing gift if he had not kept his journals?

Notice the L-rd speaks from the Mishkan in Numbers 1:1 and not

from Mt. Sinai, so the Word emanates from the tabernacle where

the glory of G-d resides. The Word of G-d will likewise

"tabernacle" in the Moshiach (Yochanan 1:14) and emanate from

Him. The Heavenly L-rd is travelling from Egypt to Israel

embodied in the tabernacle. The people, by murmuring against

Him, are opting out of being His heavenly fellow travellers. So

this paradigm will speak its object lesson for all time to Ideal


Kadesh-barnea, (kah-DESH bar-NAY-ah) an oasis at the southern

edge of Israel, is the area the Israelites used as a staging

arena for their conquest of Canaan (Numbers 13:26), encamping

there while their spies scouted the land (13-14; Deut. 1). It

was from there that Moses tries to have a successful "kehillah"

business meeting to vote to take the land, a vote that took 38

years to attain, because the rebels were wandering in the

wilderness until they returned to the same place nearly forty

years later (33:36-37). Aaron died there. It was also at this

place that the Israelites complained about the hardship of their

wanderings, so angering Moses that he struck the rock (Num.

20:1-13; Exod. 17:1-7) and forfeited his own marching privileges

with those who went in and possessed the land.

We can conclude our services with the Aaronic benediction

(6:24-26) remembering, if a woman lights the Shabbos candles,

that the Aaronic kohenim lit the seven-lamped menorah (8:1-4).

We need to approach the study of this book with "fear and

trembling" and with Rom. 15:4 and I Cor. 10:11-12 in mind.

Notice the death of the Kohen Gadol provides release for the

guilty (35:25) just as the death of the Moshiach-Kohen (Psalm

110; Isaiah 53) provides release for us.

"There was an order of march for the Israelites, company by

company, when they set out," (10:28) and so there is for us.

Know your leaders and loyally hang tough with them.

Important verses to meditate on: Num. 32:23. Are you qualified

for work relating to the OHEL MOED tent of meeting (see 4:35)?

You have been charged with a literal responsibility to carry

(4:47); do you know what it is, and are you doing it? The

Israelites all had people over them in the L-rd (7:2); do you

(Heb. 13:17)? They brought to the Lord's House talents and

valuable things that could be used in the service of the L-rd

(7:4-5); what are you bringing to the L-rd? Look at 10:10. Some

live in New York City, the largest Jewish city in the world, and

feel no obligation whatsoever to remember them with a messianic

congregation or a messianic calender. Hobab a relative of Moses

by marriage, is offered a blessing for continuing in Jewish

ministry (10:32): that blessing is offered to you. 10:33-34

speaks of seeking a resting place, and how G-d does this for

us--compare this theme in Heb. chps. 3 and 4. Compare Moses'

question in 11:13 to Moshiach Yehoshua's question to Philip in

Yochanan 6:5. Some get out of step with G-d because of a good

thing; but if we put a good thing before G-d, He may give us too

much of a good thing, until it becomes loathsome to us, even a


It says the Spirit rested upon them and they prophesied--11:25.

Compare Acts 19:6 and the tevilah in the Ruach Hakodesh. Meditate

on Num. 14. So often we have heard, "They will never be able to

start a messianic congregation. They are Gentiles. Jews will

never go for this. It's going to fall apart. There are two many

giants againt them!" See 16:13-14. Men blame leaders instead of

their own sins--16:14. Men make false accusations--16:15. Avoid

the waters of Meribah ("Quarreling")--20:13. We need a different

spirit, the spirit of Caleb -- 14:24. The rabbis say that the

Gentiles can be righteous by following the laws of Noah, but

15:15 says the same sacrifice is necessary for both Gentiles and


See 18:16 where you see the words PIDYON HABEN (the redemption of

the son) a ceremony on the 31st day of the firstborn Jewish boy's

life when five shekels (or silver dollars) are given to a Jewish

person, a Kohen, who buys the boy back or redeems him from the

L-rd, since all firstborn males of Israel belong to the L-rd.

This ceremony is not performed on a Shabbos and/or to the

firstborn of parents who are Kohens.


Scientists search for natural laws and governments enact civil

laws, but the greatest body of divine law ever given to man is

summed up by Moses in this book. Moses underlines the seriousness

and importance of Deuteronomy several times. He says that all

the words in it are "no trifling matter for you, but rather your

very life" (32:47; 4:1,3-4; 4:40). Indeed, with this book Moses

confronts all with life and death, exhorting all to choose life

(30:15,19-20). The life-span of individual Jewish people and

their protection from deportation and exile, their physical

health, prosperity, the well-being of their children, the esteem

of their nation in the eyes of the world (4:6-8), and their good

fortune in every aspect of life, even longevity of life (11:21),

even life itself, all hinged on their attention and obedience to

the words of this book. But what is true of them is also true for

everyone else, even for us who read the Bible and look to the G-d

of Israel for our salvation.

Moses and the people are poised just outside the territorial

borders of Israel, encamped at Moab (29:1), an ancient kingdom

east of the Dead Sea in what is today the modern country of

Jordan. Visualize their position. Look at a map. They are across

from Jericho, on the opposite side of the Jordan River. Moses is

now near death, one hundred and twenty years old (34:7), writing

and teaching the people his last hymn, depositing with the

kohanim and zekenim his last writings (31:9), laying hands on his

successor to leadership, Joshua (3:28; 31:7-8; 34:9), preaching

his last sermon, expounding and reinterpreting the Law that G-d

gave at Mt. Sinai (Horeb) in the context of a renewal of the

contractual agreement (covenant) between Israel and G-d as a new

generation prepares to obey the Law in holiness and actually go

in and take the Holy Land. Deut. 4:l4-49 sets the scene for the

whole book which Moses delivered as a sermon in Moab. When

Moses led the people of Israel to the threshold of the Promised

Land, he encountered, near the point where the Jordan runs into

the Dead Sea, Sihon king of the Amorites. This is in territory

that today belongs to the country of Jordan. Also, to the north,

in the area of Bashan, which includes the famous (formerly,

before the 1967 Six Day War, Syrian) Golan Heights, the army of

Moses encountered another famous Amorite king, the king of

Bashan, the giant Og (see 3:11). G-d authorized Moses to conduct

a holy war against these wicked peoples and put them under CHEREM

("destruction" 7:26, that is, devoting them to G-d). This means

that their destruction was necessary at that

particular time because they stood in the way of G-d's plan to

save the world by means of a holy land and a holy nation of

kohanim. For if at this early period the Hebrew nation was

corrupted by the heathen peoples occupying the Holy Land, there

would be no hope of reaching the other nations through the Jewish

people. This process of a necessary and just war had been

waiting since Abraham's time (Gen. 15:16) and G-d had Moses

actually begin the process to give Joshua and the others "on the

job training" in how to continue it (see 3:21-22; 7:1-6,17-26;

12:2-5, 29-31; 20:1-20). Og and Sihon and what G-d does to them

are a preview of how the L-rd will fight for Joshua and the rest

of Israel's G-d-ordained leaders in the years ahead--3:21-22.

The same G-d who fights against Pharaoh and Og and Sihon will

fight against the heathen occupiers of the Holy Land--7:l8. (At

the Second Coming, Moshiach Adoneinu will fight against the

heathen occupiers of the whole world.)

Destroying idols (a task Moses knows they won't carry out

completely--31:27) in the Holy Land is on the top of the list of

statutes and ordinances that they must diligently observe in the

land. In Deut. 12 we have the laws that will become Israel's own

eviction notice when they don't obey them and have to go into the


Almost the whole book is a sermon, and the fact that, 38 years

before, the previous generation had been commanded to go in and

take the Holy Land by force and had nevertheless rebelliously

(9:23) and faithlessly disobeyed G-d is the chilling reality

giving such a dramatic setting to Moses' sermon. All of these

rebellious parents are now dead, having eventually perished in

the wilderness wanderings, inspite of Moses' intercessions

(9:18-29; 10:10-11). The question for decision (30:19) is

whether their children, this new generation of adults alive at

the time of the end of Moses' ministry, will repeat the mistakes

of their parents and die, or whether they will obey the Torah and

in holiness take the Holy Land and live to worship the L-rd there

in His Holy Dwelling (12:11-26; 14:23-25; 15:20; 16:2-16;

17:8-10; 18:6; 26:2; 31:11).

"You shall not act as we are acting here today, all of us

according to our own desires, for you have not yet come into the

rest and the possession that the L-rd your G-d is giving you"

(12:8-9). Each generation has an opportunity to obey G-d and go

in and destroy idols and possess what G-d has prepared for it.

This is true of all omanim l'ma'an Yisroel (artists for Israel),

but we should also be warned that the only time the word

artisan/craftsman [CHARASH] is used in Deuteronomy, it is used of

one who prostituted his talent to make an idol for himself

(27:15). Maggidim, as they use the arts in ministry, should

remember that the Word is preeminent and that the prophet is one,

set apart from the people who remains before the L-rd to get His

Word for the L-rd's flock (5:27-28).

It is important to know who the Hittites were (see Gen. 23:3).

They were a people whose kings had written contracts and treaties

with the nations (like Syria) who became their vassals (dependent

states). We know from scholars like M.G. Kline that a vassal

state was granted certain rights in return for loyalty and

obedience to the Hittite king, just as the land-use rights to the

Holy Land were granted to the chosen people by their Holy King,

the L-rd G-d. The covenant that G-d gave Moses at Mt. Sinai is

similar in literary form to the sort of covenant or treaty that a

Hittite king made with his Syrian vassal, including: a preamble

in which the Sovereign identifies Himself (Deut. 1:1-5); a

historical prologue in which the Sovereign rehearses all His past

benefits (Deut. 1:6-4:49); a "stipulations" section listing the

covenant requirements imposed on the vassal (Deut. 5:1-26:19); a

"covenant ratification" section including a provision for treaty

renewal and specifically listing the covenant sanctions in terms

of the kinds of curses and blessings that will encourage

compliance (27:1-28:63); and, finally, succession arrangements

for continuance of the covenant (see 31:1-34:1 where

Joshua/Yehoshua is designated as Moses' successor and also see

18:15-19 where the Moshiach and the prophetic tradition leading

to Moshiach's coming point together to Moses' ultimate successor,

the New Yehoshua, the Moshiach--Isaiah 49:8). But it is

important to remember that the above, often alluded to by

scholars, is not the whole story. More than merely copying the

form of an existing treaty, G-d, as a free act of grace, set

Israel "in His love," and then He laid out certain commandments

by which Isael was warned to "keep yourselves in the love of God"

(Jude 21) and "continue in my covenant" (Heb. 8:9; Acts 2:42).

The specific divine directive was to go into the land and rid it

of all idols (Deut. 7:5-6) just as the Great Commission of the

Brit Chadasha was to go into all the world and preach the Besuras

Hageulah (Matt. 28:19-20).

Around the 13th or 14th centuries (during roughly the same

timespan as the life of Moses) these Hittite kings gave their

Syrian vassals written covenants similar to the kinds of treaties

we see in Exodus and Deuteronomy (notice the Aseret ha-Dibrot

[the Ten Commandments] 5:6-21). This is a powerful argument that

Moses is the primary author responsible for the writing of these

books of the Bible. Those who deny Mosaic authorship discount

the facticity of 5:3, which is like depriving I Cor. 15 of the

eye-witness testimony of Shliach Sha'ul and the other Shluchim

that undergirds the truth credentials of the Besuras Hageulah

(see 11:7).

The Babylonian Exile and the Exile of 70 C.E. and every

"holocaust" that Israel has endured can be understood only in

terms of the Deuteronomy sanctions. The repeated pattern of

national sin and rebellion against the prophetic preaching of the

Torah of Moses followed by the invasion of foreign armies, siege,

exile, deportation, repentance in the diaspora, divine favor, and

return to the Holy Land can only be understood in terms of the

covenant blessings and curses such as are listed in Deuteronomy.

(Against those who read Anti-Semitism into 28:37, Zechariah 1:15

is an important tempering Scripture here, for there is no

one-for-one relationship between Israel's sin and her punishment

at the hands of the nations.) However, like a tenant being

evicted from his apartment because he broke the rental contract

or covenant with the landlord, so Israel has definitely been

evicted more than once to show the nations that the G-d of Israel

is the true G-d and means business when He commands Israel and

all nations to repent and believe in Him. Also, as far as

believers are concerned, when Shliach Sha'ul read Deuteronomy, he

made spiritualized applications along these lines to the covenant

communities he set in order (see I Cor. 9:9 and Deut. 25:4;

1 Cor. 11:27-32 and Deut. 28:15f) and warned the members that

sinning might get them evicted by means of sickness and death

from the Moshiach's Tish. We need to understand the covenant

aspect of our faith so that our disobedience and faithlessness

does not get us evicted from the place of blessing G-d intends

for our lives.

Israel is described in this covenant as a divinely set apart

people intended to enjoy a privileged relationship to their L-rd

(see 1:31; 32:6,9), one that is permitted by G-d as fulfillment

of His promises to the patriarchs (7:8; 29:12-13; 4:21), but

requires obedience to all the covenant stipulations (from the

heart, not merely legalistically), including transmitting the

teaching to each generation's children. This trans-generational

holy requirement is accomplished by constant teaching, example,

and pedagogical aids designed to indelibly etch on the memory and

the heart of young and old alike, and, not only this but also

consciously quarantining the nation, the family, and

impressionable minds from the heathen world (6:4-7:6). But the

most important stipulation of the covenant is also a gift:

hitkhadeshut [regeneration] (10:16; 30:6; see also Lev. 26:40-41;

Jer. 4:4; 9:25; Rom. 2:29). (The Moshiach is surprised that

Nicodemus could be a ruler in Israel and not understand this--see

Yochanan 3:3-10-and that the Pharisees could turn the law into a

bewildering maze of legalisms and thereby lose love and justice

and compassion). Salvation and right standing before G-d,

according to the authoritative message of Moses, does not come

through herculean feats of legalistic observance (30:11-13) nor

through merit based on humanly-derived righteousness (7:7; 8:14;

9:4-7) but through loving, loyal, obedient faith in the word of

G-d (30:14,20; 6:4-5,13,16; 8:3; 10:12; 11:1,13,22; 30:20) which,

according to Moses, necessitated love of the neighbor as well

(10:19). As far as human merit before G-d is concerned, even

Moses fell short and needed G-d's unmerited favor and mercy

(32:48-52). Nevertheless, G-d's mitzvot must be obeyed

(28:1,58-59), and the antinomian who lawlessly ignores G-d's

commandments does not love G-d (19:9; 30:16). Moreover, how one

responds to false doctrine is a test of one's true love of G-d

(13:3). Yet ultimately, loving G-d is impossible without

hitkhadeshut [regeneration] (30:6).

Deut. 1:39 says "your children who do not yet know good from

bad." Luke chapter 2 shows Yehoshua as a boy who was ready to

reach the age of moral accountability called in Hebrew Bar

Mitzvah. If you think children's ministry is not especially

important, underline the word children everytime it occurs in

chapter 6.

Chapter 1:16 can be applied to the modern community of believers

in this way: don't have cronies or cliques or favorites or you

will destroy justice and equity in the house of the L-rd's


Chapter 1:29-33 is the Besuras Hageulah according to Moses that

was rejected at Kadesh-barnea (that fateful turning point of

unbelief) when the 10 spies gave the evil report. Every

generation has an opportunity to obey the L-rd and to follow Him

and to gain new ground for the Kingdom of G-d, or else to

hesitate, shrink back, and be lost. Every generation is put to a

test and a trial--either to march ahead in faith and take some

ground, for G-d or to rebel and "grumble in your tents" (1:27)

and die with a faithless hardened heart in the wilderness. If

even Moses, great though he was, fell short of the L-rd's holy

expectations and was punitively replaced, how much more should we

be careful to obey G-d's Word (3:25-28).

We don't take away from G-d's Word (4:2). Scripture interprets

Scripture. We worship G-d only at the divinely acceptable

mitzbe'ach and before the appointed kohen that He promises to

show us (by His canonical prophets--see 12:4-7) and we know from

all the prophetic puzzle finally filled in that the ultimate

altar and kohen is Yehoshua on the aitz haGeulah. Beware of

syncretism caused by adding to the canon (1:2; 12:29-32; 13:1;

Prov. 30:6) syncretistic pseudo-Jewish religion, adding to and

subtracting from the Torah (Moshiach Yehoshua is subtracted and

an autonomous-from-Moshiach Yehoshua-the-tree-of-life

pseudo-wisdom is added and pursued as in Gen. 3:6).

Why we study through the Word every year is clear from 4:9; 5:1.

Not to do so is to adversely affect our children (5:29).

Example: a couple takes their children to religious services, but

do not personally study the Word with them and disciple them; the

children grow up and marry nominal believers and suffer the

tragedy of divorce. Note: the next generation of children are

consequently the victims of broken homes. Do you see from this

example how the sins of the grandparents affect their

grandchildren? Could this not have been avoided if each

generation had been taught the Torah in the power of the Ruach

Hakodesh? Live in the Word! Don't let the thoughts of the L-rd

out of your mind or out of your heart? (6:7)

The unregenerate man can only obey the Bible legalistically since

he lacks the Ruach Hakodesh's power to rise to the law's higher

moral challenges and since he does not have the prophet's insight

into higher obedience in holy love. However, those who do not

grapple with the Law (thoughtlessly setting up a too sharp

antithesis between Law and Grace), are those who may choose an

easy and cheap, lawless "grace" that is more antinomian ignorance

than holy reverence for G-d's Biblically defined will. We are

not under the Law's penalty but we are not free from the Law's

moral severity. "Under (the dispensation of) Grace" means under

an even more severe morality, not an amoral lawlessness (see Rom.

6:1-14). Moreover, as Jewish people put there faith in Moshiach

Yehoshua, G-d does not intend for them to turn traitor to the

Sinai Covenant and its mitzvot. That would be cheap grace indeed!

In 7:12f concrete physical blessings including healing are

promised to the obedient. G-d also promises He is going to get

His victory among the heathen (7:24). That is the basis on which

we can attempt great things for G-d.

One reason G-d doesn't always answer our prayers quickly is given

in 8:2-3.

Deut. 12:28 warns against following other gods who have not

proved themselves to you. How did the true G-d prove himself? By

two Exoduses, one from the first death with Moses as the leader

(see the magnificent description in Exodus 14:15-31); the other

from the second death with Yehoshua as the leader. Also, the

true G-d has proved Himself by power encounters such as in

Numbers 17 and I Kings 19. This is why the gifts of the Ruach

Hakodesh must not be neglected today: power encounter is still

needed to defeat the idols of the heathen and show that Yehoshua

alone is Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach Adoneinu.

What implications can you draw from 16:19-20 about Bible

believers going into politics and about social justice being part

of the Besuras Hageulah? (See also 24:19-22).

Look at Navi in 18:15. This section foretells the prophet like

Moses that G-d will raise up in the Promised Land. Isaiah

49:9-10 speaks apocalyptically of the Moshiach as a New Moses.

The immediate (not final) fulfillment of this Deut. 18:15

prophecy is Joshua (whose Aramaic/English name is Yeshua/Yehoshua

-- see Nehemiah 8:17 in the Hebrew Bible). Joshua is a type of

Moshiach because he is an agent of chesed to the Gentile Rahab

but of cherem damnation to the seven wicked nations trodding down

the Holy Land, the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites,

Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites. The rabbis likened David to

Moses, and since David's house will bring Moshiach the Lawgiver

(Isaiah 42:4), we should not be surprised that Moses says another

prophet is coming "like me," and the first prophet to come after

Moses has the name of Moshiach Yehoshua or Yehoshua/Joshua the

son of Nun. (See also the notes on the book of Joshua.)

Look at 19:15. The people of G-d, the local kahal assembly

called out for eschatological salvation, is at least two

witnesses according to Matt. 18:20. Note Moses and Aaron going

before Pharaoh, Joshua and Caleb entering the Promised Land, the

Kohen Gadol Yehoshua/Joshua and Zerubbabel returning from the

Exile to build the Second Beis Hamikdash, Yochanan and Shliach

Kefa rushing into the empty tomb at the end of the Besuras

Hageulah of Yochanan, and the Brit Chadasha kehillah being

raptured before the final destruction of the world's destroyers

(see Rev. 11, especially 11:18). Yehoshua sent the 70 out in

two's, which meant that he sent out 35 tiny Brit Chadasha

kehillot, and Shliach Sha'ul and Barnabus were themselves a Brit

Chadasha kehillah as they together planted many house Brit

Chadasha kehillot in the first emissary journey of Moshiach's

shlichut. More Brit Chadasha kehillot could be planted if this

fact were appreciated and people did not "despise the day of

small things" (Zech. 4:l0) as they planted new works for the


Deut. 22:5 tells why we have to have a dress code.

Read 22:15. Modern parents are often promiscuously irresponsible

in the matter of protecting their children's sexual purity. See


Grace brings a marvelous "exception to the rule" in Deut. 23:3

for Ruth the Moabitess.

Deut. 27:26 emphasizes that the Law does not justify or clear of

guilt but brings everyone condemned to Moshiach needing salvation

(Galatians 2:16; Romans 3:19), for indeed Moses testifies that

everyone whose actions "do not elevate the words of this law" is

pursued by the law's curses. So from this verse (27:26) we see

the universal need for salvation from the curse of the law (Gen.

6:5; I Kings 8:46; Eccles. 7:20; Prov.20:9; Ps. 53:3; 14:3;

130:3; Isa. 53:6; 64:6; Mic. 7:2; Rom. 3:23; Gal. 3:22;

I Yochanan 1:8; 5:19). Further, we see that the whole reason the

Moshiach was accounted cursed and struck down by G-d (Isa. 53:4;

Deut. 21:23) was in order to make kapporah for us and redeem us

from the curse of the law (Gal. 3:13). For the legal demands of

the Law entail curses (Deut. 27:l-26; 28:15-68) and these stand

against us and pursue us as part of the burning wrath of an

offended Holy G-d until the record is erased, the sin is expiated

(removed), and the penalty is set aside in the kapporah (Col.

2:14). And ultimately the curse on mankind is universal, not

limited to those who receive the Torah, but pursuing all the race

of Adam (see the curse section in Gen. 3:14-19) who forfeit

Chayyei Olam (Eternal Life) (Gen. 3:22-24) without regeneration

(Deut. 10:16; 30:6).



Circumcise therefore the foreskin of your heart, and be no more

stiffnecked (stubborn).


And the L-rd thy G-d will circumcise thine heart, and the heart

of thy seed (descendants), to love the L-rd thy G-d with all

thine heart, and with all thy soul, that thou mayest live.



The L-rd thy G-d will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst

of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall listen;


According to all that thou desiredst of the L-rd thy G-d in Horeb

(Sinai) in the day of the assembly, saying, Let me not hear again

the voice of the L-rd my G-d, neither let me see this great fire

any more, that I die not.


And the L-rd said unto me, They have well spoken that which they

have spoken.


I will raise them up a Prophet from among their brethren, like

unto thee, and will put my words in his mouth; and he shall speak

unto them all that I shall command him.


And it shall come to pass, that whosoever will not listen unto my

words which he shall speak in my name, I will require it of him.


YEHOSHUA (JOSHUA, "the L-rd saves") was formerly named Hoshea

("salvation") until Moses changed his name (Num. 13:8,16). He

was from the tribe of Ephraim, meaning he was a descendent of

Yosef. The Greek Septuagint translates his name IEsous or

Yehoshua. He was Yehoshua the "son" of Joseph. Isa. 49:8 says

the Moshiach will be a new Joshua, "Thus says the L-rd; in a time

of favor I have answered you, on a day of yeshuah (Yehoshua =

"salvation" = also the name of Yeshua/Joshua--see Neh. 8:17 in

Hebrew Bible) I have helped you; I have kept you and given you as

a covenant to the people, to establish the land, to apportion the

desolate heritages." Zech. 6:12 says that Joshua/Yehoshua's name

(Ezra 3:8) is Tsemach (or "Branch" of David, that is, the

Moshiach). With all this in mind, we shouldn't be surprised if

we see Messianic typology in this book. Isaiah certainly did

when he read it (Isa. 49:8).

The book begins with Moses commissioning Joshua and telling him

over and over again to be courageous and strong in the Word. The

responsibility for a fierce military conquest is on his shoulders

and he must hear and heed the bold military plans of G-d and then

execute them with precision and fearlessness.

The Transjordan tribes (Reuben, Gad and the half-tribe of

Manasseh) are told to seek first the kingdom of G-d and go over

to fight for the land of their brother tribes and then, they are

assured, G-d will grant them the enjoyment of their own


After the appearance to Joshua of the angelic commander of the

L-rd's army (5:13-15), Jericho is soon conquered. But sin in the

camp brings defeat when Ai is attacked, and only when the sinner

is dealt with does victory once again come to Joshua's forces.

Fulfilling Moses's command (Deut. 27:4-5), Joshua builds a

mitzbe'ach on Mt. Ebal and the people observe a covenant ceremony

there (Josh. 8:30-35). This is in central Canaan at the pass

between Mount Ebal and Mount Gerizim. At the end of the book,

when hostilities have died down, Joshua assembles all Israel

again and charges them with a farewell address, and then gathers

them at Shechem for a ceremony of covenant renewal (24:1-28).

Loyalty to G-d is a theme of these sections and of the whole

book, and something Achan's sin showed that he lacked. When

Joshua copies the law (8:32) he is doing what the royal head of

Israel will one day be obligated to do (Deut. 17:18), adding to

the Messianic typology the Scriptures invest in him.

The first 11 chapters of the book of Joshua deal with the

invasion of Canaan under Joshua, the salvation of Rahab, and the

prayerless mistake with the deceiving Hivites of Gibeon. We see

that Joshua's base camp is at Gilgal, where G-d "rolled away" the

disgrace of Egypt when the Israelite men were circumcised

(compare GALOTI "I rolled away and GILGAL in 5:9). From this

place of spiritual cleanness and responsiveness to G-d (which is

what the BRIS MILAH symbolizes), G-d gives Joshua the bold plans

he needs to brilliantly take the whole land.

A good general knows that the point of initial attack has

strategic implications for every part of the total battle plan of

the war. Like a brilliant war strategist, G-d has Joshua take

Jericho and Ai first, then swoop south in a second campaign

against the cities there, and finally turn to the northern

campaign to secure the whole area in just three elegant moves.

We need to ask G-d to give us bold plans to take the whole area

where we're called for G-d. We need to become convicted by a

verse like 18:3, "How long will you be slack about going in and

taking possession of the land that the L-rd, the G-d of your

ancestors, has given you?" We need to pray for the strength of

Caleb (14:10-11) to do battle for the L-rd. Then we need to go

through the whole land and make a written description of what is

actually out there as we spy out the challenge of the field of

ministry G-d has given us (18:4). Then we need to ask G-d where

our "Shiloh" is, because that is where the tent of meeting is set

up, and that's where the people meet G-d (18:1) for edification,

prayer, and divine guidance (18:10) as G-d shows us our various

tasks and the ground he has already won for us. (Shiloh was where

the Mishkan was erected following Joshua's conquest of Canaan.)

As we execute the bold campaign plans that G-d gives us we can

rest assured that the victory is His and is on the way. Read the

major summary 11:18-20. Look at 13:6-7. We need to see the

"land" of our sphere of ministry as a target for spiritual

warfare to be claimed for the L-rd and to be apportioned out to

be conquered in revival. What is your apportionment? Where do

you live? Who are you ministering with? Does G-d want to move

you? (See 23:3-16.) Remember that your ministry is a sacred

trust given to you by the L-rd. Do not lightly leave one

fellowship and drift to another. G-d put you where you are and

only G-d should move you.

Chapter 12 lists the Israelite conquests. The occupation of the

land is described in chapters 13-31 with special emphasis on

Caleb of the tribe of Judah. The Transjordanian question of the

altar is settled in chapter 22. Deuteronomy forbade the disloyal

act of offering sacrifice anywhere except in the one central

sanctuary (Deut. 12:13-14). Those who believe that Jericho's

walls fell (Josh. 6) only in the imagination of this book's

author should read archeologist Dr. Bryant O. Wood's article in

the March-April 1990 issue of Biblical Archeology Review. A

study of ceramic remnants, carbon-14 dating, seismic activity in

the region and even some tumbled walls give impressive evidence

that the city was burned around 1400 B.C.E. Because Jericho is

in a rift valley, it is prone to earthquakes, geophysicists say,

that could cause the blockage of the Jordan River as well as the

destruction of the walls of the city. Earlier archeologists had

been digging in the wrong places and erroneously asserting that

there was no evidence that the city had been destroyed during the

period when the Bible indicates Joshua's conquest took place.

Review the notes in Deuteronomy and Numbers on the Messianic

typology in the book of Joshua. This is not a book on how to

have success in general but in particular, in particular

regarding the work of the great commission, which is to take the

whole world for G-d, Israel first and then the nations. This

whole book is prophecy in type, with Joshua the type of the

Warrior Word Yehoshua, and the book of Joshua a picture of the

whole body of Moshiach breaking out in the great commission march

to take the world for him.

The book is also a great teaching on the indispensable quality

that the L-rd's leader must have--strength! See 1:7-8 and

17:14-18. The strength comes from prayer and the Word. A

believer can go through the worst this world has to offer and be

as strong as a lion, if he meditates on every verse of the book

of Joshua. G-d has given us many promises from His Word to draw

strength from. Do you see from 17:14-18 why a leader has to be

strong? The people are only as strong corporately as their

leader. Leaders must be qualified and called, duly accountable

and under authority, and strong in the Word and in vision (29:18)

to serve the L-rd in purity and holiness with compassion for his


Faith is a matter of heart knowledge given as a gift, even to

unworthy prostitutes like Rahab in Jericho (2:9,12). However,

faith is also a matter of the will, a matter of heart loyalty to

G-d which can affect a whole family if that family has one

loyal-to-G-d witness. Notice the recapitulation of the Passover

theme--Rahab's household will be passed over when G-d's holy

wrath rages and burns through Jericho, consuming the wicked. The

destroyer will see the red sign of covenant protection and pass

over all who are under its covering. With the Gentile Rahab's

"passover" she becomes a type of all the world's Nations coming

under the red sign of covenant protection in the Brit Chadasha

Pesach of the Moshiach's Tish. Rahab and Ruth lead the Gentiles

of the world into the Israel of G-d. Josh. 2:12 proves that G-d

blesses those who bless his people (Gen. 13:3), and Rahab, an

ancestor of David and Moshiach Yehoshua (Mt. 1:5), shows by her

life that it was always G-d's intention that "all the peoples on

earth will be blessed through you" (Gen. 12:3).

Note that Moshiach's tevilah (3:5) is to prepare for the battle

of serving G-d. It is also a symbol of covenant purificaiton

(5:2-3) as is circumcision (5:1-9; see Col. 2:11-13).

The ark of the covenant of the L-rd was where G-d's presence in

his Word dwelt. Josh. 4:7 says, "The waters of the Jordan were

cut off in front of the ark of the covenant of the L-rd." In the

Brit Chadasha, the same eternal, saving Word who parted the seas

of chaos at creation and at the Sea of the Exodus and at the

water of the Jordan has triumphed over the sea of death itself,

bringing the order of the Olam HaBah into eschatological victory

over this world's present chaos.

The L-rd gives his mesharet a certain authority as a leader

(4:14) if he has a genuine place of recognized leadership in the

Brit Chadasha Kehillah. It is not necessary to get pushy to

establish this authority--it's there by the Ruach HaKodesh (Prv.


The purpose of Biblical miracles and any true miracle that

happens today is to bring people to a point where they have a

saving fear of the L-rd and His inerrant Word (see Rahab's speech

in 2:9-13).

Then as now music and shouts of praise are important in breaking

the yoke of spiritual oppression in worship (See 6:5).

Josh. 6:18 is why we avoid worldly enticements and all the wicked

things the heathen covet. Whoever loves the world is an enemy of

G-d, and whoever covets what has been devoted to destruction may

become himself a thing devoted to destruction (7:12). This is

the crucial lesson that Achan can teach us, and it is the very

reason modern men need to get rid of their yoga and New Age books

and occult lore and extra-terrestial beliefs and any other

spiritual fixation that cannot be sanctified by the word of G-d.

Whoever defies G-d's ban on things like pornography and other

worldly things set apart for destruction and tries to hide such

things under his tent will find that G-d's anger has been aroused

and the blessing of G-d has been removed. Such sin can

contaminate others and destroy a whole ministry (see 7:2-5).

Chapter 6:21-24 is a picture of what actually happens when we

experience Yeshuat Eloheinu: people all around us go to Gehinnom

but we are spared, a fact that should bring fear rather than

conceit or arrogance (Romans 11:19-22).

Look at chapter 9. Can you discern when false brethren slip in

secretly among you? See Jude 4. You can't discern them if you

don't watch the people in your life in prayer (9:14-15). Are all

the people in your life really G-d's choice for you?

Chapter 14:6-15 is a case study to prove (through Caleb of Judah)

that the central theme of the Torah is true (l:8)--that loyalty

to the Word of G-d brings blessing. Look at the typological

preaching possibility in 15:16-17. Because He overcame the

world, the Elohim Avinu has given His Word the Bride of Moshiach.

To the extent that you don't dispossess HaSatan in your life, to

that same extent his children will clutter your life and "dwell"

with you "to this day." (See Josh. 15:63).

Chapter 18:1-6a gives us the kind of survey with bold plans that

congregation planters do before they plant a congregation.

Chapter 21:41-43 is a major summary. Read it. Chapter 22:1-6

says to seek first the kingdom of G-d and all these other things

shall be added to you as well.

Isaiah infers in Isaiah 49:8 that the Moshiach will be a new

Joshua. It is important to note that the immediate (not final)

fulfillment of the Deuteronomy 18:15-19 Messianic prophecy is

Joshua. Joshua is indeed both a prophet and like Moses because

it was to Joshua and not to Moses that G-d gave the revelation of

the exact boundaries of the tribal portions of Eretz Yisrael (the

land of Israel). Several times in the book Joshua proves he is a

prophet. "Thus says the L-rd," Joshua begins in 24:2, using the

formula of a prophet. Like Moses, Joshua has a burning bush

experience (compare Ex. 3:5 to Josh. 5:15). The Jordan river

parts like the Red Sea, and when Joshua stretches out his sword,

G-d gives him victory as when Moses stretched out his rod in the

book of Exodus. G-d says to him, "I will be with you as I was

with Moses" (Josh. 3:7). G-d hardens the hearts of the

indigenous Canaanite population just as G-d hardened Pharaoh's

heart (Josh. 11:20) and then G-d shows Joshua the brilliant

strategy he should use to defeat them. G-d says, "I will be with

you as I was with Moses" (3:7; 4:14). Moses died in the

wilderness because he angered G-d, but Joshua led the people

victoriously to the promised life in the Holy Land. Thus, Joshua

is a prophetic sign of the King Moshiach, the ruler from among

his brethren who, like Moses and Joseph the Moshi'a in Egypt,

would lead the true remnant Israel from the rebellious unbelief,

resulting in death, to the faith resulting in eternal salvation

and Messianic deliverance and inheritance foreshadowed in the

book of Joshua.

In the Torah there is the Aitz haChayim (the tree of Eternal

Life--Genesis 3:22) and the Aitz haKilelat Hashem (Tree of the

Curse of G-d--Devarim 21:23). The body of a man, even a King,

hanging executed in the open air was considered accursed by G-d

(that is, put under His judgment--see Joshua 8:29; 10:26).

Isaiah 53:4 says of the Moshiach, "We considered him stricken by

G-d." Isaiah 52:13-53:12 teaches that "My Servant," the Branch

of David, the Moshiach, had to become accursed as sin for us,

taking the punishment we deserve (Isaiah 53:5). All our sins and

rebellion had to be put on His head as the Yom Kippur scapegoat

(Lev. 16:21) and sin offering (Lev. 16:15) sprinkled on the

nations (Lev. 16:l5; Isaiah 52:15).

The book of Hebrews (Heb. 4:3,8,11) speaks of Joshua and the

promise of rest. The land of Israel was to be a place of rest

(Josh 1:13) from Israel's enemies (Josh. 21:43-45; 23:1). But

the reason for the Exile which came to Jerusalem roughly 800

years later is given in Josh. 24:20. However, Joshua says

clearly, "As for me and my household, we will serve the L-rd"


See Acts 7:45 in the Brit Chadasha which has )IEsou for Joshua,

but this is the same Greek word for our Messiah's name, this

means that his Hebrew name is Yehoshua or Joshua. Since the

Hebrew name of Moshiach Yehoshua was Joshua, we are reminded of

Moshiach Yehoshua when we read in Josh. 4:4 "Joshua summoned the

twelve men from the Israelites" (see Mark 3:14). Get out a map

of Israel. Notice that Moshiach Yehoshua had his headquarters

for his spiritual conquest of Israel in Capernaum. Joshua used

Shiloh (18:1-10) as headquarters for a time, but the covenant

renewal meetings of all the tribes were at Shechem (see Josh.

24). Shechem was especially revered because it was Abraham's

first campsite when he entered the Promised Land, and it was the

place where G-d appeared to him and where he built an altar after

the L-rd promised to give him the land (Gen. 12:6-7). For more



JOSHUA 24:29

And it came to pass after these things, that Joshua the son of

Nun, the servant of the L-rd (Eved Hashem), died, being a hundred

and ten years old.


II Thessalonians speaks of the Apostasy or religious rebellion of

the people of G-d in the last days, an event that ushers in the

revelation of the Anti-Moshiach, whom only the Second Coming of

Moshiach Nagid HaShofet (Moshiach Prince the Judge) can destroy.

But here in Judges we see the Apostasy of Israel. And we notice

that haMa'al (the treachery, defection, apostasy, revolt), each

time it occurs, receives a divine answer as G-d raises up another

Judge to effect Israel's deliverance from the bondage of idols

and foreigners with their foreign gods.

The period of the judges begins roughly around 1370 B.C.E. and

lasts about 300 years until the reign of King Saul. The judges

listed in this book are Othniel, Ehud, Shamgar, Deborah/Barak,

Gideon, Tola, Jair, Jephthah, Ibzan, Elon, Abdon, and Samson (we

will hear about two more judges when we read I Samuel--namely Eli

and Samuel). There is no monarchy during this period. One of

the sons of Gideon, Abimelech, makes an abortive attempt to set

up a dynastic kingship after the death of his father Gideon, but

this evil despot fails ingloriously and shares Sisera's shameful

fate (4:21) of being put to death by a woman (9:53). One of the

crimes of Abimelech was killing all his rivals, that is, the

seventy sons of Gideon. However, one escaped (Jotham) and on

Mount Gerizim delivered a withering diatribe satirizing the

monarchy (see 9:7-21), his curse (9:20) being fulfilled in 9:49.

All of this warns about evil kings ahead and also points to the

need for a "shepherd" king after G-d's own heart which was

idealized in David and in the Moshiach.

Judg. 21:25 states a theme of the book as well as a warning

against independent-minded religion: "in those days there was no

king in Israel; everyone did what was right in his own eyes."

Judg. 18:30 shows how syncretistic heretical religion not

grounded in the inerrant Bible led to idolatry which would in

turn later lead to eventual exile and destruction. There are

those who trust their feelings in religion and don't care about

the rational-historical underpinnings of our faith. These are

the ones who waste no time on careful interpretation of the Bible

and do not discipline their feelings in careful submission to the

Scriptures. On this, see Judg. 18:20 where a religious man

experiences joy in the deadly doctrines he carelessly believes,

proving that feelings are an unreliable index of the truth. This

theme is noticeable in chp 17 as well: a rootless Levite, who is

completely independent from the larger religious body of Israel,

wanders around and eventually gets mixed up in heresy. In this

way a center of false religion was set up in the newly settled

city of Dan that rivaled the tabernacle at Shiloh. From this we

learn to beware of spiritual isolation: it says they "had no

relationship with anyone else" (18:7b). Many people today are

isolated in an independent congregation and loyal to a flock only

as long as it takes to get their needs met; then they break

fellowship and depart. Similarly, in this book we see that

Israel was willing to submit to its judges only long enough to

eliminate Israel's oppressors. Such wayward and temporary

submission amounted to no true accountability to G-d. Israel

during this period was constantly returning to her apostate

submission to the Canaanite g-ds, Baal and Astarte.

The people of Gibeah, which belonged to the tribe of Benjamin,

committed an unspeakable crime similar to those committed by

Sodom and Gomorrah. The Benjaminites refused to allow their city

to be punished, causing a civil war in which their population was

so depleted that the survival of the Benjaminite tribe was

threatened. Judg. chps 19-21 tells this story and how a new

source of marriage partners was provided for the tribe of


Notice that one must inquire at the ark of the Word of G-d

(20:26-28). This means that everyone, even the finest maggid

needs to be sitting under preaching and needs to be submitted to

leadership (Heb. 13:17). The L-rd's kehillah in Judg. 20:2 is

presented as an eschatological war muster, and 21:9 shows that

G-d keeps attendance. Some are willing like Gideon to "put out a

fleece" before they make decisions, but are otherwise uncovered

and unaccountable in the major decisions of their lives. Pray

for the Spirit of G-d to come upon you when you minister (see

3:10; 6:34; 11:29; 13:25; 14:6,19; 15:14).

Look at the picture of second generation nominalism in 2:10. The

young people in the congregation pose this threat and this

challenge, and give the congregation the opportunity to know

spiritual warfare (3:2).

In 6:29-32 we see that the fertility, sex-cult g-d Baal is

impotent and can no more protect his own altar here than he can

when challenged by Elijah in I Kings 18. This point explains how

Gideon got his name "Jerubbaal" ("Let Baal contend with him").

Samson was from the tribe of Dan. In 14:12 we see Samson the sage

or wise man. This aspect of him typifies Moshiach the Hakham

(Sage) as does also Solomon and the book of Kohelet

(Ecclesiastes) and all the Wisdom Literature in the Bible

(Proverbs, Job, etc).

Samson and Samuel and Yochanan of the Tevilah of Teshuva were

under a vow for their whole lives, as is anyone called to the

ministry. In the case of Samson and Hosea, it was G-d's

permissive will for G-d's prophet to marry an unbeliever, but

don't you try it (14:4). Intermarriage with the heathen led to

idolatry and apostasy, which in turn triggered G-d's anger and

resulted in G-d allowing an invasion of enemies and plunderers

(Aramaeans, Moabites, Ammonites, Amalekites, Canaanites, and

Philistines), and these were punishments for Israel's faithless

disobedience to G-d's command to go in and subdue the land and

cleanse the land of idolators and idolatry (see Ex. 23:33;

34:12-16; Num. 33:55; Deut. 7:2,5,16; Josh. 23:7,12). See the

notes on Jude 5-7 in the Greek section, and notice in Genesis the

"sons of G-d" (Adam, Abel, Seth, Enosh, Enoch, Noah, Shem,

Arphaxad, Shelah, Eber, etc) and you will see the weight of the

exhortation that Samson's parents are giving him in Judg. 14:2-4.

The secret of Samson's strength was in his uncompromised

commitment to G-d and His Word, symbolized by a secret vow. When

he lost that, the strength of G-d left him and he became an

ordinary man again, as every backslider knows. The tears from

the Ruach Hakodesh (Psalm 126:6) and the zeal for the Word of G-d

are all we as believers have. If we lose these, we are weak as

ordinary men and will be "ruled by the Philistines" (15:11).

Samson's weakness was impetuosity and lack of self-control in

regard to his flesh. The book of Proverbs was written to keep

others from making his mistakes.

Delilah betrays Samson for money. Moshiach Yehoshua was a judge,

the World Judge, who was also sold and betrayed for money by his

friend. Throughout this book we are told about each judge, that

he died, but Moshiach Yehoshua lives! Samson, like Moshiach

Yehoshua, is led off to judgment as weak as any man. There is a

Messianic paradox in the way this Judge's life ends: Samson is

mocked like Moshiach Yehoshua on the day of his death, a time

when he is ironically victorious in G-d (16:25). However, for

Samson as for Moshiach Yehoshua, there is weakness before

strength and humiliation before exaltation (16:21-22). Messianic

Psalm 110:3 says "from the womb of the dawn you will receive the

dew of your youth" (see also Isaiah 53:10-12).

In contrast to Delilah, Devorah is a role model for women in

spiritual leadership, an Em b'Yisroel (mother in Israel--5:7).

Look at Judg. 13:22. Notice that the Malach Hashem (the Angel of

the L-rd) was more than an angel. He was a theophany of G-d

himself (see Gen. 16:7,13), as the Word took on visible presence.

This was the Word of G-d before He came on the scene as Yehoshua

the man. His name is a mystery, an open secret that must be

disclosed in the knowledge of salvation by the Ruach Hakodesh to

the heart. "Yehoshua" (meaning "the L-rd is salvation" or "the

L-rd G-d of salvation") is revealed throughout the Bible. See

13:18 and the notes on Joshua and also Zechariah. Read the whole

Samson story starting at chapter 13. See Judg. 13:13, where the

Angel of the L-rd has the same name in Hebrew as the Moshiach

Himself in Isaiah 9:5-6, which is PAY SEGOL LAMMED SEGOL ALEF


Notice Jephthah in chapter 11, even though he subdues the

Ammonites, makes a rash vow that is not grounded in the Word of

G-d and in G-d's will and it costs him dearly. This teaches us

to watch and pray in all our decisions.

In the book of Judges, whenever there is a crisis and the people

need to be rescued, G-d raises up a Moshi'a (Deliverer, Savior)

(from the verb YUD SHIN AYIN). However, the people seem to be

their own worst enemies. They fail to separate themselves from

the g-ds of the people of the land, which were a snare to them

(see 2:1-2). Since G-d himself is the Moshi'a (Deliverer) (He is

also the Judge--see 11:27), He allows the odds to be stacked

against those who are his servants, so that G-d himself will be

more obvious as the deliverer in the situation, that it is He

alone (Yachid) (11:34) who is the true Moshi'a. See the story of

Gideon starting in chapter 6.

Judg. 19:22. As in ancient Greece and in many modern cities,

homosexuality was common in Canaan.

Notice: Judah, because she is the tribe of the Moshiach of the

nations (Genesis 49:10) must go first (Judg. 20:18) and have


JUDGES 20:18

And the children of Israel arose, and went up to the house of

G-d, and asked counsel of G-d, and said, Which of us shall go up

first to the battle against the children of Benjamin? And the

L-rd said, Judah shall go up first.


Neither Edgar Allan Poe nor any other modern writer formulated

the short story as we know it. It was invented by G-d long

before. Ruth is a short story, though of course, its material is

history and not fiction.

Judges and Ruth are so different in tone that it is amazing that

they take place during the same time period. In contrast to the

murder and lust of Judges, there is the wonder of how much Ruth

endeared herself to people who should have been strangers. A

miracle quietly transpires in this story, and people who might

have considered Ruth an enemy because of her Moabite ancestry,

were instead drawn to her by the cords of G-d's love. Love is a

wonderful thing. The story of Ruth is saying, look how G-d's

love binds people together, with a bond that even death cannot

sever, for G-d is the G-d of the living, and even the dead are

not beyond his protective, loving hand.

Look at Ruth's story. Ruth's husband Mahlon is dead, he left her

no son, Naomi he left no grandchildren. Mahlon's property is

languishing untilled in Bethlehem, and all seems hopelessly lost.

Who can help her? Who can reclaim the land and bring a harvest

of prosperity again? Who can redeem the dead? No one, it seems.

The land has seen famine, the dead are gone.

But is anything too hard for G-d? Read the story and watch G-d

go into action! Watch him redeem the lost property and put the

deed of ownership back into the name of the deceased. All right,

you say, G-d can redeem the land perhaps. But can G-d redeem the

dead? Can the dead live again? Can a corpse have a child?

Again we ask, is anything too hard for the L-rd? Look at this

true story, recorded in the annals of the history of King David!

In this true story, the dead man's widow even conceives the dead

man's child, giving us a foreglimpse of Isaiah's virgin in Isaiah

7:14! And what a child! The child that is on the way in this

story is the Davidic King of Judah, even the Moshiach! Now, the

story is saying, after all that, you, reader, should believe that

G-d is the G-d of the living, who can redeem the world and the

land and who can make alive even the dead.

Ruth had neither a Jewish mother nor a Jewish father! But she

has entered Ideal Israel (Y'shuron Yisroel, meaning "upright one

or "law-upholding one", a poetic name for the true Israel of G-d

--see Isaiah 44:2; Deut. 32:15; 33:26; 33:5) by faith alone (Gal.

2:15-21), by an individual choice to turn away from the former

heathenish direction she was going and by making a personal

decision to turn back and join the people of G-d and to take

their G-d as her God in true teshuva (1:16-17). (Moab symbolizes

for Naomi a heathenish neglect of G-d's people and G-d's House,

because Bethlehem means "House of Bread," and she has felt the

covenant curses of famine, death, and childlessness as a result

of her moving in a heathenish direction that neglects G-d's

House--Deut. 28:18, 21, 24). But Ruth has become a "supernatural

Jew" through the new birth and has entered "Upright" Israel by

what alone made her upright, that is, emunah (Hab. 2:4; Gen.

15:6; Psalm 106:31; Gal. 2:16), and Ruth has entered Upright

Israel ahead of those who say they are Jews but are still

spiritually uncircumcised, still heathen at heart, as Naomi seems

to be until she comes back to Bethlehem and begins to see G-d

bless one of the Gentiles, her daughter-in-law Ruth (contrast

Ruth 1:15 and Ruth 2:20). Ruth's regenerated, circumcised heart

made her part of the true circumcision, the true Israel of G-d,

and we who are regenerated in the Brit Chadasha kehillah have

also entered Israel with Ruth the Moabitess and with Rahab.

The point that the story is leading to is how great G-d's

blessing is on this Gentile woman--more than she could ever see

in her lifetime. (G-d has also similarly blessed us more than we

can see in our lifetime.) She became a direct ancestor of King

David and, through him, Ruth became a direct ancestor of the

promised Moshiach Himself! The irony of G-d's hand on Ruth's

life is a theme of the story. His providential care for her, the

way her footsteps are literally ordered by the L-rd (Psalm

37:23), the gracious way her faith is answered by his provision

--these are all highlighted by the fact that she is an outsider,

alone, a widow, a non-Jew, a foreigner, a member of the excluded,

(cursed by the Law--Deut. 23:3) Moabite people, a pagan who had

known only death and a false religion and was now poor and

helpless in a strange land.

G-d's special providential care toward those on their way to

salvation is a theme of Ruth. Everywhere this Gentile widow

turns, she is blessed, because she has been given a heart to

bless G-d's people (Gen. 12:2). Just as she does not forget her

mother-in-law, G-d does not abandon his chesed (covenant-keeping

loving kindness) with Ruth and with the living and the dead (Ruth

2:20). G-d makes everything work together for good for Ruth,

even a famine, even the death of her husband (Romans 8:28). G-d

uses the famine in Israel to get Ruth's future mother-in-law

Naomi to move from Bethlehem to where Ruth could meet her in

Moab. G-d uses the death of her husband to free Ruth to begin a

wonderful, spiritual pilgrimage. G-d, who withdraws the rain,

now brings the early rain and the later rain to end the famine

and bless the land with the harvest, which is a reward for

covenant-obedience (Deut 28:4). But, here is where the wonder

really begins. G-d leads the widows back to Bethlehem for a

harvest greater than they could ever imagine, a world harvest led

by the Moshiach Himself, the world Harvester "to whom the nations

belong (Gen.49:10)." (Notice carefully the Goel redeemer son of

Judah at the threshing floor in Ruth 3:2). The World Harvester,

the Moshiach will be born there in Bethlehem a thousand years

later (see Micah 5:2).

G-d gives Ruth a strange and marvelous love. G-d gives Ruth a

love for her mother-in-law and for the people of G-d. G-d gives

her the courage to say good-bye to her heathen sister and to go

to Israel with her mother-in-law. Then G-d brings her to a very

special man, a man of substance, a man of destiny, the most

wonderful husband she could ever have dreamed of, in fact a

husband far beyond her imagination, an absolutely unique man of

royal blood, the only man in the world who was Ruth's

contemporary and was at the same time destined to become a direct

ancestor of King David and of the Moshiach Yehoshua. And the

wonder is that G-d led this Gentile woman Ruth to find favor in

his sight and become related to him in holy covenant love. For

this man (Boaz) from the Messianic tribe of Judah become Ruth's

kinsman Go'el (redeemer), protecting the family, the dead as well

as the living. This man from the tribe of the Moshiach married

Ruth and redeemed (bought back) the land of Ruth's dead husband

and raised up an heir to carry the dead man's name. So the dead

man's inheritance was not wiped out. G-d is the G-d who saves

the living and the dead through a Redeemer from the tribe of

Judah. Here it is important to remember that APOLUTROSEOS or

HAPEDUT (redemption) as in Romans 3:24 means release on payment

of ransom. Had Moshiach Yehoshua not paid the ransom of his

blood as our Go'el (redeemer) we could never have been bought

back from sin and death and judgment. Our plight would have been

more hopeless than Ruth and Naomi, these two tragic ALMANOT


In the Bible, G-d is also the protector of ALMANOT. In Bible

times, a woman without the covering of a husband was in danger of

exploitation or of sexual molestation or even being carried off.

Because of our sin nature and our sin practices, we were carried

off and on the slave market auction block of sin. We needed a

redeemer to buy us back. Moshiach Yehoshua is rich and can do

that because Moshiach Yehoshua is not in debt to HaSatan.

Moshiach Yehoshua has no sin nature and no sin practices. If we

humble ourselves like a poor widow and turn to him to redeem us,

he will put the wings of his garment over us and protect us from

all hurt and loss. Moshiach Yehoshua will be to us what Boaz was

to Ruth and Naomi. This book of the Bible is extremely important

because it shows the tribe of Judah and a coming redeemer of the

Jews and Gentiles, the Moshiach, who will fulfill Gen. 49:10.

The secret of Ruth's blessing was her faithfulness. She remained

where G-d placed her. She refused to leave her mother-in-law,

she remained with her in life and refused to leave her in death

(1:16-18). Ruth remained faithfully where G-d placed her. She

remained in Boaz's field. Boaz said, "Stay with my workers until

they finish harvesting all my grain" (2:21) and she obeyed him.

Ruth didn't go to the field of someone else where she might have

been harmed (2:22). The passage says "she stayed close to the

servant girls of Boaz to glean until the barley and wheat

harvests were finished. And she lived with her mother-in-law"

Naomi (2:23). Ruth remained with the people of G-d, and she kept

her heart loyal to her L-rd and His people. She is a chayil

isha "noble woman" (see Ruth 3:11; compare same exact words in

Prov. 31:10).

Notice how G-d leads Ruth out of her heathen past into a future

place of blessing with G-d's people. G-d leads her to just the

right field, one that G-d can eternally redeem with new life and

an abundant harvest, a field that will become Ruth's own,

allotted for her before time ever was, her portion, signifying

eternal life (see Romans 9:6-11).

In the Bible, your land signifies your eternal inheritance in

G-d, your allotted portion forever. There are two kinds of

people in the world! Those who despise their birthright of

Chayyei Olam (Eternal Life) and neglect the House of G-d, and

those who love the people of G-d and the courts of G-d's Beis

Hamikdash. There's no redemption, no redeemer, no hope for the

land or the dead in "Moab."

Notice, on this field of the Redeemer of Judah, G-d gives Ruth

true Menucha (security--1:9; 3:1). He sustains Ruth with food

and a home and a husband and even makes her the great grandmother

of the great King (see Ruth 4:21-22). Judges 21:17 says that

marriage was given to get an heir to avoid extinction, to avoid

being wiped out. But the ultimate heir that Ruth will be given

is the Moshiach, the One that will burst out of the grave and

wipe out death itself.

Those with heathen hearts are still back in Moab. Ruth has come

to the Promised Land and she has had her heathen heart cleansed

and reborn in G-d's love, and she has come to hope in the G-d who

raises the dead. Her hope has cleansed her, too, as it says,

"every man who hath this hope in him purifieth himself, even as

He is pure (I Yochanan 3:3)."

Then Ruth, who was humble enough to do any chore, any task, no

matter how menial--so great was her love for G-d's people--then

Ruth faithfully abides in G-d's love, and G-d makes Ruth's name

great. And in the story, all this providential blessing is

introduced so subtly that the reader barely see it as he reads.

Yet at the end of the story, G-d's grace becomes overwhelmingly

wonderful, just as when the believer reflects on the providential

care of the L-rd on his own life. Like Ruth, we find that G-d

was subtly blessing us all along, even before we knew him.

When going to the Jewish people, it is essential to identify with

them as Ruth did. When a Jewish person asks you about your

faith, if your deeds and your lips say, "My faith is Jewish.

These are my people," your sincere love and seriousness will get

a definite reaction from the Jewish people, as it did for Ruth.

The Go'el is introduced in the book of Ruth. Look at 3:9. The

Go'el is the kinsman-redeemer who shows kindness to the living

and to the dead, and redeems the inheritance of those who have

died. This is what the Moshiach does, and Boaz, the son of Judah

(Gen. 49:10) who takes the Gentile bride, is a picture of the

Go'el Moshiach Yehoshua, who rose from the dead to redeem the

Brit Chadasha kehillah.

Naomi had to be made empty in order that G-d could lead her back

to Him and fill her with blessing. There is a kind of chiasmus

in the fact that the land of Israel is empty when Naomi goes out

of it full, and the land is full when she comes back to it empty.

She had to leave a place called Beit-Lechem ("House of Bread")

and return marah ("bitter") to it. The name Naomi means

"pleasant", but life's blows make her bitter until G-d starts to

open her eyes as she sees a Gentile "daughter" blessing her and

being blessed by G-d with Israel's blessings, a Rom. 10:19;

11:13-14 fact which provokes Naomi to jealousy to come back to

G-d in her own heart. Only when things get as bad as they could

be in a heathen land, and all of her loved ones were dying, only

then did Naomi, bitter Naomi, turn around and repent of the

heathen direction of her life, and start heading back to G-d's

House and G-d's people. Then G-d blesses her through her return

to G-d's people. It's important to remember that the child in

the story, Obed, is called "Naomi's son." (See Ruth 4:17.)

Naomi's unredeemed property has to be purchased and it belongs to

her husband and her son Mahlon (both deceased) and the son Obed

also belongs to them and to Naomi. The child would be known as

Obed son of Mahlon son of Elimelech. The son would be Naomi's

protector and the heir of the land, insuring that it would stay

in the family. So G-d is making it evident to Naomi that He is

redeeming her life because she has returned to him. This is a

solemn warning to the backslider, but it has a loving expression

in this beautiful little book.

Ruth 3:12

Though it is true that I am a kinsman-redeemer, there is a

kinsman-redeemer nearer than I. [i.e. Moshiach]


This two-part work begins with the pollution of the religious

worship by Eli's apostate sons who were kohanim during the time

when the great prophet Shmuel (born ca. 1105 B.C.E.) was a child.

The two-part work ends with a foreshadowing of the purified Beis

Hamikdash worship which was the vision aof Moshiach of King Dovid

(died ca. 970 B.C.E.). A subtle indication of this is the linen

ephod (ephor) worn both by little Shmuel (1 Sm. 2:18) and many

years later by King Dovid (II Sm. 6:l4). The ephod of the Kohen

Gadol was an apron-like garment with an ornamented vest

containing the Urim and Thummim used to determine the will of G-d

(sacred lots that were cast to determine whether to go to war,


The kehunah (priesthood) we see being purified as the story of

I-II Shmuel unfolds looks forward to the perfect Moshiach-Kohen

who is coming (Ps. 110:4). A man of G-d comes to Eli and

prophesies to him about the kehunah (priesthood) of his ancestor

Aaron (see I Sm. 2:27f). Eli is told that he and his sons will

be replaced by another Aaronic family, which turns out to be the

family of Zadok. Eli's branch of the kehunah will be broken off

and "I will raise up for myself an "ne'eman (faithful) kohen"

(2:35), says the L-rd. Zadok and his sons will replace Eli and

his sons, just as Dovid the king after G-d's own heart will

replace Saul the unfaithful monarch and will take his crown (I

Sm. 28:17; Rev. 3:11). Yehoshua/Moshiach Yehoshua finally and

completely fulfills 2:35 through Psalm 110:4 and Zechariah 3:8

and Isaiah 53:10 (although Zadok was the immediate fulfillment).

One of the reasons King Saul angered G-d is because he usurped

the role of kohen (I Sm. 13:8-15), thus showing his lack of

respect for G-d's holy kehunah and for the king's covenant

obligation to keep the Law (see Deut. 17:11-20). When he

attacked and caused the death of the kohanim at Nob, that was the

last straw, though he had already been condemned for rebelliously

disobeying G-d in regard to the Amalakites (15:1-35; see Ex.

17:8-16; Deut. 25:17-19). The only kohen to survive the massacre

at Nob was Ahimelech's son Abiathar, who, because he later

supported David's son Adonijab instead of Solomon as David's heir

to the throne, was finally banished, leaving the Aaronic

kehunah to Zadok and his sons. Since Ahimelech and Abiathar are

descendents of Eli, we read the story of I-II Shmuel knowing

there is a curse on them and that their branch of the Aaronic

family tree will eventually lose the kehunah.

Eli should have feared G-d enough not to eat and drink judgment

on himself, especially in view of his unholy sons who were

kohanim (see Lev. 10:1,2,16-20). The backdrop of Eli's decadent

kehunah is the ominous military threat of the Philistines, who

are on the brink of subjugating the whole land and are already in

some sense holding sway (13:19-22), in spite of Shmuel's best

efforts (7:2-17). The sinful people discover that the ark will

not work as a good-luck charm or a magical weapon. Without

repentance and obedient holiness, Israel will be defeated, as

Samson found out in his own experience with the Philistines. But

the Philistine g-d Dagon cannot stand in the presence of the ark;

rather, it falls in broken obeisance. This means that if the

people of G-d through their sin lose the power of G-d, that does

not mean that G-d has lost his power. G-d is the true king of

Israel, and the people need to beware of the tyrannical

exploitation they may be asking for when they act like other

nations and demand a king. It turns out that King Saul, lacking

covenant loyalty to the Word of G-d, falls short of the

theocratic ideal, and his life becomes a foil against which to

view the description of the Moshiach in II Sm. 7:12-17, "But I

will not take my steadfast love from him (Dovid's Son, the

Moshiach), as I took it from Saul, whom I put away from before

you (Dovid)."

In I Sm. 17 we see the killing by the youth Dovid of the

Philistine champion Goliath (10 feet tall and weighing in with a

150 lb. coat and a 19 lb. spear head) and thereafter the

beginning of Saul's jealousy and eventual unraveling (18:7-8).

Later Saul tries to kill David, but G-d puts a wonderful

brotherly love for Dovid in the heart of Saul's son Jonathan, who

rescues Dovid from Saul's murderous wrath and seems to know quite

unselfishly that Dovid and not he will inherit the throne

(20:13-15). David's wife Michal, Saul's younger daughter, also

helps Dovid escape (19:11-17). In the Philistine city of Gath

Dovid has to use his wits to save himself, pretending to be mad.

The Philistine king Achish later makes Dovid his mercenary and

gives him the village of Ziglag (though as his mercenary Dovid

outwits him and destroys non-Israelite villages in a holy war

rather than his own Jewish people). In any event, Achish is

convinced enough by Dovid's acting to let him do whatever he

wants (see 21:10-15) except fight side by side with the

Philistine (29:3-11), something Dovid doesn't want to do anyway,

especially against his own people. Up to this point Dovid with

his own private army seems to act like a sort of Jewish Robin

Hood, even hiring himself out as a private police force. When a

wealthy sheep owner Nabal (naval = "fool") rejects Dovid's help

and thereby proves himself a true "fool," his death opens the

door for his widow to become Dovid's wife. This woman, Abigail,

is carried off from Ziklag by Amalekites (30:2) along with "the

women and all who were in it" (it = Ziklag). In a foreshadow of

the coming rejected Moshiach, Dovid is almost stoned by his own

people, very much like Moses (Ex. 17:4; I Sm. 30:6), both of them

being the rejected "servant of the Lord" (Deut. 34:5; I Sm.

25:39; Isa. 53:11). Chapter 8:8 shows that G-d is a rejected G-d;

therefore, we should not be surprised that the Moshiach is a

rejected Moshiach (Isaiah 53). But notice that when Dovid the

King is rejected by the Jewish people, he is accepted by the

Gentiles, the Philistines (see Acts 28:28)! Then, after that,

the Jewish people accept him and crown him king,as we shall see

in II Shmuel. At the end of I Shmuel, signalling that the people

of Israel once again have no king and need Dovid their King to be

their deliverer, a horrible picture comes into view: Saul and

Jonathan and all Saul's sons are killed in battle by the

Philistines at Mount Gilboa.

The second chapter contains ominous warnings against those who

are dabbling in religion and have not had the new creation

experience of the new birth. What happens to the judge and kohen

Eli's materialistic and hedonistic minister sons happens to

Goliath and to Saul: G-d becomes their enemy! What a fearful

thing! Look at how the Eli kohen's household was replaced,

indeed how the Shiloh mishkan itself was replaced (Jeremiah 7:12,

14). Shiloh was destroyed by the Philistines and replaced as a

religious center by Gilgal in the Jordan Valley near Jericho.

The Jerusalem Beis Hamikdash itself became the replacement during

Shlomo's reign.

But the most poignant part of the early section in I Shmuel is

the story of Hannah and Shmuel. How important a mother is! Look

at the dividends received from making sure a child has good

training in the faith. Shmuel was the greatest man of his time,

but it was only because he had a great mother! If you can read

this section without tears in your eyes, there is something wrong

with your reading. Samuel was the last of the judges and a great

prophet, a Levite (I Chr. 6:26) who lived in Ramah in the

territory of Ephraim. Chapter 9:17 shows us a word of knowledge

in operation along with Samuel's prophetic gifts (I Cor. 12:8; I

Sm. 3:11-14; 9:16; 10:1-7). Notice that Ramah was his

headquarters but he had an annual preaching mission (I Sm. 7:16)

to various cities. He was rejected by the elders who wanted a

king (I Sm. 8:7). But no set-back ever stopped him from pushing

ahead for the L-rd. He was a man of prayer (I Sm. 12:23). He set

many things in order (I Chr. 9:17-26) in the House of the L-rd.

He left a valuable heritage in his writings (see I Chr. 29:29;

I Sm. 10:25). He organized an unforgettable Pesach (II Chr.

35:18). When he kisses (nashak) the anointed King (I Sm. 10:1),

he is acting out a Messianic prophecy (see Ps. 2:12). Notice

that the ruler Nagid (I Sm. 10:1), the coming Moshiach, is called

G-d's King, G-d's Anointed one Moshiach (see I Sm. 2:10; 10:1;

12:3,5; 16:6; 24:6; 26:9). See the doctrine of the resurrection

in I Sm. 2:6. The institution of the king came into being to

protect the people from their enemies. Since the greatest enemy

of man is death, this is the connection between the King Moshiach

and the resurrection of the dead (see I Sm. 10:1). Notice in

Hag. 2:5 it says, "the desired (Chemdat) of all nations will

come. This is a Messianic reference to I Sm. 9:20, "on whom is

all Israel's desire chemdat fixed, if not on you?" Micah 5:2, a

Messianic prophecy, may have come to Micah as he was meditating

on I Sm. 16:1, where G-d says to Samuel, "I will send you to

Jesse the Bethiehemite, for I have provided for myself a king

among his sons.

Notice chapter 3:7 shows that the living Word of G-d, the

Moshiach, must reveal himself to us and give us a new heart and a

new spirit or we have no knowledge of G-d. We must have "the

Word of G-d revealed" to us through a "spirit of wisdom and

illumination" (Eph. 1:17) or we may remain as ignorant of the

Bible as Eli's sons.

See I Sm. 6:4,l4, where the Word of the Covenant (in the Ark)

with the guilt (asham) offerings (Isaiah 53:10) returns to the

field of Moshiach Yehoshua. See Lev. 5:14-6:7; 7:1-6; 16:14-17;

Isaiah 52:15; Yochanan 6:53 on blood sacrifices and the Word.

Chapter 8:3 has Samuel repeating Eli's sin as nepotism

degenerates into second generation nominalism.

A minister must stay small in his own eyes (15:17) unless he

wants to be replaced. There is always a Dovid waiting to replace

you if you become a proud Saul.

When you go into the ministry, don't imitate anyone else. Find

what you do best and do that for the L-rd (17:39).

Look at 23:2-3. Israel's military strength is still a testimony

to the strength of G-d, even today.

But 20:31 shows the folly of building your own kingdom.

Chapter 21:4 points to the Dovidic kohenhood of the King

Moshiach, for only kohanim could eat this bread (see Psalm 110

and Zechariah 3:8). Only the nation of priests mamlechet kohanim

(Ex. 19:6; Rev. 1:6) of the Brit Chadasha can eat the bread that

Moshiach Yehoshua offers (Yochanan 6:53; Heb. 13:10).

Look at chapter 23:2 again. Do you inquire in the Word of the

L-rd every day about the day's proceedings and decisions? If you

do, your victories will increase.

Strongholds of En Gedi" (23:29) means in accessible places. Do

you have them? Have you learned to hide in the L-rd from Saul

and HaSatan? We need periods of quiet and rest every day in our

quiet time and daily devotions.

Look at chapter 24:6. Unlike Saul, Dovid would not allow himself

to become jealous of another minister or to attack (in envy) a

fellow minister. David feared the L-rd too much for that. Do


Chapter 28 has an important lesson: after you expel sinners from

your place of authority or kingdom, make sure you don't get

carnal and go back and consult with them (see also Psalm 1).

Chapter 30:6 says to find your strength in the L-rd, not in how

well you are doing in relation to others or from the standpoint

of their expectations.

I Shmuel is an amazing character study of the tragedy of King

Saul. A slow breakdown in his character is carefully presented

to us as a warning. We too could become like him, jealous,

cracking under pressure, not obeying G-d with fearful care and

attention to detail, taking our eyes off G-d, laying down carnal

and arbitrary policies, getting out of step with the Spirit. If

we don't hate sin as much as G-d commands us to, He may lose

patience with us and replace us, if we abuse our privileges, G-d

doesn't want to be obeyed our way; He wants to be obeyed His way.

See chapter 15 and what happens if we rebel against this

teaching. Saul's personal Meribah/Massah experience took place

at Gilgal where his rebellion cost him his ministry (review I Sm.

13:8-l4; Ex. 17:l-7; Num. 20:1-13; Ps. 106:32; 95:8; Deut. 33:8;

Heb. 3:8), repeating in his kingly person the experience of the

children of Israel in the wilderness. Also he repeated the sins

Israel committed when she entered the Promised Land: Saul almost

caused the death of Jonathan (compare Jephthah's daughter Judg.

11:39 and I Sm. 14:28-30) and Saul committed the sin of Achan

(compare Josh. 7 and I Sm. 15:13-23).

Notice the importance of spiritual song in 16:14-23. Very often

in a service there is not enough liberty in the Spirit to preach

until, through singing, the demonic oppression in the room is

lifted (see I Sm. 18:10-12). I Sm. 16:17 says that the L-rd's

musician must be an artist who can play well.

The man of G-d is necessarily a refugee in a wicked and

G-d-hating world, but G-d gives Dovid favor and guides his steps

to safety. See chapter 19. In chapter 22 we see the wickedness

of Saul, who has no respect for G-d's ministers. This is called

anticlericalism. Increasingly the world is filling up with Sauls

and preparing for the Great Tribulation when the Brit Chadasha

kehillah will be under a final massive assault of

anticlericalism. See 23:14.

Notice the connection of the Spirit of G-d with the new birth--

I Sm. 10:6. Notice that when Dovid seemingly lost everything at

Ziklag, he "strenghened himself in the L-rd his G-d" (30:6).


Now Shmuel did not yet know the L-rd: The Word of the L-rd had

not yet been revealed to him.


And the Spirit of the L-rd will come upon thee, and thou shalt

prophesy with them, and shalt be changed into a different person.


The first few chapters chronicle the power struggle between the

house of Saul and the house of Dovid, including the murder of

Abner, the commander of Saul's army, by Joab, Dovid's commander.

It's important to understand that both Abner and Absalom's acts

of sleeping with royal concubines were efforts to prove each had

acquired royal status (see II Sm. 3:7; 16:22). During this time,

Dovid has to consolidate the military behind his regime and

persuade Israel and those backing the dynasty of Saul to receive

him as their king. The restoration of Michal as his wife

reenforces Dovid's status as Saul's son-in-law and therefore the

legitimacy of his claim to Saul's throne. In the course of the

book, all of the potential claimants to the throne from the house

of Saul are eliminated, with the exception of Jonathan's lame son

Mephibosheth whom Dovid spares to sit at his table. Jerusalem is

taken from the Jebusites and established as the capital of the

united kingdom. But David reminds us of Moses. Just as Dovid

arrives at his zenith, having been anointed king of Judah and

then seven and a half years later having been anointed king of

all Israel (both times at Hebron), he sins. Calamity arises

against him out of (his) own household" (II Sm 12:11). Dovid's

sons struggle for his throne, Absalom eliminating the firstborn

heir and preeminent claimant Amnon and attempting to seize the

throne, then Shlomo purging the oldest surviving son Adonijah,

but this is part of the story of I Kings.

In chapter II Sm. 6 Dovid dances in a white linen kohen's garment

before the L-rd and bitter Michal the daughter of Saul is

destined to die childless as she hardens her heart against G-d

and His people. When Dovid brings the ark of G-d to Jerusalem

and purchases the property for the Beis Hamikdash's construction

(II Sm. 6:l5-16; 24:21-25), he is making it possible for the Son

of Dovid to build the House of G-d, an act that will become one

of the most important prophecies of Moshiach. Notice the Angel

of the L-rd, so important in relation to the promise of an heir

for Abraham (Gen. 18) and so decisive in the Exodus (Ex. 14:19),

is now in evidence once again at the site selection of the

Jerusalem Beis Hamikdash (II Sm. 21:16), pointing to Isaac's lamb

(Gen. 22:7-8) that will be provided, the Lamb of G-d, the


See the Messianic title in II Sm. 6:21 Nagid Al-Yiroel "prince

over Israel." (Compare Moshiach Nagid Dan. 9:25.) Notice David

"distributed food among all the people" (II Sm. 6:19) as his

greater Son does in the miraculous feeding of the 3,000 and the

5,000 in the Brit Chadasha Scriptures.

Notice very carefully the prophecy that Moshiach would come from

Dovid in II Sm. 7. See the obvious Messianic interpretation

given to this prophesy as it is rendered in I Chr. 17:13. The

fulfillment of the all-important promise in II Sm. 7:16 ("your

house and your kingdom will endure forever before me; your throne

will be established forever") necessitated the resurrection from

the dead of Dovid's "seed" (zera) King Moshiach Yehoshua which

was done to fulfill the Word of G-d (II Sm. 7:21). Notice in the

Bible "the servant of the Lord" is another appellation for Dovid

(II Sm. 3:18; 7:5,20,25-29) and "my servant Dovid" another

appellation for the Moshiach (Ezek. 34:23), making "the servant

of the Lord" a Messianic title Avdi Davod as it is in Isa. 52:13;


II Sam. 11 shows that Dovid was safer when he was poor and

fighting giants than when he was rich away from G-d's Messianic

battlefield. Run from your Bathshebas and find divine safety

with your Goliaths?

Rav Sha'ul uses the metaphor of a battlefield and the command to

"endure hardship" like a good soldier when Shliach Sha'ul deals

with the subject of the ministry and of doing the work of a kiruv

outreach worker for Moshiach (II Timothy 4:5). Study Uriah in

chapter 11 and you will see an illustration Rav Sha'ul could have


Note the cronyism between Joab and David and avoid it. G-d hates

overweening bureaucratic control and religious politicking in His

House. Here it leads to Uriah's murder, adultery, and the host

of evils described in the remainder of II Shmuel.

In chapter 12 a perfect crime is ruined by a prophet with a word

of knowledge.

Notice that the L-rd is not mocked. "With the crooked G-d shows

himself shrewd" (II Sm. 22:27). Whatsoever you sow even as a

believer, you may indeed reap even in this life. II Sm. 12:11-12

show all the reprisals that follow the Bathsheba sin (see

fulfilment 16:21-22). There is punishment even in this life for


II Sm. 12:20 indicates that, nevertheless, Dovid allowed no root

of bitterness to crop up between himself and the L-rd.

II Sm. 13:15 shows us the difference between real love and lust.

One reason we need to watch in prayer: to have divine wisdom

against the wicked counselors HaSatan will use to infiltrate our

ministry, but whose wisdom G-d can turn into foolishness as He

did with Bathsheba's grandfather Ahithophel (see II Sm. 15:31;

17:14,23; Rom. 1:22; I Cor. 1:20).

Dovid's anguished love for his rebellious son who usurped his

father's throne at Hebron, Absalom, (II Sm. 13:39; 18:33) is a

picture of "G-d so loved the world" (Yochanan 3:16) and also it

pictures the anguished love for apostate Israel felt by the heart

of G-d in verses like Luke 13:34 and Rom. 9:1-3. Ittai, the

faithful foreigner, a warrior among Dovid's mighty men, is a

picture of faithful Gentiles being grafted in while the

unfaithful natural branches are cut off (see II Sm. l5:21; 18:2).

Remember vain, ambitious Absalom's long hair and how it got him

caught in the end? Avoid carnal ambition in the ministry or,

like Absalom, you'll be caught and ensnared by your own vanity.

(See chapter 15:3-4 for the modus operandi of this expert Brit

Chadasha kehillah-splitter).

In chapter 15, Hushai, Dovid's adviser, hangs back to be his spy

in league with the descendents of Aaron, that is, Zadok and

Abiathar and their messenger sons.

II Sm. 17:23 shows Ahithophel as a type of Judas, the man who

thought he could outwit the Son of Dovid and ended up hanging

himself. This type of betrayal is referred to in places like

Psalm 41:9 and 55:12-14. Even Dovid's own son Absalom betrayed

him, and betrayal is part of the sufferings of Moshiach we must

all endure. Shliach Sha'ul says, "Demas in love with this

passing world has deserted me" (II Tim. 4:10). Family members

(Micah 7:6; Matt. 10:36) and ministry partners sometimes do this

to us, and we must not grow bitter when it happens.

In II Sm. 19:17 Joab is replaced by David as head of the army but

this changes in chapter 20. Along with Abonijah and Abiathar,

Joab will be purged by Shlomo in I Kings as a fulfillment of

Dovid's curse (II Sm. 3:26-29,39) upon him for his


II Sam. 22:31 ("the word of the L-rd is flawless") is an argument

for the inerrancy of the Bible.

Look at "Let your hand fall upon me and my family" in 24:17. Here

we have the vicarious suffering of the Davidic Moshiach, toward

which Ezekiel 4 is also pointing (as well as Zch. 13:7). The

Beis Hamikdash with its vicarious sacrifices by the kohanim (Lv.

10:17-18) are also in view in this II Sm. 24:17 context. Moshiach

Yehoshua is the new Beis Hamikdash and the sins of Israel fall on

David's family when they fall on Moshiach Yehoshua. II Shmuel

shows the fall of Dovid from his throne and his ascension to it

again after suffering. This foreshadows what will happen to the

Moshiach who has "nothing" (Dan. 9:26) and loses his throne when

He is "cut off" (Isa. 53:8,12b) but regains it when he is

resurrected from this death and ascends to the right hand of

supreme power (Psa. 110:1; Isa. 52:13-15; 53:12a). We assume

Moshiach Yehoshua deliberately chose the Mount of Olives for his

Gethsemane weeping because of II Sm. 15:30; at least the divine

choice was deliberate. Notice that Moshiach Yehoshua has Shliach

Kefa, Ya'akov and Yochanan just as Dovid has "the Three" (II Sm.

23:19). When Isaiah says that the Dovidic Moshiach will be"

oppressed and afflicted" but he will "not open his mouth" (Isa.

53:7), Isaiah may be thinking of II Sm. 16:9-13. Also in Isa.

42:l; 61:1 he may be thinking of II Sm. 23:2. Notice the

Messianic Dovidic covenant (Brit Olam) is "an everlasting

covenant" (II Sm. 23:5), language used of the Brit Chadasha (Jer.

31:31-34; 32:40; Ezek. 37:24-26). Gen. 19:10 is in view in

II Sm. 22:44-46.

It is important to correlate one's study of the Psalms with the

study of I-II Shmuel (see Psalms).

The area of Edom, which was spared during the conquest of the

land, was later conquered by Dovid (II Sm. 8:13-14) just as

Balaam prophesied (Num. 24:18). Dovid also defeated Moab (II Sm.

8:2,13-14) just as Balaam had prophesied (Num. 24:17). Dovid

eliminated the threat of the Philistines (II Sm. 5:17-25; 8:1)

and the Arameans (modern Syria)--see II Sm. 8:3-8; 10:6-19--as

well as the Ammonites (II Sm. 12:19-31) and Amalekites (I Sm.

30:11). Finishing the work of Joshua, Dovid extended Israel's

borders from Egypt to the Euphrates, fulfilling prophecy (Gen.

15:18; Josh. 1:4). It is therefore not surprising that Isaiah saw

Israel's ultimate deliverer as not only a new Joshua (Isa. 49:8)

but also a new Dovid, or a "Branch" (Tzemach) descended from

Dovid's line (Isa. 9:6-7; 4:2; 11:1-10; 53:2; 7:14).

The word for the "Besuras Hageulah" or "good news" is found in

II Sm. 18:27.


And thine house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever

before thee: thy throne shell be enablished for ever.


With Jerusalem in ruins and the Dovidic throne seemingly

destroyed forever, the prophetic author of I-II Kings sets out to

vindicate the Word of G-d to the faithful. There's a reason why

this has happened. Prophecy has been fulfilled. Curses have

overtaken the covenant-breakers. And G-d's word is still true,

and the Son of Dovid, the King Moshiach, will yet come. Dovid's

throne will rise again. This is the message of faith from the

midst of the Exile.

Two key passages are II Kings 25:27-30 and I Kings 9:6-9. The

Messianic hope is still alive in the Exile in Babylon. A

descendent of Dovid (Jehoiachin) is alive and being favored by

the King of Babylon as the book reaches its hopeful conclusion at

the end of II Kings 25. This means the Messianic promise is

still realizable and is in fact in the process of being worked

out, that is, in the fullness of time. The reason for the

destruction of all the other thrones, other than that of the

Moshiach, is given in I Kings 9:6-9, where Shlomo is given this

solemn divine warning (which the book shows by exhaustive

historical documentation was no idle threat): if you turn aside

from following me, you or your sons, and do not keep my

commandments and my statutes that I have set before you, but go

and serve other g-ds and worship them, then I will cut Israel off

from the land that I have given them; and the house that I have

consecrated for my name I will cast out of my sight; and Israel

will become a proverb and a taunt among all peoples. This house

will become a heap of ruins; everyone passing by it will be

astonished, and will hiss; and they will say, 'Why has the L-rd

done such a thing to this land and to this house?' They will

say, 'Because they have forsaken the L-rd their G-d who brought

their ancestors out of the land of Egypt and embraced other g-ds

worshiping them and serving them; therefore the L-rd ham brought

this disaster on them.'"

In chapter II of I Kings we see Shlomo himself turn aside from

following G-d, and his backsliding is described in 11:4, "For

when Shlomo was old, his (foreign) wives turned away his heart

after other g-ds; and his heart was not true to the L-rd his G-d

as was the heart of his father Dovid." This turning point in

Shlomo's life (begun in 3:1) presaged the downfall of all the

kings and kingdom in I-II Kings. Doomed is the usurper's throne

of the Northern tribes of Israel, an apostate throne that both

detracts from the Messianic hope of Dovid's throne in Judah and

also divides G-d's kingdom. In 733 B.C.E. we will see the demise

of this kingdom of the Northern tribes in the Assyrian dispersion

(II Kings 17:5-23). The ten tribes of Israel were destroyed

because they raised up rival g-ds and sacrificed to them on rival

altars in rival sanctuaries (preferring Dan and Bethel to

Jerusalem--see 12:28-29) with a rival kohenhood (12:31) and their

kings sat on rival thrones at Shechem, Penuel, Tirzah, and

Samaria. Generally speaking, the kings of the Northern tribes

continue the sins of apostasy of their first king Jeroboem (931-

910 B.C.E.), and even Jehu (841-814 B.C.E.), who ruled in Samaria

for 28 years and fathered a 100 year-old dynasty, was no

exception, even though G-d used him as a bloody nemesis against

evil tyranical rulers inthe Holy Land. With the exceptions of

Asa (22:33), Jehoshaphat, Hezekiah, and Josiah, the kings of

Sudah also generally amount to a sorry lot.

At the beginning of I Kings we find the throne of Dovid, with his

choice of successor Shlomo, threatened by certain enemies. These

receive G-d's vengeance: Adonijah (who plotted to seize the

throne), Joab (who supported Adonijah's treachery), and Shimei

(who cursed Dovid and disobeyed his son Shlomo), as well as

Abiathar the kohen (of the accursed house of Eli--see I Sm.

2:27-36). Like Moses speaking to Joshua, so Dovid, from his

deathbed, speaks to Shlomo (2:1-9) and gives him his solemn

charge. The Beis Hamikdash must be built; so must the king's

palace and throne room and the walls around the royal city of

Jerusalem. By this time Zadok is wearing the high kohen's

vestment, confirming the prophesy against Eli calling for a new

line in the kehunah (see I Kings 2:35). At Gibeon, we see a

divine wisdom that rules and reign in life which all believers

should pray for. King Solomon goes to Gibeon to sacrifice and to

beseech such wisdom from G-d. The L-rd gives it to him "to

execute justice" (3:28). Like the Son of David we see in the

Brit Chadasha, Shlomo also wisely appoints 12 officials over all

Israel (4:7,27) and with great wisdom administers the kingdom.

I Kings 4:20-21 summarizes this period in the life of Solomon.

And just as the Beis Hamikdash became one of the wonders of

world-wide pilgrimage, so people came from all the nations to

hear the wisdom of Solomon" (4:34), divine wisdom which is still

wondered at in the wisdom literature of the Bible like

Ecclesiastes and Proverbs. In this, although she was initally a

"doubting Thomas" (10:7), even the Queen of Sheba becomes a

believer and Messianic Gentile pilgrim (10:6) symbolic of the

Brit Chadasha kehillah.

The Beis Hamikdash of Solomon (which took seven years to build

and stood less than 400 years) was extensively decorated and

overlaid with gold, that "the whole house might be perfect"

(6:22). Of course we know that the perfect Beis Hamikdash of the

Spirit was yet to come in the Moshiach's body (see Yochanan

2:19-21; 20:22), and that the Beis Hamikdash of this Son of David

(Solomon), having begun in 960 B.C.E., would be torn down in 586

B.C.E. Nevertheless, its dimensions and furnishings preach

through architecture, sculptor, painting, and other arts of the

perfection that was to come in the Moshiach. For example, its

Holy of Holies was designed as a perfect cube, approximately 30

feet by 30 feet by 30 feet. It was divided into (Oolahm)

portico, main (Haychal) hall, inner (duh veer) sanctuary. In the

portico were the ornate cast bronze pillars supporting the

entrance; in the main hallwere the golden tables for (Lechem

HaPannim) the bread of the Presence, the gold lampstands, and the

altar of incense; in the inner sanctuary was the Aron Brit (ark

of the covenant). The hayom mutzak (molten sea [a hugh bowl or

tank for the ablutions of the kohanim]) and the altar of the

burnt offering were in front of the steps leading up to the

portico. The Beis Hamikdash was adjacent to the palace of the Son

of Dovid (see the great judgment throne of ivory 10:18), and the

total symbolism of the complex of the house of the Lord/house of

His Anointed King of Kings (10:23) says that G-d, the sovereign

master of the universe and the head of Israel, can only be

approached through a kapparah blood sacrifice acceptably

interposed for G-d's covenant people by Moshiach's kehunah and

its mediation.

In the synagogue today, the Ner Tamid (eternal lamp) suspended

above the ark is a symbol of the Moshiach, for I Kings 11:36 says

"Yet to his son I will give one tribe, so that my servant David

may always have a lamp before me in Jerusalem," the lamp being a

symbol of the permanence of the Davidic dynasty through the

coming Moshiach.

In I Kings 5, unfortunately, Solomon becomes like Pharaoh to his

own people, resorting to forced labor to build the house of the

L-rd, his own house, the Millo (fortification), and the walls of

Jerusalem. He did not enslave the Jews (see I Kgs. 9:22) but

there was apparently enough oppression that the Northern Tribes

could say to Shlomo's son, Rehoboam, "Your father made our yoke

heavy. Now therefore lighten the hard service of your father and

his heavy yoke that he placed on us, and we will serve you"

(12:4). This became one of the causes of the division of the

kingdom into the kingdom of Judah and the kingdom of Israel after

Solomon's death. As Solomon succombs to the idolatry of the

foreign g-ds of his foreign wives and as he abuses his G-d-given

wisdom to entangle himself with ties with Egypt (note the

accummulation of horses and women--see the warning of Deut. 17:16

-17), we see that he is no perfect king. Only the Moshiach will

bring the perfect king with the perfect house and the perfect

kingdom. But we are co-laborers with G-d and we, like Solomon's

Beis Hamikdash builders, must work reverently (see I Kines 6:7).

Notice that the Son of David needed an artist for Israel (I Kings

7:13-14) and He still does today.

Notice that Solomon dedicated the Beis Hamikdash during the

(Succot) Feast of Tabernacles (8:2). Look at 8:10-11 where we see

the first Azuza Street experience among the (K'hal Yisroel)

assembly of Israel. Notice the Beis Hamikdash was the place

where G-d's Spirit and Presence and Name might dwell and the

place where the Word of G-d in the ark of the covenant was to

"incarnate" itself, in a sense, for I Kings 8:21 says, "There I

have provided a place for the ark, in which is the covenant of

the L-rd that he made with our ancestors, when he brought them

out of the land of Egypt." As such, the Beis Hamikdash points

toward "your son who shall be born to you (Dovid)." He will

"build the house for my name." (see I Kings 8:19.). The Moshiach

would be the eternal successor of Dovid (see I Kings 8:25; 9:5).

The "Lord's Servant" is the Davidic king (I Kings 8:59; Isa.

52:13-53:12), for it says that the L-rd "maintains the cause of

his servant and the cause of his people Israel." Dovid's throne

chair, ironically, becomes a cruel Aitz, however, because the

monarchy itself is destroyed by the Exile. Indeed, Pilate sits

where the Son of David should reign, but does so only in the

Millennium. After Rehoboam loses the kingdom about 926 B.C.E.,

never again does a descendant of Dovid (other than Moshiach

Yehoshua the Moshiach) rule over Israel.

When Solomon backslides (mainly in his old age), G-d raises up

adversaries against him (see ch. 11). The conquered peoples

rebel and the Northern tribes rebel also. Hadad the Edomite,

Rezon of Syria (Aram), and Seraboam are all instruments of

Solomon's punishment. Ahijah of Shiloh prophesies the division

of the kingdom and the ascendency of Jeroboam to the throne of

the Northern tribes (see 11:35). This comes to a climax when

(R'chev'am) Rehoboam (930-913 B.C.E.) tries to be a tougher

"Pharaoh" than Solomon.

Note carefully the prophecy concerning the coming righteous king

(Yo'shiyahu) Josiah (610-609 B.C.E.) in 13:3, who is named by

name (as Moshiach Yehoshua is in Zech. 6:11-12 and as Cyrus is in

Isa. 44:28f) and who will destroy this pagan altar later during

the time of Jeremiah's revival preaching. In chapter 13 we hear

about "the man of G-d who disobeyed the word of the Lord"

(13:26), a major theme of the whole of the book of Kings. Ahijah

of Shiloh is an important prophet. He prophesies the Assyrian

dispersion of the Northern tribes (14:15-16) and the kind of

dynastic destruction that will characterize the kings of the

Nothern tribes. In what transpires we see that Ba'sha (Baasha)

(908-886 B.C.E.) kills off (fulfilling the prophesy of 15:27-30)

the dynasty of Yerovaam (Jeroboam) (930-909 B.C.E.), Zimri

(885-874 B.C.E.) the house of Zimri, and (Yehu) Jehu (841-814

B.C.E.) the house of Omri, each a nemesis of G-d, and each

pointing to the assassinations and coups and countercoups that

lead to the demise of this apostate throne of Israel in 722


The apostate people of the Northern tribes are worshiping the

fertility gods Baal and his consort Asherah because Omri, after

he establishes Samaria as his capital, marries his son Ahab to a

foreign Phoenician wife named Jezebel (princess of Sidon), who

had converted Ahab to this pagan faith of Baal worship and then

initiated a persecution of the true prophets of G-d on a vast

scale. G-d confronts the people by bringing an a tribulation

drought and forcing Ahab to search for terms with Elijah, who,

after being miraclously sustained in the wilderness and through a

widow in Zarephath, demands a contest on Mount Carmel in which

the true G-d and the true prophet alone will live, the others,

losing the contest, will forfeit their lives along with their

worthless altar. When the prophets of Bael are slaughtered

because their G-d cannot light his own sacrificial fire, the

divinely imposed three and half year drought concludes in a

mighty torrent of rain (proving the L-rd, not Baal sends the

blessing of rain, fertility and life), Elijah runs ahead of Ahab

to his second place of residence (not Samaria but Jezreel near

Mount Gilboa). There the wrath of Jezebel drives Elijah back

into the wilderness to hide once again and to come like Moses

redivivus to Mount Sinai (Horeb) where G-d commands that a purge

of idolatry be set in motion as Elijah anoints Hazed of Syria,

Jehu of Israel and Elisha as prophetic successor to Elijah (19:15

-16), all called to be the divine nemesis of idolatry and

apostasy. See the prophecy (21:20-24) that Jehu will fulfill.

After Naboth's ancestral property is seized and his life is

taken, Elijah announces the L-rd's word against both Ahab and

Jezebel (21:17-24). As the book concludes, Ahab and Jehoshaphat

are going to war against Syria, and the godly king Jehoshaphat

wants a prophecy from a prophet of G-d. Micaiah foresees (22:17)

the coming devastation and defeat and, as prophesied (21:19),

Ahab is killed in spite of all his precautions in the ensuing


Notice that those who try to use their holy office to

commercialize and profiteer off of G-d's holy things will not

find true prosperity (22:48).

The kohen Azariah in I Kings 4:1 is the son of Zadok.

The miracle that happened for Elijah at Mt. Carmel points back to

Lev. 9:23-24.

I and II Kings tell how an entrepreneur (any of the "dreamers who

do") named Shlomo built a Beis Hamikdash, which unfortunately, as

we see at the end of this two-part book, is destroyed by sin, as

the author of I-II Kings writing in the Exile to Jewish people in

the Exile, explains to them the reason for the Exile and its

devastation. The Beis Hamikdash of the body of Moshiach Yehoshua

was also destroyed by sin, but His Beis Hamikdash was destroyed

for sin. But sin led to the destruction of Solomon's Beis

Hamikdash and the Exile. Nevertheless, we see how Solomon was

given divine wisdom (see 1:5:13...the Bible is not

anti-scientific) and also prosperity in order to accomplish his

assigned task.

We should notice that King Shlomo was given many artists and

co-laborers. Indeed, even the kingship itself belonged to G-d

but was entrusted provisionally to Shlomo (II Sm. 7:14) and was

not the perogative of self-promoting men (1:1:37; 2:15). He

prayed for and received from G-d the wisdom (1:3:9) most of the

other kings in this story lack. Shlomo is a type of the Chochma

Elohim (Wisdom of G-d), who became the Moshiach (1:10:24). G-d

surrounded Shlomo with people of quality to help him carry a

heavy burden with expertise. He with the twelve mentioned in

1:4:7 is a type of the peaceful Mashiakh Ben Dovid who will reign

in peace on earth during the Millenium, just as his warrior/king

father Dovid is a type of the Warrior Word (Revelation 19:13)

who will come to destroy the wicked at the end of history. In

1:7:7 we see Shlomo as the anointed King/Judge typological

Moshiach figure (1:10:18), along with Hiram as the artist for

Israel (1:7:14), and in this pairing we see something similar to

what Moses and Bezalel (Exodus 31:3) had been in the Torah.

The Beis Hamikdash is that meeting place between G-d and where

the Ruach Hakodesh comes down when the Word of G-d tabernacles

with G-d's people (1:8:10) and G-d's people can approach his

presence. Without a vision for this communion of G-d and man,

the people perish. But G-d is faithful, even if men are not

(1:9:4-9), and we see in 1:7:51-8:16 the milestone the whole

first quarter of the Bible has been driving toward: the

completion of the Beis Hamikdash with the glory of G-d filling

it. What was lost in Gen. 3:19-24 (the hope of the glory of G-d

which is Chayyei Olam (Eternal Life)) is now beginning to be

regained--do a concordance study of the word "glory" in the book

of Romans to get a fix on the Besuras Hageulah as the Besuras

Hageulah of Glory) is starting to be regained. The Beis

Hamikdash being filled with glory is a picture of the coming

Incarnation and outpouring of the Ruach Hakodesh on the people of

G-d. Of course the promise in 1:8:25 remained unfulfilled until

the line of Dovid is raised to reign forever in resurrection

glory on Passover 30 C.E. Whenever a foreigner looks toward His

torn down but gloriously raised up Beis Hamikdash (I:8:4lf--see

also Amos 9:11) the Brit Chadasha blessing goes forth to that

foreigner. This is why we have been set apart (1:8:53) as a

tabernacle on the Great Commission march and we offer our

sufferings and levitical sacrifices as the House of our Suffering

L-rd to carry the Good News to the ends of the earth. The

itinerate prophetic bands of Elijah and Elisha and Shliach Sha'ul

and modern kiruv outreach workers for Moshiach and emissaries of

Moshiach's shlichut are just as much "the Brit Chadasha kehillah"

as stationary congregational preaching points. The true Brit

Chadasha kehillah is wherever the elect are rightly disciplined

by the proper hearing and sharing of the Word.

Dovid's great son had wisdom. G-d's greater Son was Wisdom, as

Proverbs 30:4 makes clear. It will not do to try to bring Israel

into Proverbs 30:4 as the Son, since the context reflects back to

Proverbs 8 and especially 8:30. Israel is scarcely mentioned in

Proverbs. The figure of a son toiling by the side of his father

was a familiar one, and is an arresting metaphor for G-d's

primordial Wisdom toiling creatively in the beginning with G-d.

Likewise, Psalm 2:7, Psalm 89:27-28, and Isaiah 9:5-6 are

passages where the Moshiach is pictured as G-d's Son, G-d's

B'chor (firstborn) in the sense of his, heir coming in divine

glory as in Daniel 7:13-14, that is, on the clouds with G-d to

"divide the spoil with the strong (Isaiah 53:12) and to govern,

eternally (Isaiah 9:6-7).

In chapter 11:4 we see that Shlomo's G-d-given wisdom was

foolishly seduced by a muddle-headed ecumenicalism just as the

prostitute religious community apostatizes in II Thes. 2:3; Heb.

10:26; II Tim 4:4; I Tim 4:1. If we join this apostasy we can be

sure G-d will always raise up a way to judge us (1:11:15-17).

This is a dominant theme in Kings--that "You only have I known:

therefore, I will punish you for all your sins..." since

"judgment begins at the household of G-d." G-d is a just G-d and

he will remove the guilt of His House from the blood of the

innocent by punishing the culpable, for G-d is a great King

(1:2:31). Solomon, Elisha, Jehu, Joash, Josiah, Nebuchadnezzar

all represent G-d's prophesied holy nemesis against sinners.

Rehoboam is a warning against an authoritarian style that tries

to L-rd it over the sheep and splits the Brit Chadasha kehillah.

You should be able to insert the prophets and their approximate

dates into the dates of the rulers of Israel and Judah so as to

get a fix on who is preaching to whom.

The life-or-death struggle with Rabbinic Judaism's Baalism

(Kabbalah occultism, Talmudic gnosticism, Rabbinic clericalism,

etc.) that Elijah fought is still going on.

In the Elijah cycle G-d gives his guerrilla warrior-prophet a

free room (I Kings 17) and his office was in Zarephath so that he

could have a one-man show to pull down the strongholds of Satanic

lies destroying the house of Israel. This was near the Jordan

where Elijah had once hid to begin his Mount Carmel fight for the

true Jewish faith which Yochanan of the tevilah of teshuva would


Ya'akov 5:17 tells us that this time of tribulation in I Kings

17-19 lasted 3 and a half years. It was then that Jezebel and

her husband King Ahab tried to shut the door of revival on the

prophet Elijah. But what happened? G-d rained down tribulation

on Queen Jezebel and King Ahab. G-d rained down a life-quenching

drought an their evil, G-d-rejecting world, a real tribulation

that went on far three and a half years. But did Elijah get

raptured before the trouble started? No. Did Elijah escape

being persecuted by the spirit of Anti-Moshiach in Ahab and

Jezebel? No. Was rapturing Elijah before this time of trouble

the only way G-d had of keeping the prophet from that hour of

trial G-d was bringing on the world (Revelation 3:10)? No.

Not at all. How we like to limit G-d with our neat little

prophecy charts! G-d didn't rapture Elijah before that three and

a half year tribulation! G-d hid Elijah in the desert for

"times, time and half a time"--three and a half years! (See also

Rev. 12:6.) And the earth helped Elijah (See also Rev. 12:16.)

The brook quenched his thirst and he ate meals catered by

ravens!) Then when the tribulation had served its purpose and

the false prophets had came to their Anti-Moshiach destruction,

then G-d raptured Elijah! The true Brit Chadasha kehillah was

hidden "underground" during the time of trouble. The true Brit

Chadasha kehillah of "7000 who had not bowed their knee to Baal"

gave their witness and risked martyrdom for G-d during Elijah's

three and a half year tribulation. The true Brit Chadasha

kehillah was a guerrilla group of refugees pursued by an evil

world yet bravely serving the L-rd at all costs, whether that

involved a sacrificial life-style or martyrdom.

I Kings 3:28

And all Israel heard of the judgment which the King had judged;

and they feared the King: for they saw that the wisdom of G-d was

in him to do judgment.

I KINGS 8:43

Hear thou in heaven thy dwelling place, and do according to all

that the foreigner asks of thee: that all people of the earth may

know thy name and fear thee, as do thy people Israel; and that

they may know that this house, which I (Solomon) have built, is

called by thy name.

I KINGS 17:3

Get thee hence, and turn thee eastward, and hide thyself by the

Kerith Ravine, east of the Jordan.


To the good kings of Judah (there are no good kings of Israel)

listed in I Kings (Sc.) a case could be made for possibly adding

Y'ho'ash (Joash) (835-796 B.C.E.), Amatz'yahu (Amaziah) (796-767

B.C.E.), Azarya (Azariah) (Uzziah) (792-740 B.C.E.) and Jotham

(750-735 B.C.E.). However it must be said of Joash that he

foresook the L-rd and served idols after the death of the kohen

Jehoiada (II Chron. 24:15-18); it must be said of Amaziah that he

backslid into the worship of Edomite idols (II Chr. 25:14-16); of

Azariah (during whose reign Isaiah, Hosea, and Amos began their

preaching ministries), that he tried to usurp the kohenhood and

was punished with leprosy (II Chr. 27:20); of Jotham, during

whose reign Micah was preaching, that he failed to cleanse the

Beis Hamikdash of its pagan influence which caused many to

continue their evil ways (II Chr. 27;2,6).

Fire comes down from heaven as at Mount Carmel to protect Elijah

in II Kings 1, and finally Ahaziah of Israel is told that he will

die and G-d's word is fulfilled (1:17). This means we are at the

year 852 and we will go all the way to 586 B.C.E. in this book.

The battle of Qarqar (853 B.C.E.) is not recorded in the Bible.

If it were, this might be the place for it. It was fought in

Syria and it held beck the Assyrian advance into the territories

of Syria, Israel, and Judah for a time.

The expression "company of prophets" (bnei hanevi'im) found

starting in 2:3 means "members of the prophetic order." These

were a confraternity of maggidim gifted with miraculous powers

and with the gift enabling them to prophecy. We hear of them in

Bethel and in Jericho.

That Elijah is Moses or even Joshua redivivus is shown by his

parting the Jordan River (II Kings 2). His rapture is also

described (II Kings 2) and Mal. 4:5-6 looks for just such a

prophet of repentance at the time of the Moshiach or the end of

days. Notice the Hebrew verse at the end of this section,

II Kings 2:10. Notice that Elijah's rapture, when it occurs, is

secret as far as the world is concerned, and, from Elijah's point

of view, according to II Kings 2:10, it is questionable as to

whether Elisha himself will see it. Also, see Heb. 11:5 which

says (quoting the Septuagint). As far as the people were

concerned it was a secret rapture like Enoch's because "he was

not found." Only Elisha saw him go up.

Elisha, having received a "double share of the Elijah's spirit,"

also parts the Jordan, purifies a poisonous spring of water

(2:22), curses small boys who jeer at maggidim with an attack by

mauling she-bears (2:23-25), prophesies the defeat of Moab and

calls forth water for a thirsty army which looked like blood to

their Moabite enemies (3:1-27), does multiplication miracles with

a jar of oil belonging to a destitute prophet's wife (4:1-7) and

twenty loaves of bread (4:42), cures infertility (4:8-17) and

raises the dead (4:18-37), neutralizes poison in some food

(4:38-41), cures leprosy (5:1-19), renders a judgment miracle

against Gehazi (5:19-27), retrieves a floating axe head from the

Jordan River (6:1-7), hears "in the Spirit" the military plans of

the king of Syria but is protected by horses and chariots of fire

(6:8-17), blinds these enemy soldiers of Syria (6:18-19), feeds

his enemies (6:20-23), foretells famine relief (6:24-7:20),

directs the Shunammite woman on how to survive a seven-year

famine in absentia (8:1-6), and prophecies the overthrow of the

Syrian king Ben-hadad by Hazael (8:7-15). In

9:4 we read about a "young prophet" who, at the command of

Elisha, anoints Jehu king of Israel and prophesies that he will

be the nemesis of G-d against Ahab and Jezebel, after which Jehu

kills Jezebel's son Joram (852-841 B.C.E.) king of Israel and

Ahaziah (841) king of Judah. Then Jehu killed Jezebel (9:30-37)

in Jezreel. (The wicked daughter of Ahab usurps the throne of

David and tries to slaughter her way to power as the queen of

Judah after this--her name, Athaliah queen of Judah, and she

rules Judah from 841-835 B.C.E. until little seven year old

Jehoash is restored to the throne by the godly kohen Jehoiada.)

The slaughter of wicked Ahab's dynastic heirs along with

adherents of Baal worship continues in ch. 10.

Jehoash of Judah repairs the Beis Hamikdash in II Kings 12, a

task that every Brit Chadasha kehillah has to do from time to

time. King Joash of Israel visited Elisha on his deathbed

(13:14) and received prophecies about coming wars with Syria.

When Elisha dies, a corpse resurrects after touching the bones in

Elisha's grave.

II Kings 15 gives us the gruesome story of how the various kings

of Israel kill each other off as the throne of Jeroboam moves

toward self-destruotion.

Notice the duplicated material (II Kings 18:13-20:19 = Isa.

36:1-39:8) not only in Isaiah but also in Jeremiah (II Kings

24:18-25:21 = Jer. 52:1-27).

In 734 B.C.E. the Assyrian threat has reemerged, Syria and Israel

are threatening King Ahaz (735-715 B.C.E.) of Judah for not

joining their alliance against Assyria. Ahaz trusts ruthless

King Tiglath-Pileser of Assyria more than either G-d or the

prophet Isaiah and calls in Assyria's aid against these two

Northern enemies of Judah. The Assyrians attack (Shalmaneser V

and Sargon II begin and end this campaign) and Israel is defeated

and destroyed in 722 B.C.E. as Amos (760-750 B.C.E.) predicted

(Amos 5:2). But trouble is in store for Judah, as Isaiah warned.

In 701 B.C.E. Sennacherib's Assyrian army surrounds Jerusalem and

a great tragedy would have ensued had not G-d intervened (see

II Kings 18:13-19:37). Then, the king of Judah reigning during

this time, Hezekiah (715-686 B.C.E.) son of Ahaz became ill,

almost died, was healed and received 15 years additional life

with the "sign" of Ahaz's "sundial" having its shadow reversed as

G-d "backs up the clock," as it were (20:1-11). However, at that

time Hezekiah imprudently showed his royal treasures to a

visiting Babylonian delegation, opens the door for the Babylonian

Exile a little over a hundred years later. Hezekiah's worst

legacy was his wicked son Manasseh, the worst king Judah ever

knew: a single-handed cause of the punishment of the Exile


In II Kings 22:1-23:30, Josiah (640-609 B.C.E.) king of Judah

becomes acquainted with a lost book of the law of Moses and such

fear falls on him that he removes a foreign and idolatrous cult

from the Beis Hamikdash (622 B.C.E.) during a unique time in the

history of the Jewish people, when Jeremiah, Nahum, and Zephaniah

were preaching in Jerusalem. Its important to study all these

last five chapters of II Kings to get the historical background

necessary to read the book of the prophet Jeremiah.

Notice that when the Word of G-d is rediscovered, revival follows

(II Kings 22).

But the Kingdom of Judah was doomed. In 605 B.C.E.

Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon carried off into Exile many including

Daniel; in 597 B.C.E. Ezekiel was among the deportees, and in 586

the final destruction of Judah's kingdom was complete. Except

for the brief 100 year (167-63 B.C.E.) Maccabean period there was

never again a kingdom of Judah. The Northern tribes and the

tribe of Judah both broke faith with G-d and consequently both

their kingdoms perished (see II Kings 17:7-18 and II Kings

17:19-20;24:1-4). This is a major theme of II Kings. A few

kings to think about. Omri established Samaria as his new

capital and the site of his palace. He also promoted cultural

relations with Phoenicia, sealed by the marriage of his son Ahab

(Ach'av) to Jezebel. Jezebel was responsible for corrupting the

Northern Kingdom and his daughter Athaliah greatly hurt the

Kingdom of Judah. Ahab's son Jehoram and Jezebel were killed by

Jehu (Yehu) (ending the dynasty of Omri). Jehoshaphat

(Y'hosphafat) king of Judah reigned during this time. He was the

son of a G-d-fearing king of Judah, the energetic and religious

Asa. It was Jehashaphat who sent the princes, Levites, and

kohanim out to the people to teach the Law of Moses. The

unfortunate marriage of his son Jehoram (Yehoram) (both

Jehoshaphat and Ahab had sons by the same name) to Ahab's

daughter Athaliah was a result of the peace-making efforts

between his kingdom and Ahab's, but much grief came of it,

including a futile commercial navy venture with Ahab's Ahaziah.

Jehoram (848-841 B.C.E.) son of Jehoshaphat paid for his

murderous apostasy (he killed several of his brothers) in the way

Judah's enemies were strengthened in the time of his reign

(especially the Edomites, Philistines, and Arabs). He died of a

horrible disease of the bowels. About a hundred and ten years

later the Northern Kingdom is in its death throes ready to be

destroyed by the Assyrian Empire (722 B.C.E.) and Ahaz is king of

Judah (732-715 B.C.E.). He is the father of Hezekiah and the son

of Jotham; he is also the grandson of the leprous king of Judah

Azariah (Uzziah) and the great-grandson of King Amaziah (796-767

B.C.E.). Ahaz descended from Ahaziah (853-852 B.C.E.) through

Joash. Ahaziah was killed at Jezreel by Jehu (see Hosea 1).

Unlike these more godly individuals, Ahaz sold out to the

Assyrians in order to buy assistance from the military threat of

the evil Pekah king of Israel and Rezin of Damascus. This cost

Ahaz his military and religious independence, obliging him to

import from the Assyrians their pagan religious practices

(worship of stars and sun, child sacrifice, occult consultation

with wizards and necromancers, etc.) His son Hezekiah tried to

counter all this by a reform movement that included repair of the

Beis Hamikdash, destruction of idols, a Pesach celebration

involving people from the Northern Kingdom, organizing the

kohanim and Levites for regular religious services, reinstituting

the tithe, preparing for Assyrian siege by building a water

tunnel and many other godly acts. 701 B.C.E. was the year

Sennecherib held Hezekiah captive behind his Jerusalem walls

"like a bird in a cage." This also may have been the year

Hezekiah almost died but was given a healing and a

life-extension. You should know something about each king so you

could identify them by name if given information about them on a

test. For example, which king lived an extra 15 years and gave

the Babylonians a tour that Judah would live to regret?

Notice the foreglimpse of the Incarnation in I Kings 3:28, where

it says that the Wisdom of G-d was inside the King of Israel. We

should not be that surprised that the ultimate Beis Hamikdash and

the Moshiach are one and the same, since they are both called by

"My Name" (see I Kings 8:43 and Isa. 9:6; Jer. 23:5-6).


He (Elijah) answered, "You have asked a hard thing; yet, if you

see me as I am being taken from you, it will be granted you; if

not, it will not."



Since II Chr. 36:22-23 is virtually identical with Ezra 1:1-3a,

a case can be made for common authorship. If so, the author, if

he wrote I-II Chronicles as well as Ezra-Nehemiah (incorporating

the memoirs written by Nehemiah), could not have written this

work before 445 B.C.E. when Nehemiah returned to Jerusalem. It

is certainly possible that Ezra is the author as the Talmud

attests. A later hand may have added a few touches, but the bulk

of the material may be the result of Ezra's ministry. If Ezra

were a young man in 458 B.C.E. when he embarked for Jerusalem, he

might still have been alive toward the year 400 B.C.E. which is

the approximate time when this corpus of literature reached its

final stage of editing.

Much of the Hebrew Bible was available to the Chronicler and many

other (now lost) writings as well. These he used to preach to

the post-exilic Jerusalem community his long sermon known to us

as I-II Chronicles.

Whereas the author of I-II Kings is writing from the Babylonian

Exile, the author of I-II Chronicles is a post-exilic Jerusalem

writer and one with a heightened Messianic expectation, who wants

to tell the whole story of G-d's electing love and providential

care, from Adam to Dovid's coming Son (this is the story the

genealogies are telling), viewing all of history from the point

of view of the Messianic covenant G-d made with Dovid (II Sm. 7).

In I Chronicles, chs. 1-10 lead to an idealized Dovid (in many

ways a typological portrait of the coming Mosiach); chs. 11-29

detail the events of Dovid's rule that have primarily Messianic

or eschatological significance. In II Chronicles, chs. 1-9 is

about Dovid's preeminent son Shlomo (also idealized into a

Messianic type--I Chr. 22:10--with a golden reign) and most of

this section is about the building of the Beis Hamikdash for the

G-d of Israel who is coming to dwell with His people forever;

chs. 10-36 are about Dovid's later sons, the kings of Judah, all

seen in a certain sense as foreshadows of the final "Dovid" who

would sit on "the throne of the L-rd." As Moses receives the

plans for the Tabernacle from G-d and hands on his ministry to

Joshua, so David receives instructions about the Beis Hamikdash

and hands on this divine legacy to Solomon (see I Chr. 22:13),

whose "peace" (shalom) points the people to Joshua's "rest"

(M'nucha) (see I Chr. 22:9). Everything divine emblem connected

with the planning of the Beis Hamikdash--the Levites, the

singers, the musicians, the gatekeepers, the orders of the holy

kohenhood, the Beis Hamikdash worship in the divinely chosen city

of Jerusalem--all these help the Babylonian returnees liberated

by the Persian Empire to see themselves not as merely in

Jerusalem worshipping at the Beis Hamikdash but as the

Exile-chastened remnant of Messianic salvation preparing the

ground for the coming of the long-awaited Messianic kingdom, as

it says in I Chr. 17:14, "I will set Him (the King Moshiach) over

My houseand My kingdom forever, His throne will be established


I Chronicles tells us much about leaders. The author of this

book was preaching at the beginning of a religious revival, and

he used the leaders of the distant past as models for those he

was exhorting to lead the spiritual awakening of his day.

According to I Chronicles, a leader is someone who offers goals

and honors those who reach them. "Whoever attacks the Jebusites

first will be the chief officer," David said (I Chr. 11:6).

A good leader is someone who gives something to every person who

follows him (I Chr. 16:3).

A leader is someone who has praise in his heart, more praise in

fact than those whom he leads, because one of his duties as a

leader is to exhort the people to praise (I Chr. 16:7).

A leader also fears G-d (I Chr. 16:30) more than those who follow

him, or else his followers have nothing to learn from him, for

what is wisdom but the fear of the L-rd? (Prov. 1:7)

A leader is a shepherd who counts the sheep and he knows when one

is missing. He is a keeper of the flock of G-d who knows that

G-d does not dwell in expensive religious edifices (I Chr. 17:5).

Therefore, a good leader would rather start a few home meetings

and have a dozen sheep counted in each one than wait (while

people perish) for the purchase of an expensive building to seat

the same amount.

A good leader has followers who know and do their duties (I Chr.

23:27-30). This means that every area of the ministry has

someone over it and accountable for it (I Chr. 27:25-34). A

leader is someone called by G-d to do something for G-d, and a

good leader is someone strong enough in the L-rd to do what G-d

has called him to do (I Chr. 28:10).

A good leader is someone who can uncover the skills of those he

serves, and can help them experience the honor of serving G-d

(I Chr. 28:21).

A leader can set a good example in giving and can the credibly

challenge others to give (I Chr. 29:5).

A leader in the Biblical context is a person "with a God-given

capacity and with a G-d-given responsibility to influence a

specific group of G-d's people toward G-d's purposes for the

group." Notice in this excellent definition these 4 ingredients

in a good leader: l)giftedness, 2)a sense of accountability to

G-d for those being influenced, 3)the group is limited and

definable and so defines the leader, 4)there is in the giftedness

the recurring ability to determine G-d's direction for the group

(this is why congregational leaders often resign--they sense they

have lost this ability for a particular Brit Chadasha kehillah).

Leaders love to rank themselves based on their supposed sphere of

influence: small group, community, intercommunity, regional,

inter-regional, national, international. A congregational leader

will tend to rank congregational leaders at the apex of his

leadership hierarchy. A researcher/strategist/theologian will

disagree and assert that researchers/strategists/theologians are

at the apex. The truth is that all are just little shepherds

tending to tiny (but important) aspects of G-d's vast master


Do you know your gift-mix? Is it expendable? Can you match your

leadership roles to your strengths?

What is your present role in the L-rd's body?

What are your personal goals?

What is your commitment to minions?

A good leader doesn't back away from challenges. Hebrew and

Greek may take a little work. But if J.W.'s are willing to do

the work to get out every day in a disciplined way and attempt to

use Hebrew and Greek to convince people that Moshiach Yehoshua

isn't divine, then how can a good leader do less than work as


I Chr. 10:13 tells why Saul died. This is a warning to us.

I Chr. 15:16 shows that the Word is to be brought forth in the

midst of joyful singing and wonderful music. If you have a great

pulpit ministry but neglect the ministry of music, the Word will

not be brought forth as it should be. There should be ministers

in charge of the music--see 15:27 and the worship service

depicted in II Chr. 29:20-30.

Study in Hebrew the clear Messianic prophecy at 17:10-14.

Study I Chr. 21:17. A rabbi might say, "We have no teaching about

King Dovid's Son, the Moshiach, which condones any Messianic

human sacrifice for sin." Oh, no? Look at I Chr. 21:17-where

Dovid makes a reference that would have to include the Moshiach

and the Moshiach's Beis Hamikdash when Dovid says, "O L-rd my

G-d, let your hand fall upon me and my family, but do not let

this plague remain on your people." Meditate on the Messianic

"Son of Abraham" shown us in Isaac (Gen. 22) and Joseph and Jonah

(to say nothing of Isaiah 53) and you will see the Messianic

prophecy regarding human sacrifice and the Moshiach's person,

that is, His death and resurrection.

In chapter 28, notice how Dovid is a new Moses (the post-exilic

Chronicler is saying that the Moshiach who is coming now that we

are back from the Exile will be a new Dovid like Moses). Isaiah

says this explicitily in Isa. 42:4 and 49:9.

Do you make a sacrifice of thanksgiving every morning and every

evening (I Chr. 23:30)? If not, now you know why depression

sometimes attacks you.

Why the Song Service is important: When King Jehoshapat had to

fight a battle where he was horribly outnumbered, he appointed

"men to sing to the L-rd and to praise him for the splendor of

his holiness as they went out at the head of the army...(and)..

as they began to sing and praise, the L-rd set ambushes against

(their enemies)." (II Chr. 20:21-22)

Some will have itinerant teaching ministries (like that described

in II Chr. 17:8-9 though more will hopefully be teaching home

Bible studies and building them up until a congregation planting

can evolve).

Some of our students will become emissaries of Moshiach's

shlichut. What are the keys to becoming a kiruv outreach worker

for Moshiach? (Hint: they both have to do with spiritual renewal

and revival because without these, such

ministers are only entertainers performing an empty religious

charade.) One key is discovering and falling in love

with--almost as though for the first time--the Word of G-d. The

great revival under Josiah began when Hilkiah the kohen said, "I

have found the Book of the Law in the Beis Hamikdash of the L-rd"

(II Chr. 34:l5). A prophetess told Josiah the other key in

II Chr. 34:27--he humbled himself and was genuinely sorry for his

sins and wept.

One of the themes of II Chronicles has to do with what makes a

good leader. The author makes the point that what leaders need

is not necessarily "success" but revival. "Success" will destroy

some leaders: it says that after King Uzziah "became powerful,

his pride led to his down fall" (II Chr. 26:16). Again, it says

that "in those days (King) Hezekiah became ill and was at the

point of death. He prayed to the L-rd, who answered him and gave

him a miraculous sign. But Hezekiah's heart was proud and he did

not respond to the kindness shown him; therefore the L-rd's wrath

was on him and on Judah and Jerusalem" (II Chr. 32:24-25).

Leaders tend to fluctuate between fear and discouragement on the

one hand and pride and arrogance on the other, because they

forget how unimportant they are in themselves, since, as G-d said

to King Jehoshaphat, "the battle is not yours, but the Lord's"

(II Chr. 20:15).

King Jehoshaphat "had some good in him," but he was always

getting himself in deep trouble by political alliances and

business partnerships with unbelievers (see II Chr. 19:2;

20:35-37). Do you have people entangled in your life who are not

God-fearing and regenerated? Ephesians 2:2 says that the spirit

of HaSatan is at work in them. How can light and darkness yoked

together expect to prosper and be blessed by the L-rd? We must

learn to keep the world at arm's length and show our unsaved

friends "mercy mixed with fear, hating even the clothing spotted

by corrupt flesh" (Jude 23).

If a nation yokes itself with a HaSatan-influenced (Ephesians

2:2) president, that nation will pay the consequences. Look at

II Chr. 28:19: "The L-rd had humbled Judah because of Ahaz king

of Israel, for he had promoted wickedness in Judah and had been

most unfaithful to the L-rd." Should believers care if an

unregenerate becomes president? Of course! One U.S. President's

favorite verse in the Bible was: "If my people, who are called by

my name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and

turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven and

will forgive their sin and will heal their land" (II Chr. 7:14).

But what does revival look like? One picture of it is given in

II Chr. 5:14 where it says of the kohanim in Shlomo's newly

constructed Beis Hamikdash in Jerusalem, that they "could not

perform their service because of the cloud (of the L-rd's

presence) for the glory of the L-rd filled the Beis Hamikdash of

G-d." What does it mean to say that a person is "walking in

revival"? And how important is this? King Shlomo answers that

question when he says that G-d steadfastly maintains the Covenant

with his servants who "walk before him with all their hearts"

(II Chr. 6:l4). Even many believers desperately need revival.

Some have neglected being faithful to a body of believers where

the L-rd wants them to be protected, like He protected little

seven year old King Joash. HaSatan was trying so hard to destroy

little King Joash that HaSatan even had his grandmother Athaliah

(daughter of Ahab, who usurped the Dovidic throne 841-835 B.C.E.)

trying to murder him. But the L-rd had him surrounded with

ministers and little Joash was hidden in the house of the L-rd

where HaSatan couldn't touch him. Do you have a Brit Chadasha

kehillah home where you are submitted under congregational leader

care? If not, you are like little Joash would have been had he

been wandering around on the streets with his demon-possessed

enemies looking for him.

It's so easy to neglect personal study of the Word and prayer and

let one's congregational leader do all that so we can be free to

give our heart to our careers and friends and relationships and

other things and just drop in for a few services or watch a few

religious television shows to convince ourselves that we are not

backsliding away from revival. But what does the Word say in

II Chronicles: "The L-rd is with you when you are with him. If

you seek him he will be found by you, but if you forsake him, he

will forsake you" (15:2). Don't you realize you will dry up in

unfruitfulness unless you seek the L-rd in personal prayer and

Bible study and fellowship? People cannot he won to the L-rd by

you unless you are close to the L-rd. It ways this in II Chr.

15:9 about King Asa's personal revival, that "large numbers had

come over to him from Israel when they saw that the L-rd his G-d

was with him."

How does personal revival begin? It begins with the fear of the

L-rd, when you and I realize that we represent G-d to people and

therefore that we must fear the L-rd because He will hold us

accountable for how we live as his representatives. II Chr. 19:6

says it well. Here King Jehoshaphat is charging judges with

their responsibilities. However, he might as well be speaking to

us since believers will judge the world with Moshiach Yehoshua

and even angels (I Cor. 6:2-3). King Jehoshaphat says, "Consider

carefully what you do (in other words, how you live and speak),

because you are not judging for man but for G-d...Now let the

fear of the L-rd be upon you" (II Chr. 19:6-7). That's the

warning. Now here's the promise: King "Jotham grew powerful

because he walked steadfastly before the L-rd his G-d" (II Chr.


Unfortunately, many of the wicked kings we study in this book and

in I and II Kings were willing to change their religious

commitments as light-heartedly as Catholics become Jews or

Protestants become Muslims today. Note what wicked King Ahaz

said when he sacrificed to the gods of Damascus, "'The g-ds of

the kings of Aram (Syria) help them; I shall sacrifice to them

and they will help me'; but they were his ruin and that of all

Israel" (II Chr. 28:23). We do not ask anyone to change their

religion in order to prosper. We ask people to have the courage

to believe the truth. Then we identify with them and work with

them so that their religious expression of their commitment to

the truth avoids as much cultural dislocation as possible.

That's why we want to see established messianic synagogues in

Jewish neighborhoods and messianic mosques in Arab neighborhoods.

That's why we are focussing on cross-cultural outreach and

congregation planting. (See the author's two books, Everything

You Need To Grow a Messianic Synagogue and The New Creation Book

for Muslims.)

Many Israelis and Jews do not believe in hell. The Holocaust has

led many Jewish people even to disbelieve in G-d. However,

various kinds of holocausts are predicted in II Chr. 7:19-22,

since judgment begins at the household of G-d. This should make

Gentiles and nominal backslidden believers fear as well, because

if G-d did not spare the Jews, "neither will he spare you

Gentiles." (Romans 11:21). Look at the warning of II Chr. 7:19:

"But if you turn away and forsake the decrees and commands I have

given you and go off to serve other g-ds (like the humanistic and

non-Biblical g-ds of Talmudic Judaism and Secular Humanism) and

worship them, then I will uproot Israel from my land

(holocaust!), which I have given them, and will reject this Beis

Hamikdash I have consecrated for my Name. I will make it a

byword and an object of ridicule (anti-Semitism!) among all

peoples." This is the negetive message, a severe warning not to

neglect receiving the Ruach Hakodesh and the circumcision of new

birth (Deut. 30:6) so that one desires to study the Word of G-d

and so that one can be taught by the Holy Spirit to interpret it

correctly and not with a carnal and unspiritual mind. However,

on the positive side, we can point to the feet that G-d blesses

those who honor G-d's Word, showing how that anti-Semitic "Haman"

Saddam Hussein was militarily defeated on Purim, 1991, and how

America was miraculously blessed with less than 100 casualties in

the Persian Gulf War because she protected G-d's people and

obeyed Gen. 12:3.

But there is a greater positive message to be seen in

II Chronicles. Since Yeshua (Moshiach Yehoshua) is risen with

those he has already spiritually resurrected unto Chayyei Olam

(Eternal Life), his Body (the whole house of true believers) is

the everlasting Beis Hamikdash that G-d has made for his Word and

his Spirit to inhabit. If we are filled with his Spirit, the

gifts of the Spirit can operate in our life. G-d says in II Chr.

7:16 "I have chosen and consecrated this Beis Hamikdash so that

my Name may be there forever. My eyes and my heart will always

be there." G-d's Name is his personal self-disclosure. The

personal Word of G-d, the Moshiach of Israel, is that

self-disclosure of the Father. When we are filled with the Ruach

Hakodesh various gifts can flow through us: preaching, inspired

utterance, ministry, teaching, encouraging, contributing,

leading, comfort, supernatural wisdom, supernatural knowledge,

miracles, supernatural faith, healing, discerning evil or other

spirits (see II Chr. 18:21 when a false prophet like Rev. Moon is

unmasked because God's prophet can discern that he has a lying

spirit), tongues and their interpretation, planting a

congregation, leading someone or many people to commit their

lives to Moshiach Yehoshua, caring for G-d's people, helping and

more. Through the gifts of the Spirit we can be the eyes and

heart of Moshiach, for his eyes and his heart always dwell in his

Beis Hamikdash which is the people of G-d.

II Chr. 16:12 says "In the thirty-ninth year of his reign (King)

Asa was afflicted with a disease in his feet. Though his disease

was severe, even in his illness he did not seek help from the

L-rd, but only from the physicians." The Bible does not teach

that when you are sick you should not see a doctor. However,

even if you do see a doctor, you should look to the L-rd to give

the doctor wisdom and to be the ultimate healer in the situation.

G-d promises not only to heal our land but to touch us

individually if we have a change of heart and repent and confess

that we have done wrong and have acted wickedly and if we turn

from our old ways completely and turn back to G-d (6:37-38).

Will you make a commitment right now to start putting personal

prayer, personal Bible study, and personal ministry first in your

life and to make ministry preparation a priority so that G-d can

use you? Ask G-d to give you the wisdom of Shlomo and the

discernment you need to yield to G-d for a total healing.

The glory cloud that appears at the dedication of both the

wilderness Tabernacle and the Beis Hamikdash of the son of Dovid

(Shlomo) is a type of the incarnation. See II Chr. 5:7-14 and

also Ex. 40:34-35; II Chr. 7:1-3. Notice what happens in II Chr.

5 when the Word in the ark enters the Beis Hamikdash: "then the

Beis Hamikdash of the L-rd was filled with a cloud." See II Chr.

6:32-33: both the Servant of the L-rd and the Beis Hamikdash are

to be lights to the Gentiles (a related theme is found in

Isaiah). Both the Moshiach and the Beis Hamikdash bear the Name

of G-d (Jer. 23:5-6; Isaiah 9:6). Note also II Chr. 7:4 where

the L-rd's Word entered His House in order to trigger divinely

acceptable blood sacrifice--all this is a type of the

Incarnation. Note II Chr. 7:19-22. The sins of Israel's kings

brought the Exile of Israel and the destruction of the Beis

Hamikdash (events which are themselves a prophetic picture of the

death of the Incarnate Word).

The hope of Scripture (including II Chronicles and Ezekiel) is

that Dovid's great Son the King Moshiach would raise up a Beis

Hamikdash worthy of the new holy age. His resurrection body is

that Beis Hamikdash. Like Joshua, who brings the people of G-d

toward their promised rest, so Shlomo the son of Dovid raises up

the Beis Hamikdash and brings the people of G-d toward Messianic

rest (II Chr. 22:8-9; Josh. 11:23; 21:44).

Look in the Hebrew Bible at the mention of HaSatan in I Chr.


One can see why the Persian King Cyrus is called "Moshiach" in

Isa. 45:1, since he undertakes to cause the Beis Hamikdash to be

rebuilt. He is also mentioned climactically at the end of

II Chronicles, showing G-d's sovereign hand in the affairs of the

people He is saving.


I will be a Father to Him, and He shall be a Son to Me...


17. And Dovid said unto G-d, Is it not I that commanded the

people to benumbered? even I it is that have sinned and done evil

indeed: but as for these sheep, what have they done? let thine

hand, I pray thee, O L-rd my G-d, be on me, and on my father's

house; but not on thy people, that they should be plagued.

18. Then the angel of the L-rd commended Gad to say to David,

that Dovid should go up, and set up an altar unto the L-rd in the

threshing floor of Oman the Jebusite.


Now the L-rd has fulfilled his word that he promised; for I have

succeeded my father Dovid, and sit on the throne of Israel, as

the L-rd promised, and have built the house for the name of the

L-rd, the G-d of Israel.


Look at Ezra 3:8. Like Ezra the kohen, the Kohen Gadol Yehoshua

(Aramaic; Hebrew: Joshua) son of Jehozadak (alternately Jozadak)

and his son Joiakim were descendents of the Aaron-Zadok family

line. This man is the one in Zech. 6:11-12 whose personal name

is the Moshiach, giving us an extremely important and impressive

prophecy that pinpoints exactly what the coming Moshiach would be

named, Rebbe Melech Moshiach Yehoshua.

CHRONOLOGY: 722 B.C.E. Samaria falls as the northern kingdom of

Israel begins the Assyrian deportation and dispersion. ca. 712

B.C.E. Isaiah predicts Cyrus will be the name of the one who will

rebuild the Beis Hamikdash (Isaiah 44:28; 45:1, 13). 605 B.C.E.

Jeremiah predicts there will be 70 years of Exile (Jeremiah

25:11; 29:10). 586 B.C.E. Beis Hamikdash destroyed. From

586-516 (70 years) there is no Beis Hamikdash until it was

finally completed ca. 516/515 B.C.E. after many delays, when

King Cyrus of Persia conquers Babylon in 539 B.C.E. and sends the

Jewish Persian governor Zerubbabel and the Kohen Gadol Yehoshua

back to Jerusalem in 538 B.C.E. (Esther's story took place around

483 B.C.E. and Malachi may have prophesied around 433 B.C.E.,

after Nehemiah returned to Persia. Haggai and Zechariah

prophesied in Jerusalem around 520 B.C.E.) Ezra returns to

Jerusalem in 458 B.C.E. and Nehemiah returns in 445 B.C.E.

This corpus called Ezra-Nehemiah tells the story of how G-d's

people struggled and were divinely aided in finally rebuilding

the Beis Hamikdash and refortifying Jerusalem so that its walls

could protect its people, the restored remnant of Zareel. When

we read the book of Nehemiah we will see that the restored Jewish

commonwealth (with a Jewish Persian governor, Nehemiah) faced

many problems. Nehemiah tells us about unfair interest (Neh.

12), Tobiah the Ammonite camped out in Beis Hamikdash quarters

(Neh. 13), Shabbos-breakers, stolen tithes (see also Mal.

3:8-l2), and heathenish infiltration into the people of G-d by

such means as intermarriage of the holy people with foreign

idol-worshippers. But Ezra had to bring the people back to the

Word of G-d and make their purified worship of G-d a first

priority. So the altar and the sanctuary were first, and this

was primarily Zerubbebel and Yehoshua's work from 538-515 B.C.E.

finally completed after Darius I (522-486 B.C.E.) gave his

official permission, though the foundation of the Beis Hamikdash

was laid as early as 536 B.C.E. Then came the reforming work of

Ezra in 458 B.C.E. during the reign of Artaxerxes I (465-424

B.C.E.). Finally came the rebuilding of the walls when Nehemiah

arrived in 445 B.C.E.

Ezra 2:62 speaks of certain people who could not prove they were

children of Abraham and were therefore disqualified for the

ordained ministry. Today if you lack the witness of the Holy

Spirit within you that G-d is your Abba father (Roman 8:15-16)

you lack the new birth relationship to Abraham and his Son the

Moshiach necessary for salvation and for a call to the ministry.

In Ezra 2 and Nehemiah we see that ecumenical unity with

unregenerate religious leaders is impossible and forbidden by

Scripture. It is in fact just this that creates the apostate

Prostitute riding on the Beast in Revelation 17. The "Samaritans"

in Ezra-Nehemich were Assyrian imports from Babylon and

elsewhere, who claimed to worship the G-d of Israel but had

grossly compromised the faith. What fellowship does darkness

have with light?

Furthermore, marriage with unregenerate spouses is absolutely

forbidden, since they have no part in the congregation of Israel.

Today we see that many religious Jews are endogamous (marry only

within their own people) and this they understand to be one of

the mitzvot (commandments) according to Nehemiah 10:30. It would

not be socially realistic for ministers to simply ignore this.

Those called to minister to these Jewish people may need to

enculture ethnically to a great extent and, like Ruth,

incorporate themselves fully, remembering the endogamous Jewish

social structure reflected in Ezra-Nehemiah. Unless there are

hundreds of messianic synagogues, messianic yeshivas, messianic

Jewish singles ministries and youth ministries, etc. (creating a

socially realistic messianic Jewish marriage market for messianic

Jews) the Jewish religious community may see the messianic

movement as a sacreligious attempt to ethnically destroy their

endogamous tribal identity as Jews. Instead our "Ruths" (even if

like her they lack Jewish parentage) may become just as Jewish as

Ruth became, identifying Biblically with the Moabitess, and

thinking of themselves as "grafted in," humble members of Ideal

Israel, the kingdom of G-d. Our "Ruths" should put the Bible

first, and at the same time like her they are free to eat as

Jews, worship as Jews, marry as Jews, bury as Jews, and give

their children to marry as Jews. To marry a woman whose ethnic

orientation remains "outside the tribe" may hurt a minister's

credibility in Jewish ministry (see Neh. 7:63-64). These people,

who are called to do this, however, must always humbly submit to

the Bible and never to mere rabbinic "human precept" (Matt.

15:8-9) when it comes to such ultimate concerns as the definition

of who is a member of the true congregation of Abraham.

Arrogant, Biblically illiterate "Ruths" who idolize all things

Jewish and have a patronizing condescension toward anything

non-Jewish are not what the Bible is calling for. And all

believers should have a love that reaches out to all the people

groups of the whole world, not merely the Jewish people. The

Good News is to the Jews first but also the Greek! The "Ruth"

who only wants to learn to read her Hebrew Tanakh so she can

witness in the Jewish Deli but doesn't care to learn to read her

Greek Brit Chadasha so she can witness in the Greek Diner is not

a Biblical believer in the truest sense of Rom. l:16. The rabbis

may love her but the Moshiach may one day rebuke her. Becoming a

child of Abraham requires faith that works itself out in love

(Gal. 3:26-29; 5:6).

Our unscriptural timidity in making this Ruth-like ethnic

incorporation of joining the tribe and identifying with the tribe

in order to win the tribe is one of the unscriptural hesitations

in the body of Moshiach that is holding back the end-time revival

among the Jews. Matthew 28:18-20 commands us to make messianic

learners of whole peoples and tribes, not to destroy their social

structure and threaten their tribal existance by socially naive

congregation-planting strategies. Question: If you feel you must

be married, does your prospective mate share your vision and feel

called to minister to the same cultural people group where G-d

has placed you?

Leadership pointers in Ezra/Nehemiah: when in fear, worship (Ezra

3:3). This reminds you of the most important thing to remember:

that the hand of the L-rd is on you (Ezra 7:28).

Fast and pray for direction before you embark (Ezra 8:21).

When unbelievers are sanctified by G-d to offer you anything,

never compromise your testimony to them in your relations with

them (Ezra 8:22). Remember, ministry is not a mere business

proposition but every project must be a testimony to the L-rd who

drives money changers out of his Beis Hamikdash. Never take down

your guard (Neh. 4:23). As Shliach Sha'ul told Timothy, "Always

keep your head." This means never "provide them a scandal" with

which to reproach you. (Neh. 6:13)(Never let yourself be found in

an embarrassing position that compromises your testimony, since

your whole ministry can be hurt for years with hundreds of people

by one indiscretion.) Don't confide in the people you minister

to, and be very very careful in whom you confide or what you

divulge to anyone (Neh. 6:19). Never bring crass commercialism

into the Lord's household, for we are all, rich and poor,

brothers (Neh. 5:7). As a kiruv outreach worker for Moshiach,

never give unbelievers an excuse to reproach us for materialism

or commercialism (Neh. 5:9). Always keep promises (Neh. 5:13).

Notice the financial accountability in Ezra 8:33 where the

kohanim had to reweigh the Lord's treasure to insure no

misappropriation of funds. Do you understand petty cash receipts,

purchase orders,the receipt/disbursement ledger of accounting,

two signatures on checks, annual trustee board meetings to review

books of the ministry organization, filing a 990 form with the

IRS, etc.? Notice that the tithe is for the ministry and should

be handled by duly ordered, accredited, and accountable

ministers. Much money is wasted today buying mansions and Swiss

villas for charlatans because gullible believers don't follow the

Word (see Neh. 10:39). (Note: a not-for-profit religious

organization can engage in any activity as long as the proceeds

do not contribute to the profit of its officers and boards of

directors and as long as the activity is in line with its

religious statement of purpose. See Neh. 13:8 for a violation of


When planting a congregation or starting a new ministry of any

kind, let your first step be to ask G-d to show you who your

"Levites" are (deacons, board members, staff) and begin sharing

the vision and the responsibility of the ministry with others.

(See 3:8 and 3:24.) Choose as leaders (see Ezra 8:18) people who

are more trustworthy and G-d-fearing (Neh. 7:2) as well as people

who have a natural leadership charisma or acknowledged spiritual

position in the community (Neh. 7:70) and/or enculturative

flexibility that accompanies the gift of Shliach, because if

these "catalyst" people can be won to your cause, those families

interlocked in their group are more apt to follow their leader.

Nehemich 4:18 says "The trumpeter stood beside me." This means

that if you are the leader you should have staff meetings and

inform your people of policy so that they understand that the

"trumpeter" stands beside you. Then they will be less likely to

press the panic button (or blow the trumpet) or make any big

decisions without clearing it in conjunction with your

G-d-ordained leadership. You should have brief well-organized

staff meetings to deal with problems as they arise (Neh. 4:20);

you should work hard (Neh. 4:21), and you should stay under the

covering of the community where G-d has placed you (Neh. 4:23).

Don't neglect the prayer life of that community for this is where

the saints watch.

When you as a builder lay the foundation of a new ministry (Ezra

3:10) by starting that Bible study or fellowship or traveling

group, remember that you must first begin co-laboring with G-d to

woo and assemble the core people, prayerfully setting goals and

dates, visiting people, beginning mail (learn computers) and

telephone ministry, getting co-workers (see Ezra 6:18 for an

example of collaborative duty roster making) involved in direct

kiruv outreach for Moshiach, preparing Bible lessons, song

sheets, music, refreshments, etc. When you assemble your core

people, point out the need to them (Neh. 2:17) and share the

feasibility of your vision based on the planning and research you

have done (see Neh. 2:13, 17) and then share your testimony (Neh.

2:18) and build their faith until they are ready to make the

commitment. Avoid the prima donna: (Neh. 3:5) and those whose

spirits are not right (Neh. 2:20). When all is ready, have an

official kick-off night (Neh. 3:1) to dedicate the enterprise to

the L-rd. Help your co-workers develop a sense of ownership in

the enterprise, where they see they have a stake in its success

(Neh. 3:29). You may need to have a newsletter which lets all

the principal participants know what each other is doing (see

Neh. 3) and "render honor to whom honor is due" (Romans 13:7).

Ask the L-rd to give you the wisdom so that it can finally be

said, "the people's heart was in the work." (Neh. 4:6)

As a maggid, you seek the inspiration of the Ruach Hakodesh to

preach with this purpose: get the people to throw their weight

into the task of rebuilding the Household of G-d (Ezra 5:1-2).

Get the people to think about the legacy that they will leave to

posterity for the L-rd. By the beginning of Ezra 6, Cyrus had

long been dead but his legacy was not lost. What will your

legacy be? Zechariah and Haggai's preaching should be studied in

this context.

The people had the strength to make progress in building the

Kingdom of G-d through their ministry labors because they were

urged on by the expository preaching of the Word of G-d (see Ezra

6:14). Look at 7:6. As a scribe (Sofer), Ezra was not just a

calligrapher/copier; he was a trained teacher and interpreter and

prophetic expositor with a profound knowledge of G-d's laws and

commandments. All his studying finally paid off; someday so will

yours as a maggid through the arts who knows the Word and how to

rightly interpret it artistically and with spiritual power. When

are we going to make the "Ezra" commitment? It says, "For Ezra

had set his heart to study the teaching of the L-rd and to do it,

and to teach the laws and rules to Israel." (EZRA 7:10) Many have

had an opportunity to study, but because of their spiritual or

cultural myopia or immaturity have passed it by for various

superficial reasons and rationalizations. Now they don't have

the Ezra "study goods" and have only themselves to blame for

imminent ministry opportunities they are not ready to seize.

This is not a matter of the prestige of our teaching institution;

it is a matter having to do with the discipline of the learner.

Our goal is to get you to be expository maggidim through the

arts, to have a good theological library and to know how to use

it (see Neh. 8:8 for a definition Of expository preaching). This

is so you may go and establish new ministries throughout the

world and see many come to salvation.

A mesharet (minister) defined: someone who is "commissioned"

inquire or regulate Judah and Jerusalem according to the law of

your G-d, which is in your care (Ezra 7:14). Like an emissary of

Moshiach's shlichut speaking to his sending agency, Nehemiah

said, "Send me" (Neh. 2:5) and the Bible says the question came

back, "How long will you be gone and when will you return?" And

Nehemiah "gave him a date." So we see that Nehemiah did not go

drifting abroad indefinitely like many drifters I met in Israel

in 1981, but he had a project goal (to build a wall of

protection, spiritually and physically, in a particular place,

fortifying Jerusalem) and he had a time goal to finish his job

for the L-rd in a certain time frame. Furthermore, he did what

an emissary of Moshiach's shlichut must do with the spiritual

leaders and kiruv outreach workers for Moshiach that he is

training: he set a sacrificial example (Neh. 5:15).

An undisciplined person isn't fit to be a deacon, much less an

elder (I Tim. 3:8). Nehemiah trusted the L-rd and did not

succomb to intimidation and threats. He would not run or allow

himself to show fear in front of those he was leading (Neh.

6:11). However, the servant of the L-rd must not quarrel; he

must be kind to everyone, hoping that G-d will give his enemies

the grace to turn and to acknowledge the truth (II Tim. 2:24-26).

As an emissary of Moshiach's shlichut to Israel, Ezra had to

raise support, exempt ministry from taxes, and appoint

leaders! (Ezra 7:14-25). When your theological education has you

readied and you are found trustworthy by the L-rd and duly

approved and accredited, some of you will undoubtedly form

not-for-profit ministries, each with its own tax-exempt status,

tax deductible receipting legal capability, statement of purpose,

constitution and by-laws, name, board of directors or trustees

and officers. Then you will be doing the work of Ezra. This is

what your studies are meant to prepare you for. At the time of

Ezra, scribes were qualified to teach and preach. Unfortunately

very few Bible schools or seminaries today prepare real scribes

when they attempt to prepare people for the ministry. Knowing

Hebrew and Greek is not even a requirement in many schools.

Notice: when you do something for G-d, or even when it looks like

you might, many people under HaSatan's thumb are going to get

angry (see Nehemiah 3:10; 3:3f etc.). Therefore, don't tell the

wrong people or even the wrong believers what you intend to do

(Neh. 2:12), lest by casting your pearls before swine, they turn

a nd hurt you. Then later when things get off to their wobbly

start, don't let any tactless pessimist despise the day of small

things (Zeohariah 4:10). Do a secret and intensive survey of the

problem before you start grandly announcing to everybody that you

have found the solution (see Neh. 2:13--"I went by night"). If

you are going to start a congregation or new ministry, what kind,

with whom, where? Where is it needed? What is G-d's plan?

Where are G-d's co-workers?

To build a congregation, our objective is to win unbelievers to

the L-rd, leading them to confess him in prayer, before the

congregation, in the water, in the L-rd's Supper, and in

community commitment as members of the local body. Do you see

the sanctifying theme in the Pesach Seder and its discipling

tension in Ezra 6:21? We should keep records and lists each

month and totals each year of the exact number of people who

confessed the L-rd in the sinner's prayer, the number who

confessed him before the congregation, the number who confessed

him in the water, and in the L-rd's Supper, and in membership.

(Register your members--Neh. 7:5). We need the computer to help

us keep this hard data. (See member's pledge 9:38; 10:29;

10:39). Numbers are very important, and if we are not growing

something is desperately wrong and we need to keep changing our

methods until we find what touches hearts and wins countable

disciples. Half of our time needs to be spent "watching" in

prayer, not being ignorant of the Devil's devices, knowing that

HaSatan backs off when he knows you know what he's up to

(Nehemiah 4:9-10). We need to get new believers doing this so

that they are perfected and consolidated in their new faith by

learning to pray and then getting the leading of the L-rd in

where to go to witness for Yehoshua/Moshiach Yehoshua.

Notice that as an emissary of Moshiach's shlichut to Israel, Ezra

did more than organize a congregation; he also organized a school

or yeshiva--see Neh. 8:13 where he gathered the leaders to study

the Bible.

Questions: How could you use Ezra 1:2 in witnessing to Iranian

Muslims? How could you use Ezra 1:3-6 to raise your support as

an emissary of Moshiach's shlichut to Israel today? Could you

use Ezra 2:63 to make a case for the teaching that duly certified

mesharetim should be present when the ordinance of the L-rd's

Supper is served? When the tithe is collected (Neh. 10:38)?

What book of the Bible do you have to read to get more details on

Ezra 4:6? (Hint: see Esther 1:1.) How does G-d effect a

reversal in chapter 6 of Ezra? What might you ask the people to

do when you read the Word before you preach (hint: see Neh. 8:5)?

Ezra 1:8. Sheshbazzar may have been either the uncle of

Zerubbabel or his other name.

Ezra 4 begins telling how in 536 B.C.E. the work on the Beis

Hamikdash began but was delayed and interfered with. The author

then goes into a long digression after 4:4 in which he tells of

similar later opposition to rebuilding the walls of Jerusalem.

Finally, 4:24 resumes the story from where 4:4 left off. To

follow the digression, note the dates of Xerxes (486-465 B.C.E.)

and Artaxerxes I (465-424 B.C.E.). The narrative regarding the

Beis Hamikdash begins again at 4:24 with the year 520/5l9 B.C.E.

under Darius I (521-486 B.C.E.), who is the father of Queen

Esther's husband, Xerxes (also called Ahasuerus. It is during

this crucial year that the resumption of the Beis Hamikdash

building begins (see Hag. 1:15).

Enemies to the rebuilding of the city of Jerusalem and the Beis

Hamikdash used intimidation, lawyer harassment, attempted

infiltration, lying, accusations, spies and informers to the

Persian monarchy. But, from the standpoint of Daniel chapter 9,

these "delays" were actually measured by G-d, who had already

predicted the exact year in which the Moshiach would begin his

ministry, calculated from the year that the decree would go forth

to rebuild Jerusalem. Also, the Beis Hamikdash was calculated by

G-d not to be completed until Jeremiah's seventy years were up,

so G-d was letting Israel's enemies slow things down until 516

B.C.E., when the 70 years would be up. See notes on Daniel.

See Ezra 6:14. Under the preaching of Haggai and Zechariah,

Zerubbabel and Yehoshua resume work on the Beis Hamikdash in 519.

Darius I makes a march in the archives for their authorization to

do this given to them earlier by King Cyrus. When this

authorization is found, Darius I gives his decree. Delay is now

over, the Lord's work proceeds. The Beis Hamikdash is completed

March 12, 516 B.C.E. 70 years after its destruction. The Beis

Hamikdash is dedicated by sacrifice and the Pesach is

celebrated--see chapter 6. Notice how this points to Moshiach

Yehoshua, who on the night of his arrest, had a Pesach and the

next day made the sacrifice. Then on the third day, G-d raised

up the Beis Hamikdash of everlasting life.

See Ezra 7:11. 458 B.C.E. is possibly the count-down date of

Daniel's first 69 "sevens" (Daniel 9:24-27). It works out if a

solar calendar is used. The commission of Nehemiah (Neh.1:1, 11;

2:1-8) in 445 B.C.E. is another possible count-down date of

Daniel's 69 "sevens" if a lunar calendar is used.

Look at 8:15. The Levites were the deacons of the Old Testament,

in charge of gates, supply rooms, implements (but not making


EZRA 3:8 Now in the second year of their coming unto the house

of G-d at Jerusalem, in the second month, began Zerubbabel the

son of Shealtiel, and Yehoshua (Moshiach Yehoshua) the son of

Jozadak, and the remnant of their brethren the kohanim and the

Levites, and all they that were come out of the captivity unto

Jerusalem; and appointed the Levites, from twenty years old and

upward, to set forward the work of the house of the L-rd.

EZRA 7:12-16

12. Artaxerxes, king of kings, unto Ezra the kohen, a scribe of

the Torah of the G-d of heaven, greetings:

13. Now I make a decree, that all they of the people of Israel,

and of his kohanim and Levites, in my realm, which are minded of

their own freewill to go up to Jerusalem, go with thee. 14.

Foresmuch as thou art sent of the king, and of his seven

counselors, to inquire concerning Judah and Jerusalem, according

to the Torah of thy G-d which is in thine hand;

15. And to carry the silver and gold, which the king and his

counselors have freely offered unto the G-d of Israel, whose

habitation is in Jerusalem.

16. And all the silver and gold that thou canst find in all the

province of Babylon, with the freewill offering of the people,

and of the kohanim, offering willingly for the Beis Hamikdash of

their G-d which is in Jerusalem:

(Some scholars use a lunar calender and compute from the time

(445) that Nehemiah received a commission from the same king.

However, in either case, Daniel's 69 "sevens" puts us in the time

frame of the ministry of Moshiach Yehoshua.)


The kohanim: the descendants of Jedaiah (throuqh the house

[family] of Jeshua)...


Five books of the Hebrew Bible are known as the Five Scrolls

(Chamaish Miglot). Song of Songs is read on the Shabbos of

Passover week (Sepherdim read it on Seder night and Friday

afternoons). Ruth is read on Shavuos (Pentecost). Ecclesiastes

is read on the Shabbos of the week of Tabernacles (Succot).

Lamentations is read of the Ninth of Av, a fast commemorating the

destruction of the Beis Hamikdash. And, finally, the book we are

studying, the Scroll of Esther, is read on Purim.

Both Esther and Job could be produced as plays or musicals with a

high professional production level. In Aaron Frankel's Writing

the Broadway musical, he shows how to lay out the scenario for a

story by identifying the points in the play, visualized as a

series of scenes, where the conflicts in each scene rise to a

crescendo requiring song and/or choreography. Here are a few

ideas on how to organize the telling of Esther's story in this

way. A few possible lyric lines for songs have been put in

quotation marks. Why not think of how you could write an

original play or musical to be presented every Purim in your

ministry, and to be usable in Jewish outreach? (Try your own

creative hand--you can polish the ideas below or come up with

better ones): Scene: Persian city of Susa (modern Iran). Time:

483 B.C.E.

Possible ideas for a scenario with a few song lyric ideas: King

Ahasuerus and company (tipsy): "Queen Vashti, you're not acting

very pretty." Queen Vashti could sing a song to her maidens to

go tell the King she is now a "liberated" woman. The chorus made

up of King Ahasuerus's counsellors ("wise men (chachamim)"--

Esther 1:13) could lament the rebellious female population of the

country and how Queen Vashti will start an insurrection in every

home. A national domestic revolt is imminent, right in homes of

the nation! These wise men could sing, "It's a scandal! Things

are getting out of hand! Queen Vashti refuses to come at the

king's command! (see Esther 1:12)." On a serious note, Esther

1:22 can be taken as an allusion to the fall of mankind in Gen.


Esther singing in front of the harem: "So if I'm Jewish, why

don't I come out of the closet?" (Make sure the diction fits the

character and is in good taste and in agreement with Scripture.

Does this work?)(Look at Esther 2:10-11.) A certain dramatic

license is acceptable sometimes. Esther could sing or recite

some of the great Messianic prophecies in her Hebrew Bible, and

she could dream of the Moshiach being a great King just as she,

by the providence of G-d, might become a great Queen. However,

rather than try to keep her life and her throne, in a later scene

she is urged by her uncle Mordecai and her conscience to decide

to lose her life and her throne for the sake of her people's

salvation. The play's ending tells us, however, that whoever

loses his life can get it back through faith (Luke 9:24; see

Esther 4:14). But the drama could hinge on Esther as she reaches

this crisis decision to lose everything and so matures through

suffering, finally saying (or singing), "If I perish, I perish

(Esther 4:16), I must proclaim the truth." (Rav Sha'ul said, "I

am ready to die in Jerusalem"--Acts 21:13). Her attention could

be drawn to the example of the suffering Messianic figure of

Joseph, who said, "G-d sent me ahead of you to preserve for you a

remnant (sh'airit) on earth and to save your lives by a great

deliverance (Gen. 45:7)."

Mordecai (after he overhears the assassination plot of Bigtha and

Teresh against King Ahasuerus): "I keep my ears open so I never

lose my head--but why does everyone want someone's head? Why

does everybody hate the Jews? Let my life be given me--that is

my petition" (see also Esther 7:3). These are possible working

song titles. He can refer to his ancestor Saul's battle against

that race of anti-Semites called the Amalekites and their king,

Agag (see 3:1). Unfortunately, like Joseph, Mordecai is

forgotten. Instead, Esther 3:1 tells us that King Ahasuerus

promotes Haman. But those who are exalted will be humbled, and

pride goes before the fall. Mordecai is even in more danger when

word leaks out that he is a Jew (Esther 3:4). A yellow star

could be pinned on Mordecai, and a tattoo could be slapped on his

arm to dramatize 3:3-5. The pogrom plot begins ironically in the

month of Pesach in Esther 3:6-7 (the people are "sold" as in

Egypt--see Esther 7:4) and the pogrom countdown will be 11 months

long, finally to be executed on the 13th day of the 12th month.

Haman and Ahasuerus possible duet (after Haman gives him the

money for the king's treasury to pay for the pogrom): "I'd like

to propose a toast (to the death of the people of the L-rd of

Hosts.)" Notice that the shameful and death-dealing results of

racial hatred are so terrible that great bewilderment at the

horror of it all seizes the population (see Esther 3:15). Notice

also that any demonic pleasure anti-Semites enjoy is short-lived,

for what follows is like a terrible hang-over from an extended

drinking bout. But, meanwhile, while the wicked drink and get

drunk, the g-dly fast and pray for deliverance (4:1-3). And

those who are truly sober and ready to stand in the battle will

not run from their Jewish uniform of sackcloth in order to hide

in "civilian" clothes (Esther 4:4). It should be clear in this

drama that "prayer changes things," (see also 4:26) but prayer

requires courage and fearless confession of the truth in order to

make its effect, since faith without works is dead.

Mordecai and Esther duet based on Esther 4:14: "For such a time

as this." Chapter 4 is where the crisis of decision takes place.

Everyone is in a position of some kind of influence and can plead

for the salvation of the Jewish people. Therefore, everyone

should be able to identify with Esther's crisis. All believers

come to the royal dignity for such a time as this (Rev. 1:6;

I Kefa 2:5,9), and have a Rom. 15:27 obligation regarding the

physical well-being of the Jewish people. And if we fail at our

obligation, G-d will raise up someone else to do kiruv outreach

work for Moshiach among the Jewish people (Esther 4:14). But

since G-d has called us to the kingdom for such a time as this,

we should look for his divine favor (Esther 5:2,8; 2:15,17; 7:3;

8:5) and enablement and open doors (5:3). Notice that in Esther

ch. 6 Mordecai gets the favor Esther already has received, and

finally that favor spills out on the entire people of G-d

throughout the land. On the other hand there is an omen of

disfavor over taking the accursed Human in Esther 6:13. If we

ask the L-rd and trust him, he will give us something

supernatural that will be attractive and will win favor for the

cause of the Lord's people and their Scriptures.

Haman (after the scene at the end of chapter 5): "I'm happy and

light-hearted without G-d, (and I'll be even happier without the

people of G-d.

Ahasuerus: "What honor has been given to this man of G-d

(Mordecai)?" Great villain's aside: "Whom would the king wish to

honor more than me?--Esther 6:6)

Haman: "In all modesty, who would the King desire to honor more

than Haman the Magnificent? Haman the Incomparable? Haman the

Sublime? Haman the Glorious etc.?"

Possible trio: Esther and Ahasuerus and Haman: "Who but a devil

would dare to try to destroy the Jews?" (Haman could pretend

innocence as he sings along in the trio.)

Esther solo on 8:17: "How does one become a Jew?" (The fear of

G-d comes on you and your heart is cut by the circumcision of the

Ruach Hakodesh unto conviction and faith in the Moshiach of the

Hebrew Scriptures. Esther could recall stories she had heard of

the coming of the Moshiach who would be like Dovid and Joseph and

suffer for his people as a victim like one of Human's victims.)

What are some of the themes of this story?

1. Getting drunk gets Ahasuerus into trouble twice, once with a

divorce and the other time by flirting with anti-Semitism and

genocide when he plots a pogrom with Haman.

2. Women's rights (Queen Vashti refusing to bow to this

woman-crazy husband of hers) and resisting idolatry (Mordecai the

Benjaminite refusing to bow to Haman the Agagite--see I Sm. 15;

Ex. 17:14-16; Deut. 25:17-19).

3. Ahasuerus and his gradual deliverance from anti-Semitism as he

meets one beautiful Jew and has his mind, that Haman and HaSatan

nearly poison, delivered. This gets us into the roots of

anti-Semitism: see Esther 3:8, hatred of a people who are

different belies hatred of a G-d who is different. Why do people

hate the Bible and pass laws that contradict it? Because people

are lawless by nature and need a new heart.

4. Ahasuerus is delivered from anti-Semitism by, of all people, a

woman. (G-d can use a woman to do anything, and this is another

theme: the most unlikely and the weakest vessels can be used by

G-d for great purposes). And G-d can use unlikely people in

Jewish ministry, too, to effect a "great deliverance" (Gen.


5. Another theme: drunken lust to exploit people for the sake of

fleeting worldly power versus true Biblical sacrificial service

to G-d's people.

6. Notes on Esther's character: the closet religious witness, who

is ashamed of her faith. A big dramatic question to which the

play should provide a suspenseful answer is: will she or will she

not come out of the closet and, whatever the possible loss, tell

people what she believes?

7. Another theme: luck versus providence, and how G-d controls

both ("What a divine coincidence!" could be a refrain in the

score). G-d uses all things to arrive at his own final goal of

protecting his people and keeping them alive until the King of

the Jews returns: feminism, beauty contests, insomnia,

8. The enemies of the true people of G-d will always fall into

the pit that they have dug-Proverbs 26:27.

9. The origin of the festival of Purim and the coming

eschatological event it points to, where all the enemies of

Israel, all the Hamans lacking G-d's heart, will be separated out

and destroyed. Daniel 12:2; 7:13-14.

COMIC POSSIBILITIES: the King's don't-call-us-we'll-call-you

extermination of drop-in visitors, which builds suspense when

Esther drops in unannounced, etc. Also, look at the chance for

Haman to make a great extended double take (a la Oliver Hardy)

at the end of 6:10.

IMPORTANT STAGE BUSINESS: dealing with the King's ring and the

reversal when Mordecal gets it from Haman in 8:2. Seriously, the

Moshiach (see "My Servant" = the Moshiach Zech. 3:8, Isa. 42:1;

Hag. 2:23) is called G-d's signet ring in Hag. 2:23. See Esther

8:10 and the reversal from Esther 8:2. Why do the nations rage

against the L-rd and his anointed, his signet ring, the Moshiach?

On other reversals, see Mordecal's reversal, Esther 6:3-6;

Human's reversal, Esther 7:10; 8:5; 9:24; the Jewish people's

reversal 9:1; etc.

Haman is a type of the Anti-Moshiach in the Bible (along with

Pharaoh, the king of Babylon, Antiochus Ephiphanes, Caligula,

Nero, Hitler, Saddam Hussein, and all anti-Semites. This book

makes the astounding statement that G-d is at war with all

anti-Semites, and G-d will curse those who curse the Jewish

people (Gen. 12:3). The Moshiach himself will return at the

final battle at the end of days (Armageddon), which will be the

last battle of G-d against anti-Semites. Esther 9:5 is a picture

of the Day of the L-rd in the Hebrew Bible (Amos 5:9-14; Zeph.

l:14-l8). See also Esther 9:2,16.

The whole show could be done in modern dress with Haman in a

fascist uniform. We need to create spectacles that will draw

outsiders to G-d's House, just as G-d did with the splendor of

the Beis Hamikdash and the annual pilgrimage festivals.

Typological exegesis of Esther. The Moshiach's bride will not be

ashamed of him, that he is from the tribe of Judah. The bride

that does not come to him (Vashti = apostate religion) forfeits

any privileged position and is replaced by the bride that "boldly

approaches the throne of grace, so that we may receive mercy and

find grace to help in time of need" (Heb. 4:16; Esther 5:2).

Notice, as in I Cor. 15:4, the turning-point day of deliverance

is "the third day" (Esther 5:1).

See 9:10. When we taste the dainties of the anti-Semites and

enjoy their fleeting pleasures, we lose our kingship and royal

power, as Mordecai might have (he didn't). However, Modecai's

ancestor learned this lesson the hard way when he seized the

plunder of Amalek (I Sm. 15:17-19), unlike Abraham who abstained

from the plunder (Gen. 14:22-24).

Notice Purim is to be a time of joy (simcha) and feasting and

gladness and a time to send gifts of food to one another and

presents to the poor (Esther 9:22). If this festival were

celebrated each year in the Brit Chadasha kehillah, less

anti-Semitism would befound there. A Purim play could help laugh

the HaSatan out of the sanctuary. Since, according to Romans

chs. 9-11 the Brit Chadasha kehillah "joins" Israel, Esther 9:27

applies to the Brit Chadasha kehillah, because the text says,"the

Jews accepted as a custom for themselves...and all who joined

them, that without fail they should continue to observe these two

days every year.

Mordecai's work in the last verse ("he sought the good of his

people and interceded for the welfare of all his (zar'o)

seed"--Esther 10:3) sounds like the Moshiach in Isaiah 53:12,10

("he made intercession for the transgressors...and he shall see

(zera) seed").

Important note: Saddam Hussein's army was destroyed on the very

day of Purim, 1991, proving any Haman who threatens to destroy

Israel can still be brought down by the G-d of Israel.


In every province and in every city, wherever the edict of the

king went, there was joy and gladness among the Jews, with

feasting and celebrating. And many people of other nationalities

became Jews because fear of the Jews had fallen on them.


The question for the sages of Israel that the book of Job (a

Gentile sage from Edom--see Job 1:1; Lam. 1:21) grapples with is:

in the face of the riddle of life's sufferings, what answer can

chachma (wisdom) bring to vindicate both G-d and suffering Man as

nevertheless righteous and worthy?

The divine answer comes in the form of a drama whose diction is a

long dialogue poem sandwiching its dialogical wisdom between a

prose prologue and a prose epilogue. It could be staged with Job

himself as the narrator who goes in and out of the story like the

protagonist in Arthur Miller's After The Fall or Tennessee

Williams' Glass Menagerie. Or it could have a Sherwood Anderson's

Our Town narrator, possibly using the Devil himself as the

narrator. Must reading for the art of writing a play is Sam

Smiley's playwriting: The Structure of Action (Prentice-Hall

Publishers.) Perhaps you could adapt this Bible drama for the

stage and use it as a community outreach project. If you got it

published, it could be used on stages throughout the world.

At the beginning of Job, a demonic wager puts both G-d (G-d's

worth in Himself) and Man (the worth of Man's love for G-d) to

the test. See 1:8-11; 2:3-5. Is G-d really worth anything (do

His people really believe so?), or is religion merely an opiate

of the people, as in Karl Marx's demonic challenge? Remember,

Job is a type of Moshiach, as we will show. Since Job's life is

exposed to Satanic attack as we see in these passages, this very

attack also points forward to the attacks of Satan against

Moshiach Yehoshua, both in the beginning of his ministry, at the

turning point after he shares with his Shluchim his coming death

on the Aitz, and at the L-rd's Supper (see Mark 1:13; 8:27-33;

Yochanan 13:2)

Chapter 1:21 offers the instinct of faith to answer life's

biggest riddle: why do we suffer? In fact, how can G-d be good

if He allows us to suffer? The answer of 1:21 must be probed in

depth as the protagonist (hero) is tested in depth, and this

probe necessitates a dramatic dialogical interrogation of both

G-d and Man, utilizing wise men or sages.

Chapter 3:1-31:40 offers the solution to the riddle given by

Job's three friends: you are suffering for sin; therefore, repent

and your sufferings will vanish!

In chapter 32:1-37:24, Elihu presents his solution to Job's

riddle: you are undergoing a divine discipline of love to deter

you from further sin; therefore, stop claiming innocence like the

wicked do before G-d, and stop calling G-d's justice into


G-d's solution finally appears in chapter 38:-41:34. In brief,

G-d replies that to encounter G-d, whether in abasement or

abundance, is enough and is worth everything. Then, in the

epilogue G-d "restores what has been taken" (Yoel (Joel) 2:25;

Job 42:10f) and "all things work together (co-operate) for good

for those who love G-d and are called according to his purpose"

(Romans 8:28).

Have you ever had a Job experience? Our Moshiach did. Shliach

Sha'ul did. Shliach Sha'ul seems to be talking about all true

witnessing kaddoshim in II Corinthians chapter 4. Can you cast

your testimony in the form of a before-and-after Job experience

so that G-d gets the glory and is worth it all in the end? We

will overcome the devil by the word of our martiurias (Revelation


There was once a minister who had a "Job" experience. He was

called on the carpet by his overseers, who accused him of heresy.

Then his family deserted him and he lost his home. Then his

friends came around and lectured him on not being a good family

man. Then all the religious people avoided him. He even lost

his ministry appointment and was left all alone. In all this he

had done nothing wrong, but he held on to his righteousness and

cried out to G-d for vindication.

This minister waited for G-d to vindicate his innocence and to

stop the mouths of his detractors. Satan was behind the whole

plot, because it was the ministry of the man of G-d that was

being unjustly discredited. After a long period of being put to

the test, the L-rd restored everything that He had allowed to be

taken from the man of G-d. In fact, the man of G-d received back

from the L-rd his ministry appointment, home, etc. Not only

that, the biggest publishing houses, colleges, Brit Chadasha

kehillot (even the President's Brit Chadasha kehillah) opened to

the man of G-d. Then he learned by experience what he had

believed already by faith: that G-d is worth everything and is

worth losing everything for. Do you see how Job could be done in

"modern dress?" Could you write a novel, a screenplay, a drama

on Job?

Have you had a Job experience of dying to self for our Moshiach

and coming back to life with "all these things added unto you as

well"? Could you write your personal testimony as a tract and

give it out in kiruv outreach for the Moshiach, using the theme

of Job in the way you tell your story of how G-d saved you and

proved Himself real to you at the end of your struggle of faith?

What is a theodicy? See chapter 36:2. What is the two-tier

structure of reality presented in Job? How is it like the

structure of reality presented in Revelation and the rest of

Scripture? What is a theophany? See 38:1-42:6.

Do you see how mesasretim who make outlandish salaries bring

HaSatan's accusation against them (1:9)?

Look at chapter 5. Eliphaz infers that Job is a fool (5:2) whom

G-d is correcting (5:17). He tries to comfort Job but wounds him

with false accusations. Job is pictured more and more as a

kicked-down sage, who is a type of Moshiach, and Job's wisdom is

that which comes from suffering in the flesh (I Shliach Kefa

4:1). Like our Moshiach, Job prays for his enemies in 42:8.

Look at 6:14. Shliach Sha'ul says, "All men forsook me."

Job's question in 9:2 is answered in Habakkuk 2:4.

Look at 9:33 and 16:18-21. Is not our Moshiach our defender,

paracletes meaning a friend of the accused person called to speak

in his favor) against Satan's accusations? See Job 31:35,

I Yochanan 2:1 (KJV). Job 33:23-26.

Job 14:14 is answered by Job 19:25-26. Remember the Go'el from

the book of Ruth? This word is found in Job 19:25.

Job 34:33 is a good point for Besuras Hageulah rejecters.

Chapter 38:33 is a good point for proud scientists who accept the

g-dless cosmogony of evolution instead of the book of Genesis

properly interpreted in the light of other Scripture. The whole

section starting from chapter 38 reveals the weakness, ignorance,

unworthiness and stupidity of puny man so prone to arrogance.

To sum up, in the book of Job the hero is presented by the

unknown author as the ideal man of wisdom literature, a sage,

prosperous, blessed of G-d and honored of men, one who is upright

in character and on no account can be tempted to curse G-d, so

great is his wise fear of the Almighty. A crisis occurs in Job's

life that leads him to seek G-d in a deeper way. So extreme is

Job's situation that nothing less than a personal encounter with

G-d will suffice. Job's despair brings him to the point of

discovering that philosophy and religion are amal m'nachamim,

"miserable comforters" (16:2). He needs to know G-d personally,

nothing less will satisfy the gnawing yearning within his soul.

He has many questions, many "whys" that only G-d Himself can

answer. Mere human wisdom and conventional piety, which the

other actors in this drama personify, are amazed and confounded

by Job's questions.

Only occasionally, and almost as an afterthought, do they ask

penetrating questions. For example, without appreciating the

profundity of the question, Bildad asks Job, "How can a man be

yitz'dak righteous before G-d?"

This is really the question of the whole book. If man serves G-d

and is blessed, how can it be proven that his service was not

mere unrighteous self-serving opportunism. On the other hand, if

man serves G-d and is not blessed but cursed, how can it be

proved that a) the righteous fare any better than the wicked

either in this life or in the next? b) that there is a

resurrection in any case? c) that there is a mediator in heaven

without whom no man can stand vindicated and redeemed as

righteous before a righteous G-d? Like Job, we must prove that

our suffering is not deserved but for the glory of G-d (I Kefa

1:12-17; Yochanan 9:3).

While Job stands rejected and forsaken with mockers around him

(17:2), he reminds the reader of the picture we have of the

suffering Servant of the L-rd in Isaiah 53 or the mocked Dovidic

King in Psalm 22 (compare Job 27:4 to Isa. 53:9). In the midst

of the false accusations Job "holds fast to his righteousness"

(27:6) and waits on the L-rd to confirm the innocence of his

cause (Job 42:7-8). So the mocked sage who becomes a fool that

the world curses and makes sport of is depicted here. We have

seen this picture before in that other sage, the judge of Israel,

Samson, being made sport of by the Philistines (Judg. 16:25) or

in the King of Israel, Dovid the sage, pretending to be mad

before a similar scoffing Philistine audience (I Sm. 21:13-15).

When sages like Moshe or Dovid are nearly stoned by the people

(Ex. 17:4; I Sm. 30:6) we see this reemerging picture of the

rejected, righteous Sage of Israel. Significantly, the Son of

Dovid is depicted as the sage par excellence in the life of

Shlomo in I Kings. Then II Chronicles intensifies this portrait

and gives Messianic prophetic significance to Dovid's Son as the

Moshiach Sage of Israel. Finally, Isaiah combines the two

portraits of the sage found in Job and Shlomo and depicts the

Dovidic Servant of the L-rd as the mocked and rejected sage

filled "with the spirit of wisdom" (Isaiah 11:2) who seems to

labor "in vain" but trusts his cause to the L-rd (Isa. 49:4) and,

after mockery and rejection (Isa. 53:2-4), is finally vindicated

by G-d as righteous (see Isa. 53:11-12). So the book of Job

gives us one of our most important glimpses of the coming


This book does not merely pose the most pressing questions of

life. It also gives us some profound answers. We discover that

true faith has to be tested. The whole book is a test of Job's

faith, the integrity of which HaSatan throws into question in the

prologue. Job comments on this test by saying with the

affirmation of faith, "He knows the way that I take; when He has

tested me, I shall come out like gold." We also discover in this

book that faith is knowing G-d and being known by G-d, and mere

religious or philosophical assent is not faith nor can such

intellectualism substitute for a personal relationship where the

true G-d is personally known. "How can a man be yitz'dak

righteous before G-d?" The book of Job tells us that G-d

vindicates man's faith. Abraham the sage had faith in G-d and

G-d vindicated him as righteous (Gen. 15:6). The righteous shall

live before G-d by faith (Hab. 2:4).

But what difference does all this make if there is no

resurrection for the righteous? Is there a resurrection in any


To get the answer of the book of Job we need Job 19:25-27, where

we also find the answer to the other question the book asks,

namely, is there a mediator in heaven without whom no man can

stand vindicated and redeemed as righteous before a righteous

G-d? The Job 19 passage should be studied with Job 16:18-21. In

these passages Job's faith affirm: the bodily resurrection of the

dead. He also affirms by faith the existence of a heavenly

mediator between G-d and man whom he called Edi (my witness) and

Sahadi (my advocate) (16:19) and mokhi'ach "my arbitrator" (9:33)

and go'eli "my redeemer" (19:25). And just as Job himself has to

make intercessor for his friends at the end of the book,

literally mediating between them and G-d (Job 12:7-8), so this

heavenly figure vouches for Job from on high (16:19) and at last

stands upon the earth when Job is bodily resurrected (19:25).

Like that other heavenly Messianic figure, the angel of the L-rd,

in Job 33:23 we see this heavenly Mal'ach (angel/messenger), this

Mailitz (Mediator) coming to Job's defense. However, he does

more. He provides a Kofer (ransom), redeems Job's soul from

going down into the Pit (Job 33:28), and makes it possible for

Job "to see the light of life" (compare the Messianic text of

Isa. 53:11 in the Dead Sea Scrolls to Job 33:28). But Isa. 59:20

says that the Go'el (Redeemer) coming to Zion is no mere angel

but the Moshiach. Therefore the word in Job 33:23 should more

properly be translated "messenger" than "angel" because the

Mal'ach (angel/mesienger) of the Lord" is no mere angel in Judg.

6:l4 (where he is called "the L-rd"), just as the Moshiach is no

mere Mal'ach (angel/messenger) of the Covenant" In Mal. 3:1

(where he is also called "the L-rd"). Therefore, seen from the

fuller perspective of the entire Hebrew Bible, Job is indeed

looking for the one the Jewish people called the Moshiach. Like

Job, Daniel also sees the coming resurrection and the resurrected

saints being given the kingdom at the end of days by a heavenly

Messianic figure (see Dan. 12:2; 7:13-14).

JOB 19:25

For I know that my Redeemer liveth, and that he shall stand at

the latter day upon the earth.


No one has an excuse for not having a deep prayer life and

devotional walk with the L-rd! The software has already been

written for it! The L-rd has provided the most vigorous prayer

life you can imagine, and all you have to do is let the Ruach

Hakodesh put it into your mental computer. I'm referring to the


If the Moshiach, G-d's Word who is "the light that lightens every

man, is your "operating system" then you are not a religious

spectator but a Kingdom warrior like David and you are the target

of demons and hellish opposers of G-d. The Psalms have a

militant and embattled pressure, which, if they are the thoughts

of your prayer-life, will keep you in the race of the ministry.

They will also keep you on guard in the onslaught of demonic

battle as a victorious and rejoicing soul-winner.

Like the protagonist in Kafka's The Trial, the servant of G-d is

often hedged in on every side. Then he must fight his way out in

prayer as Dovid does in Psalm 35. Read Psalm 35:11-19. These

are the times when we are too weak to pray as we should (Romans

8:26). Then we can pray and sing in our heavenly prayer language

and in spiritual song, and we can also pray the Psalms, letting

G-d's Word to us become our word to G-d. There have been times

in my life when I was so weakened by HaSatan's plots that my

enfeebled prayerlife had to go on the "automatic pilot" of the

Psalms and all I could do was read the Psalms and sing them

antiphonally out loud to the L-rd days on end till I could

literally no longer speak. See Psalm 69:3. But thank G-d for

his Word which is a prayer warrior sword with which we can cut

our way free of every depressing confusion.

In short, the Psalms have been provided for us through Dovid and

other lyricists (these were originally lyrics used in worship

with musical accompaniment). Some of you may create melodies and

choruses to be used in worship utilizing the words of the Psalms

as your lyrics. A very important arts project to the body of

Moshiach right now would be to visit a Sufi meeting and do

research on how to develop messianic Muslim use of music with the

Psalms. Another research project could be to visit various

synagogues and do the same thing with a messianic Jewish use of

the Psalms.

Your familiarity with I and II Shmuel will help you not to ignore

the possible historical context of these Psalms, particularly the

ones ascribed to Dovid. For Example, Psalm 51 may refer to

II Shmuel 12, when Nathan exposed Dovid's sin with Bathsheba.

The 23rd Psalm may reflect the "valley of the shadow of death"

where Dovid fought Goliath or similar dangers he experienced.

For a full attempt at this kind of reconstruction of the Psalms

into their original historical setting, see the Reese

Chronological Bible, Bethany House Publishers.

Psalm 11 may be referring to Dovid's flight from Saul, when

HaSatan was trying to kill Dovid and Dovid was an innocent

refugee from HaSatan, who had in effect seized the throne by

possessing King Saul. (Look at Psalm 11:1-2.) All true believers

are refugees from the G-d who rules the kingdom of this world,

and take care when worldly spokesmen speak well of you, for if

they called the head of the house Beelzebul, how much more the

members of his household! (Matthew 10:25) And if they hanged on

the Aitz the head of the house, do you think HaSatan's government

will always let the members of the house reign already like

kings? (The Corinthians made this mistake--I Corinthians 4:8).

The Brit Chadasha makes clear that human government will

eventually become the Beast and the Brit Chadasha kehillah will

be persecuted by it. You must recognize that your existential

situation is the same as Dovid's. He was seated in heavenly

places with Moshiach Yehoshua just as we are (we are kohanim end

kings), but he was constantly embattled by the spirit of

anti-Moshiach in Saul and Absalom as a refugee king hiding in the

L-rd and always very weak in order to be strong in G-d. If this

is not true in your experience, it may be because you are sitting

around like Dovid's brothers when Saul's army was being

challenged by HaSatan's spokesman, Goliath. If all you have is a

comfortable Sunday morning religion, start witnessing and begin

some messianic ministry and watch your situation be instantly

transformed just as Dovid's was when he took Goliath's challenge

and got HaSatan's attention (see Psalm 69:9). Yet, like Dovid,

you will prevail in time because the battle is the L-rd's, and He

is the "savior of fugitives" (Psalm 17:7).

Psalm 110 proves that the Moshiach is HaAdon L-rd and will be a

kohen. When you put Ps. 110:1-4 together with Mal. 3:1; Zech.

4:14; 3:8; and Ezra 3:8 you get Yehoshua's sacrifice of Isa.


Note Ps. 1:4 in the Jerusalem Bible: "It is nothing like this

with the wicked, nothing like this!" (lyric poetry expresses


Ps. 2:7-8 Today I have become your father-relationship, not

sexual concept. Moshiach Yehoshua is the only one, the unique

one of G-d, not the sexually (and therefore in the beginning

non-existant) begotten one of G-d. This is the heresy of Arius,

the first "J.W." Monogenes in Yochanan 1:14,18; 3:16 means

"unique one." Explain to Muslims that Moshiach Yehoshua is the

Son of G-d only in the sense that "like begets like," and the

Word is like the Father in his divine presence--not Son in the

sense that G-d got married and had a child who did not exist

until he was sexually procreated. The Word of G-d is his

personal Word uniquely of his own substance and perfectly

reflecting Him in fellowship, as a son does his father, but the

analogy breaks down on the human level since fathers pre-exist

their sons and the Father did not pre-exist his Word.

Another note on Psalm 2. Another reason it "has been given to

you not only to believe on him but also to suffer for him" (Phil.

1:29) is because there is a war going on and war always brings

suffering. Ps. 2 depicts the war going on between the Seed of

the Woman and His seed and the Seed of the Serpent and His

anti-Moshiach seed.

Psalms 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7 are individual prayers of entreaty.

5:3 Do you have a devotional life like this? Do you watch for

G-d in everything?

Read Psalm 8. The Word of G-d is called the Son of Man in

Yochanan 1:1,51 because He is the image of the invisible G-d

(Col. 1:15), and he is the light that enlightens every human

being created in the image of G-d (Yochanan 1:9). He is the

eternal Son of the Father who was destined to be incarnated as

the Son of Man and the "ruling heir" (Col. 1:15) into whom hands

all authority is given (Matthew 28:18).

Psalm 8:1-2 alludes to natural revelation, that G-d has made his

glory, majesty and power known to mankind in the stars and in

nature (Romans 1:19f), and even children are not ignorant of this

natural revelation, so men are without excuse. Dr. Allan R.

Sandage of the Carnegie Institution's observatories in Pasadena,

California, is a cosmologist and astronomer. Speaking of the

stars he says, "I find it quite improbable that such order came

out of chaos. There has to be some organizing principle. G-d to

me is a mystery, but is the explanation for the miracle of

existence why there is something instead of nothing."

Look at Psalm 13. Our entreaty is always in the context of

praise, for a double-minded man bitter in his lack of faith

should not think that he will get anything from the L-rd. In

Psalm 14 we see that no one is righteous before G-d, as Shliach

Sha'ul makes clear in Romans 3. Without faith it is impossible

to please G-d (Heb. 11:6), since no one but G-d is good (Mark

10:18). When Dovid speaks of Dovid's righteousness in Ps. 143:2;

18:20-24; 17:3; 7:8, he is speaking of the

righteousness of faith and faithfulness to G-d's covenant; he is

not contradicting Ps. 14:3. On the necessity of faith in regard

to righteousness, see Ps. 62:8; 78:21-22,37; 81:12; 116:8-10.

The type of guest the L-rd welcomes is seen in Psalm 15: one who

never uncharitably slanders someone else (15:3) and one who

stands by his commitments at any cost (15:4). Some of the

students who drop in at our school are so willing to drop out,

because they think G-d is as uncommitted to ministry preparation

as they are. "Demas in love with this passing world has forsaken

me and has departed," Shliach Sha'ul said, of one of his seminary


Psalms 16:10-11 contains the hope of the resurrection of the King

of Israel. Shliach Kefa bases his first sermon on this in Acts 2.

Have you experienced not only the knowledge of salvation, but its

ground (what's behind it)--G-d's love for you? See Psalm 18:19:

"He rescued me, since he loved me. G-d loves even me! He saved

me because he loved me. Say it often to yourself. Use it often

in witnessing. Augustine used Psalm 18:25-26 to teach a rather

simplistic theory of double-predestination that Calvinists love

to espouse. However, to say that G-d has a "secret counsel"

whereby he has, irrespective of human response, condemned

arbitrarily to hell whomever He pleases is not Scriptural. To

claim one's election in this light can also lead to pharisaic

presumption, just as seeing reprobation in this light can lead to

Islamic fatalism and kiruv outreach and social irresponsibility.

Shliach Sha'ul warns about this pharisaic presumption in Romans

11 where, having assured us that all the people of G-d seen as a

corporate entity are once saved, always saved." But then Shliach

Sha'ul goes on and warns the believers in Rome that they should

not get presumptuous individually but rather fear that they could

be individually cut off. Moshiach Yehoshua also warned Messianic

maggidim in the strongest terms that they could be cut off

(Matthew 7:21-23). However, there is a doctrine of individual

assurance (II Shliach Kefa 1:10, see Psalm 37:23-24), just as

there is a doctrine of a universal call and unlimited kapporah

(I Tim. 2:4-6). The so-called "secret counsel" is not secret at

all, but the electing counsel of HaAv in His electing Word

publically reveal in the man Yehoshua the Moshiach (Matthew

11:27; Ephesians 1:3-7). However, this is not to say that

someone can, by sheer unaided human will, save himself. This is

the heresy of Pelagius, who rejected original sin (despite Psalm

51:5) and believed that man could choose salvation without any

help from G-d in circumcising the heart, which Pelagius said was

not desperately wicked. But Moshiach Yehoshua said, "You did not

choose me, but I chose you," meaning that G-d gives us a new

heart (Ezekiel 36:26), because with our own fallen heart of stone

we could never find G-d without G-d's help. However, if we will

to seek G-d (Yochanan 7:17), if we make ourselves a new heart

(Ezekiel 18:31), G-d will draw near to us (Ya'akov 1:8). So

human responsibility to respond to the Besuras Hageulah cannot be

minimized in the human responsibility for sin which is taught in

the so-called doctrine of total depravity. Having said all this,

it is nevertheless true, that our own choices, whether to accept

G-d's mercy in the Moshiach or reject it, even though these

choices are real and are our own, cannot overeach or dominate

G-d's choices, which are prior and decisive.

Psalm 19:7-10 and Ps. 119 deal with the inerrancy of the Bible,

which is the Book whose every word is authored by the Spirit of

the Word from the Father (see I Shliach Kefa 1:11, 3). This is

the doctrine of verbal, plenary inspiration of the original

autographs. These last two paragraphs will be covered in more

detail in the section on Historical Theology in this book. A

good setting for Psalm 22 is in II Shmuel 15:30 where Dovid

experienced something of the messianic rejection as the Moshiach

did on the Aitz.

See Psalm 27:1. If G-d is your strength, how strong are you?

Are you witnessing every day? See Psalm 10:10. Out of the

abundance of the heart the mouth speaks. Above all, guard your

heart from growing slightly cold and your testimony from growing

slightly muted (Psalm 73:25-28).

See Psalm 49:7-9. Look at the Stephen-Saul debate in The Rabbi

From Tarsus monodrama for the significance of this verse. Only

a G-d-Man can save us. Therefore, any kind of Arianism that

loses the deity of the Word and any kind of gnosticism that loses

the fully human incarnation of the Divine Word leads to heresy

and to another "Yehoshua/Yeshua" and another (damnable) Besuras

Hageulah (Psalm 107:20; II Cor. 11:4; Gal. 1:9). We are not

worshipping a human idol (Psalm 56:4).

Don't get idolatrous and become "star-struck" on religious

leaders (Psalm 62:9), but neither be arrogantly disrespectful so

as to presumptuously disregard the office of those who are

serving in the body of the L-rd.

Read Psalm 63 and ask yourself if you love G-d like Dovid loved

G-d, with a reckless abandonment. Dovid loved even his enemies

(Saul and Absalom) with a mad king's crazy kind of love (see the

picture of Dovid feigning madness with the King of the

Philistines Achish in I Shmuel 21:13.) This was why Dovid was a

man after G-d's own heart. Another "mad king" went to the Aitz

with this type of love, and Shliach Sha'ul said, "If we are out

of our minds, it is for the sake of G-d" (II Cor. 5:13). The

spirit of anti-Moshiach in Saul when he slaughtered the Kohen

Gadol Ahimelech (I Shmuel 21) was desperately trying to destroy

Dovid, but Dovid had faith to go right into the HaSatan's cave

with love so radical he would even let his rebellious son almost

destroy him, even as G-d so loved the rebelling world (Yochanan

3:16). David is a type of the Warrior Word who will return to

set up his victory over his enemies in the millenium.

Ps. 129:5 says of every Haman, every Hussein who hates Zion, "May

all who hate Zion be put to shame and turned backward."

However, soldiers who go into battle fighting for the L-rd's

people (if indeed it is the L-rd's people that they are

protecting) can look to a promise in Ps. 91:7, "A thousand may

fall at your side, ten thousand at your right hand, but it

(destruction) will not come near you. You will only look with

your eyes and see the punishment of the wicked." In 1948 when

Israel had to fight for her independence as a nation, in the 1956

Sinai campaign, in the Six-Day War in 1967 when Jerusalem was

reunited, and in the 1973 Yom Kippur war, we believers had grown

used to hearing about battlefield miracles being reported about

Israelis; but in the 1991 Persian Gulf War, when Saddam Hussein's

anti-Israel troops were defeated on Purim, this time the miracles

we were hearing about were concerning American troops and, among

other things, the low number of casualties was truly

"miraculous," as top U.S. military officials readily admit. The

Bible says, "In Judah G-d is known" (Ps. 76:l; 147:19-20). It

also says that G-d will "rise up and have compassion on Zion

(Jerusalem), for it is time to favor it, the appointed time has

come (Ps. 102:13). Gen. 12:3 says that G-d will bless anyone who

blesses Israel. America defended Israel (remember the Patriot

missiles shooting down the Scud missiles fired at Israel?) and,

miraculously, had only 89 casualties in the Persian Gulf War and

the American economy is now starting to revive. So there is a

blessing for America now, and the same blessing that was on the

soldiers will be on you when you preach the Good News "to the Jew

first and also the Greek." "Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: 'May

they prosper who love you'" (Ps. 122:6). And when you go on the

street and begin street preaching you shall not be put to shame.

You shall have an answer for every objector (Ps. 119:42,46).

I was praying the Psalms to the L-rd today, and He showed me the

secret of how to be happy. "Happy are those who do not follow

the advice of the wicked (see Ps. 1:1; 26:4-5)." Happy are those

whose delight is in the torah (law) of the L-rd, and on his law

they meditate day and night (Ps. 1:2). Why are they happy?

Because "the law of their G-d is in their hearts; their steps do

not slip" (Ps. 37:31). "Happy is everyone who fears the L-rd, who

walks in his ways. You shall eat the fruit of the labor of your

hands; you shall be happy, and it shall go well with you" (Ps.

128:l-2). Happy are all those who choose the Derech HaChayyim

(the way of life)--Jer. 21:8. Such a person has found what

Ponce De Leon looked for in vain--the fountain of youth, because

Psalm 1:3 says he will be like a tree whose leaves do not wither!

That's us! And we yield our fruit in its season. The Bible says,

"The righteous flourish like the palm tree...they are planted in

the house of the L-rd. old age they still produce fruit;

they are always green and full of sap" (Ps. 92:12-14).

What keeps us happy? Keeping G-d's precepts (Ps. 119:56). This

is just as true for the young as for the old. "How can young

people keep their way pure? By guarding it according to your

Word" (Ps. 119:9). Taking our eyes off selfish gain and empty

vanities and instead treasuring G-d's word and delighting in its

counsel--this is how we avoid sinning (Ps. 119:11,24,36-37). And

in every misery of life the L-rd's Word is our great consolation,

a delight that makes us wiser, more understanding with every step

we take in its light. "Great peace have those who love your law;

nothing can make them stumble" (Ps. 119:165)

The wicked are not so. They have no true taste for the Word of

G-d. The Bible is one book they don't pour over! They have no

knowledge, their hearts always go astray, and they do not regard

G-d's ways (Ps. 95:10). They do not call upon the L-rd (Ps.

14:4). The wicked refuse to take refuge in G-d but seek refuge in

money (Ps. 52:7). Trusting in their own works, they do not regard

the works of the L-rd (Ps. 28:5). Their G-d is not the true G-d

but a worthless idol, and "those who make them (idols) are like

them" (Ps. 115:8). Ps. 36 says there is no fear of G-d before

their eyes, and they do not really reject evil either, though, as

far as G-d is concerned, they flatter themselves in their own

eyes that their own iniquity cannot be found out or despised by

the L-rd. The wicked say in their heart, "G-d, you will not call

us to account" (Ps. 10:13). The drunkard may go to Brit Chadasha

kehillah, the bigot may go to synagogue, but G-d is not fooled.

True faith repents. Yet their heart is not steadfast towards

Him. They are not true to His covenant (Ps. 78:37). G-d is not

in all their thoughts. "They did not keep in mind His power, or

the day when He redeemed them" (Ps. 78:42). So G-d gave them

over to their stubborn hearts, to follow their own proud counsels

(Ps. 81:12), and the L-rd who sees and is close to the lowly

"perceives the haughty from far away (Ps. 138:6).

To the ungrateful wicked G-d says, "What right have you to recite

my statutes, or take my covenant on your lips? For you hate

discipline, and you cast my words behind you." (Ps. 50:16) "Not

another Bible!" he says, as you offer it to him. But the L-rd

replies, "Mark this, then, you who forget G-d, or I will tear you

apart, and there will be no one to deliver. Those who bring

thanksgiving as their sacrifice honor me; to those who go the

right way I will show the salvation of G-d" (Ps. 50:22-23).

On the other hand, the L-rd "Is near to all who call on Him, to

all who call on Him in truth." Those who fear the L-rd will find

their desires fulfilled (Ps. 145:18-19). But as far as the wicked

is concerned, suddenly you will look for him but you will not

find him, the wicked will die, and on that very day their plans

will perish.

Not so the righteous. "For the righteous will never be shaken;

they will be remembered forever. They are not afraid of evil

tidings (bad news); their hearts are firm, secure in the L-rd.

Their hearts are steady, they will not be afraid; in the end they

will look in triumph on their foes. They have distributed freely,

they have given to the poor; their righteousness endures forever;

their horn is exalted in honor. The wicked see it and are angry;

they gnash their teeth and melt away; the desire of the wicked

comes to nothing" (Ps. 112:6-10).

What I have been giving you is some of the "wisdom" Psalms. These

have the wisdom theme that you get in the other wisdom literature

in the Hebrew Bible. The prophet has his contribution to G-d's

Word. The priest has his. The King of Israel has his. But this

kind of literature comes from the sage or wise man. You find

wisdom literature in the book of Job, in Proverbs, in Ecclesiates

and other places. What I'm talking about also relates to the

Messianic prophecies in the Psalms.

For example, while Job stands rejected and forsaken with mockers

around him (Job 17:2), he reminds the reader of the picture we

have of the suffering Servant of the L-rd in Isaiah 53 or the

mocked Dovidic King in Psalm 22 (compare Job 27:4 to Isa. 53:9).

In the midst of the false accusations Job "holds fast to his

righteousness" (Job 27:6) and waits on the L-rd to confirm the

innocence of his cause (Job 42:7-8). So the mocked sage who

becomes a fool that the world curses and makes sport of is

depicted here. We have seen this picture before in that other

sage, the judge of Israel, Samson, being made sport of by the

Philistines (Judg. 16:25) or in the King of Israel, Dovid the

sage, pretending to be mad before a similar scoffing Philistine

audience (I Sm. 21:13-15). When sages like Moshe or Dovid are

nearly stoned by the people (Ex. 17:4; I Sm. 30:6) we see this

reemerging picture of the rejected-yet-vindicated-as-righteous

Sage of Israel. Significantly, the Son of Dovid is depicted as

the sage par excellence in the life of Shlomo in I Kings. Then

II Chronicles intensifies this portrait and gives Messianic

prophetic significance to Dovid's Son as the Moshiach Sage of

Israel. Finally, Isaiah combines the two portraits of the sage

found in Job and Shlomo and depicts the Dovidic Servant of the

L-rd as the mocked and rejected sage filled "with the spirit of

wisdom" (Isa. 11:2) who seems to labor "in vain" but trusts his

cause to the L-rd (Isa. 49:4) and, after mockery and rejection

(Isa. 53:2-4), is finally vindicated by G-d as righteous (see

Isa. 53:11-12). So the book of Job gives us one of our most

important glimpses of the coming Moshiach.

Also notice particularly the following Messianic prophecies in

the Psalms. Ps. 2:2 and 20:6 which speaks about the L-rd and his

(Anointed, Moshiach), always with reference not merely to Dovid

but to Dovid and the Moshiach arising from his genealogy as it

says "to Dovid and his zera (his seed) forever" (Ps. 18:50;

II Sm. 7:12). I Chr. 17:11 explicitly states this as a prophecy

of the coming Moshiach, "I will raise up your zera (offspring)

after you (Dovid), one of your own sons, and I will establish His

kingdom. He will build a house for me, and I will establish His

throne forever. I will be his Father and He will be My Son (see

also Ps. 2:7; 89:26-27 the Son is called the B'chor) "the

Firstborn," the King of Kings). I will not take my steadfast

love from Him, as I took it from him who was before you (i.e.

King Saul). I will confirm Him in My House and in My kingdom

forever, and His throne shall be established forever." The

nations of the whole world will be His heritage and possession

belonging to Him (Ps. 2:8; Gen. 49:10; Ps. 144:2). Therefore

every king had better reverently "kiss the Son" (Ps. 2:12;

I Kings 19:18) and reverently bow to the coming Moshiach Ben

Dovid (see Ps. 18:43-45).

Dovid is prophesying about the eternal Moshiach-Kohen, the

eternal (cohen, kohen) that is coming (Ps. 110:4). Now by

definition a cohen must make a sacrifice. However, Dovid keeps

prophesying about violence being directed at his own person,

including himself and not only Dovid but also, more importantly,

the Moshiach arising from his genealogy. He says, Karu yadai

V'raglai "they have pierced/have bored/have dug holes in my hands

and feet" (Ps. 22:17; Zech. 12:10). However death is not the end.

"G-d will ransom my soul/life from the power of Sheol/the abode

of the dead, for He will receive me" (Ps. 49:l5). "Prolong the

life of the King; may His years endure to all generations! May He

be enthroned forever before G-d" (Ps. 61:6-7). "He asked you for

life; you gave it to Him--length of days forever and ever" (Ps.

21:4; 110:3-4). Although the necessary sacrifice is emphasized

in Ps. 50:5 ("Gather to Me My Chasdai My g-dly ones, who made a

covenant with me by sacrifice!"), the grave itself is defeated,

for G-d will not let His Chasid "G-dly One" (a title of the

Moshiach in Ps. 89:19, Chasid'cha "your G-dly One") see the Pit

of corruption (Ps. 16:10). Like the Pesach Lamb of G-d, he

"keeps all his bones" (Ex. 12:46; Ps. 34:20).

For further Messianic prophecies in the Psalms see Ps. 41:9;

55:12-15,20-21; 45:6-7; 69:7-10,19-21; 89:3-4,34-51; 118:22-23;

132:11,17-18; 145:13.

David was an ominous sign, a mofet (portent Ps. 71:7) of the

coming Moshiach just as the 520 B.C.E. Kohen Gadol

Yehoshua/Yeshua (Ezra 3:8) was a portent (Zech. 3:8) to many and

his name is the Moshiach's name (Zech. 6:11-12).

Notice both G-d and the Dovidic Moshiach are called Ro'eh Yisroel

"the Shepherd of Israel" (Ps. 78:71; 80:1) and the Moshiach is

addressed as G-d in Ps. 45:6 (see also Zech. 12:8 and Isa. 9:6).

The first objective of the Moshiach Ben Dovid was to provide a

dwelling place for G-d (Ps. 132:5). This was done only in one

Son of Dovid, Yehoshua, in whom came the Incarnation. Only here

did G-d raise up an eternal Tent for Himself, where His Spirit

and His Word could dwell with Him forever. Any other Beis

Hamikdash is fleeting (Ps. 39:4,12) and sinful (Ps. 51:5; 14:36;

53:2-3), fallen and dying. Only Moshiach Yehoshua was the

sinless kohen who rose from the dead and reigns forever as a

Tabernacle in which we may dwell with G-d with a clean heart and

a new and right spirit (Ps. 51:l0). Notice Avdi "My Servant" is

a Messianic title in Ps. 89:20 as it is in Isa. 52:13-53:12.

Read the Psalms through this month and sing to the L-rd a new

song (Ps. 149:1). Sing 27:1; 34:1-4; 68:19-30; 119:105; 125:2;

133:1; 134:1-2.

As you pray for your own and other ministries, be sure and read

the following: Ps. 20:1,4; 25:3-5,16-l8; 27:13-14; 30:5;

31:19-20; 32:8-9; 33:18-19; 34:18-19; 37:4-9,34; 51:1-19;

55:18,23; 56:11; 68:6; 73:25-26; 84:11; 86:16; 102:28; 103:8-18;

107:40-43; 112:6-10; 118:5-9; 121:1-8; 126:5-6; 127:1-2; 130:1-8;

138:3-6; 139:13-18; 141:3-4; 147:10-11.

"I cry to G-d Most High, to G-d who fulfills his purpose for me"

(Ps. 57:2). "Let me hear what G-d the L-rd will speak"(Ps.


PSALM 16:9-11

9. Therefore my heart is glad, and my glory rejoiceth: my flesh

(body) also shall rest in hope.

10. For thou wilt not leave my soul is Sheol; neither wilt thou

suffer thine Holy One to see corruption.

11. Thou wilt show me the path of life: in thy presence is

fullness of joy; at thy right hand there are pleasures for


15(16) My strength is dried up like a potsherd; and my tongue

sticks to my jaws; and thou hast brought me into the dust of


16(17) For dogs have compassed me: the assembly of the wicked

have inclosed me: they pierced my hands and my feet.

17(18) I may tell all my bones: they look and stare upon me.

18(19) They part my garments among them, and cast lots (gamble)

for my clothing.

27(28) All the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the

L-rd: and all the kindreds of the nations shall worship before


28.(29) For the kingdom is the Lord's: and he is the governor

among the nations.

29.(30) All they that be rich upon earth shall eat and worship:

all they that go down to the dust shall bow before him: and none

can keep alive his own soul.

30.(31) Posterity shall serve him; future generations shall be

told about the L-rd.

31.(32) They shall come, and shall declare his righteousness unto

a people that shall he horn, that he bath done this.

PSALM 27:10

When my father and my mother forsake me, then the L-rd will take

me up.

PSALM 33:6

By the Word of the L-rd were the heavens made: and all the host

of them by the breath of his mouth.

PSALM 49:7(8)-9(10)

No man can by any means redeem the life of another, nor give to

G-d a ransom for him:

8(9) For the ransom of a life is precious (costly)--no payment is

ever sufficient:

9(10) That he should live on for ever, and not see corruption.


The fear of the L-rd is the beginning of Wisdom (1:7,29; 9:10;

15:33) and "life indeed" (19:23). Moreover, whether to fear the

L-rd is a choice (1:29) with ethical implications (14:2; 16:6)

that are a matter of life and death (21:16). The aim of

acquiring wisdom is acquiring more trust in the L-rd (22:19) as

we seek Him (28:5). The waywardly complacent fool makes the

wrong choice (14:16,33; 15:17, 17:16), and the Book of Proverbs

strongly exhorts the pursuit of Biblical wisdom as something of

incomparable value (16:16; 23:23), asserting that whoever does

not tremble at the wise words of Scripture is a doomed fool

(19:16), even if he is outwardly religious (15:8; 21:27; 28:9)

and generally presumed righteous (20:9; 21:2; 30:12).

The Book of Proverbs deals with practical wisdom, with matters

like marrying well and finding a good spouse (see 18:22;

31:10-31). Also wisdom itself is something that is found. Wisdom

(chochma) is presented metaphorically as a lady street preacher

(1:20-33; 8:1-9:12) and is contrasted with the lethal allure of

Dame Folly (Aishet K'siloot "a woman of folly"), presented in

contrast as an adulterous street walker (2:16-19; 6:24-7:27;

9:13-18; 23:27-28; 30:20). Both women make strong appeals to the

passersby in front of their respective houses. The house of one

is blessed and the other is cursed (see also 14:1), and all who

enter the house of one or the other will share in either the

house's blessing or its curse. This poetic teaching against

sexual immorality falls within the larger theme of "bad company

destroys good morals" (I Cor. 15:33) which includes 1:10-19;

2:12-22; 3:31-35; 4:14-19; 14:7; 22:5,14,24-25; 28:7; 29:3; 31:3

and passages which deal with ethical qualities like envy, greed,

covetousness, violence, mercy, generosity, and kindness

(11:24-26; 15:27; 21:13,31,26; 22:9,16,22-23; 23:4-6,17; 24:1;

27:4; 28:20,22,25; 28:27; 29:7; 30:14-15).

Seen in a feminine image, Wisdom is the most desirable of women

and the tree of life (3:13-18; 4:22; 8:35-36--see also 11:30).

Seen in a masculine image, he is the Father's Son (Prov. 30:4),

working as a master worker, a carpenter's assistant used

instrumentally to create the world (3:19; 8:22-34).

PROVERBS 8:30 "Then I was by him (at his side), as an artisan

(craftsman). I was filled with delight day after day, rejoicing

always before him."

(When the Word became flesh, he became the craftsman at Joseph's

side...Joseph the carpenter from Nazareth, Joseph the son of

Dovid; likewise, the Word in the beginning was the craftsman at

the side of G-d. The feminine metaphor with which this chapter

began has changed to a masculine one. Amon is a masculine noun

meaning artisan or craftsman. Another possible meaning is

foster-child. In any case, as Keil and Delitzsch have shown, at

this point in the chapter the feminine determination disappears.

See how the word is used in Jeremiah 52:15. To be filled with

the Spirit of G-d like Bezalel meant to be filled with wisdom to

build creatively as a craftsman--see Exodus 31:3. Thus Wisdom is

pictured as a craftsman with G-d, even as Yochanan 1:1 says, "In

the beginning was the Word and the Word was with G-d." In

Proverbs 30:4 more light is thrown on this passage: Wisdom is

like a Son, a Son working creatively at his Father's side.

However, Hosea 11:1-4 shows that the divine fatherhood is moral

and spiritual, in contrast to the sexual or physical ideas of the

Baal cults, or in contrast to the ignorant scoffers at the

Biblical doctrine of G-d the Father of His Word Yehoshua. These

critics show the same ignorant tendency to create a non-biblical

strawman "trinity" and then burn it down with ill-informed

polemics, like the ignorant railings of certain Muslims against

the Qur'anic version of the "trinity.")

PROVERBS 30:4 "Who hath ascended up into heaven, or descended?

Who hath gathered the wind in his fists? Who hath bound the

waters in a garment? Who hath established all the ends of the

earth? What is his name, and what is his Son's name, if thou

canst tell?"

(It will not do to try to bring Israel in here as the Son, since

the context reflects back to Proverbs 8 and especially 8:30.

Israel is scarcely mentioned or thought of in Proverbs. The

figure of a son toiling by the side of his father was a familiar

one, and is an arresting metaphor for G-d's primordial Wisdom

toiling creatively in the beginning with G-d. Likewise, Psalm

2:7, Psalm 89:27-28, and Isaiah 9:(5)6 are passages where the

Moshiach is pictured as G-d's Son, his firstborn in the sense of

his heir coming in divine glory (see Daniel 7:13-14 on the Son

who comes in the clouds with G-d) to "divide the spoil with the

strong" (Isaiah 53:12) and to govern eternally--Isaiah 9:7(6).)

The folly of the Fall (Gen. 3:1-24) itself is alluded to in Prov.

3:5-7,-Trust in the L-rd with all your heart, and do not rely on

your own insight. In all your ways acknowledge him, and he will

make straight your paths. Do not be wise in your own eyes; fear

the L-rd, and turn away from evil" (see also 11:2; 12:9; 14:12;

15:25,33; 16:5,18-19; 18:12; 19:3; 21:4,24; 25:6-7,27; 26:12;

27:1-2; 28:26; 29:23, which also touch on the sin of pride and


The book advocates honoring G-d with the tithe (3:9-10) and

remaining docile before Him to hear and obey His Scriptural

commands (3:11-12; 10:8,17; 12:1,15; 13:1,13; 15:5,10,12,31-32;

19:20,25; 20:18,30; 21:11; 24:6; 25:12; 27:5-6,17; 28:23; 29:1)

lest one backslide (26:11; 28:4). Obeying G-d requires hard

work, diligence, and shrewd planning for future needs (6:6-11;

10:4-5, 26; 12:11,24,27, 13:4; 14:4,23; 15:19; 16:26; 18:9;

19:15,24; 20:4,13; 21:5,17,25; 22:7,13; 24:27,30-34; 26:13-16;

27:18,25-27; 28:19), as well as self-control (16:32; 19:19; 20:1;

23:19-21, 29-35; 25:28; 29:11,22; 31:4-5), straightforwardness

and honesty of speech (4:24; 6:12; 10:10-11; 12:17,19,22;

14:5,25; 19:9,28; 21:6,28; 26:23-28; 30:8) and foreswearing all

treachery, dishonesty, and injustice (3:29; 10:2; 11:1,9,20;

13:5; 16:11; 17:23; 18:5; 20:17,23; 22:28; 24:10-12,24-25;

38:13), remembering that G-d hates the slanderer (10:18), the

gossip (11:13; 16:28; 18:8; 20:19; 26:20,22), the sower of

discord (6:12-19; 13:10; 26:21), and the one who gloats (24:17)

or belittles people (11:12) or is bitterly vengeful (24:29;

25:21-22) or is a mocker (30:17).

Part of the task of teaching shrewdness to the simple (1:4) is

warning him not to offer property as collateral for his

neighbor's debts or to similarly go into debt himself (6:1-5;

11:15; 17:18; 20:16; 22:26-27; 27:13). Also he must be taught to

be sensitive to the reactions of others and how they are

perceiving him (25:17; 27:14,23).

"Hatred stirs up strife, but love covers all offenses" (10:12),

"whoever walks with the wise becomes wise" (13:20), meaning that

we should stay in fellowship with fellow believers and maintain a

loving relationship with them (see 17:9). But "the one who lives

alone is self-indulgent" (18:1a). "What is desirable in a person

is loyalty" (19:22a; 20:6; 25:19; 27:10).

Notice that the sage no less than the prophet preaches the Torah

and warns about its curses (see 2:22; 10:30; Deut. 28:63-67)

This book was written "for the wise" (1:5) but it also written

for young people (1:8,10; 19:27; 22:6), who will perish without

discipline (13:24; 19:18; 22:15; 23:13-14; 29:15,17). This book

reminds and we always need reminding, that "a good name is to be

chosen rather than great riches" (22:1).

This is a book concerning self-control and common sense in

matters of work, diligence, speech, honesty, and sex.

Prov. 1:22. The fool does not study the Word, does not tremble

at the Word, does not acknowledge it by his life though he may

always be "learning" it (II Tim. 3:6-7). He has not been "made

into a learner with a teacher" according to Matthew 28:19-20. A

disciple is a "learner with a teacher."

Prov. 1:33 Fearing no mischance means not fearing what Sartre

feared, the radical continguency of life, that "anything can

happen." (See 29:25; 28:1 and do a concordance study on "fear" in

the book of Proverbs.

Prov. 2:1-5 We study to know G-d, to please Him in all things,

and to enjoy him forever.

Prov. 3:11-12 Can you take correction from ministers?

Prov. 3:31 One year the New York Post headlines on April 16

"MARVELOUS!" and the picture was a prize fighter bleeding and

knocked senseless. Do you have any idea how angry this kind of

stupidity makes G-d?

Prov. 4:13 This matter of spiritual study is a life-or-death


Prov. 4:22 Have you learned to use your Bible as a therapy system

to bring inner healing (and consequent bodily healing) to


Prov.4:23 Be very careful upon what you set your affections.

Prov.5:8 Flee from the lusts of youth and avoid even the

appearance of evil. Learn to run from disgrace and hide from

temptation in the L-rd.

Prov. 5:17 Polygamy is out, monogamy is in.

Prov. 6:6-11 Get a job, and don't be dumber than an ant.

Prov. 7:11 Don't let any spirit drive you, whether it be the

demon of gluttony, autoeroticism, gluttony, gambling, or


Prov. 8:22 Creation's wisdom is created, but the rationality of

G-d in creation is uncreated, and it was this power in G-d that

came on the scene as the man Moshiach Yehoshua. Humanity has

wisdom the animals lack because, unlike animals, we are create in

the image of G-d. But G-d always imaged Himself by his

rationality in the Logos, the logic of G-d. The Moshiach is the

Chochmah Elohim (the Wisdom of G-d) who gave Moses the pattern

for the Tabernacle on Mt. Sinai (Exodus 25:40).

Prov. 9:13 We should strive to act on the prompting of the Ruach

Hakodesh rather than on impulse.

Prov. 10:8 Be aware of the worthless speech in your life.

Prov. 10:9 Secret sins will disgrace you.

Prov. 10:l7 Stay under Brit Chadasha kehillah discipline. Become

a disciple.

Prov. 10:28 If you are moving into maturity in the Spirit there

should be deep joy in your life.

Prov. 11:2 is a key theme.

Prov. 11:7 Put this together with Ps. 1 to define who the wicked

are and use it to lead people to Biblical discipleship.

Prov. 12:2-3 This typical proverb shows that deism is wrong. G-d

actively and morally intervenes in his world, though his hand is

veiled to the unwise.

Prov. 12:11 Be an entrepreneur for G-d, one of the dreamers who


Prov. 12:15 Do you know the difference between servile

"submission" and Biblical accountability?

Prov. 13:2 The whole world is filled with political treachery and

military violence. Work only with sifted people you have tested


Prov. 13:13 and 30:5-6 are reasons why we believe in the

inerrancy of the Bible.

Prov. 13:20 Can you avoid a sterile quarantine from your unsaved

friends and still witness to them without losing your testimony

with them?

Prov. 14:22 What is your arts project? Do you have a vision to

reach the lost through the talents G-d has given you?

Prov. 14:31 Think about the poor we pass daily on the sidewalk

and how we insult G-d by the way we treat them.

Prov. 15:1 Learn to be soft and humble and gentle in speech as a


Prov. 15:19 Your nightly prayer should be, "Make me industrious

tomorrow, L-rd, and give me strength and wisdom to know what to

do to serve you.

Prov. 15:32 When someone rejects the Besuras Hageulah ask why

they hate themselves.

Prov. 17:19 This is a pitfall in the ministry: a bitter sarcastic

tone in the voice.

Prov. 17:22 Never let HaSatan have your sense of humor.

Prov. 18:13 is the first rule of counselling.

Prov. 22:6 is why you should consider children's ministry. My

Sunday School teacher was Rav Sha'uline and G-d knew all the

potential little Shliach Sha'uls she was investing in. With the

L-rd now, her works still follow her.

Prov. 22:15 Traces of original sin.

Prov. 23:20 Avoid gluttony.

Prov. 24:7 Have you ever noticed that the unsaved have little to

oontribute to a spiritual discussion? By the fruit of their lips

you will know them.

Prov. 24:19-20 The problem of the prosperity of the wicked is


Prov. 25:21-22 Love your enemies.

Prov. 28:4 The unspiritually broadminded are carnallym


Prov. 28:9 Backslilders can't pray.

Prov. 23:13 Why we need to confess the L-rd before the


Prov. 28:25 Envy is at the root of most quarrels, though it hides

under other pretexts.

Prov. 28:26 Get in touch with Moshiach Yehoshua and follow his


Prov. 30:7-9 The two-way temptation of money.

Prov. 30:20 G-d, show us our moral blindness and wretchedness.


The L-rd by wisdom hath founded the earth; by understanding hath

he established the heavens.


I was appointed from everlasting, from the first (beginning), or

ever the earth was (begun).


Add thou not unto his words, lest he rebuke thee, and thou be

found a liar.


Shakespeare said, "We owe G-d a death...but death is a fearful


There is an unconscious terror of death in Man, who knows that

the significance of his life shrivels at the words "unto dust

shalt thou return." In the gruesome shadow of death, the whole

life of Man is made to seem as so much empty and lonely loitering

at the gates of an infinite abyss. There is a word for this

emptiness in Hebrew, the word havel which means empty,

unsubstantial, a passing elusive vapor. This is what life is

without a personal knowledge of G-d.

The author, who calls himself Kohelet "leader of the Assembly,"

Ben Dovid Melech Byrooshalam "son of Dovid, king in Jerusalem,"

finds that death has thrown a shroud of gloom and meaninglessness

over every kind of work that man does "under the sun." G-d's

work endures (3:14; 7:13), but man's does not. Death sees to

that. And therein is the riddle of life. What can dying, man

gain from all his work (1:3)? What can mortal man achieve from

all his labor, in view of his rapidly approaching demise (2:22)?

There is a time to die (3:2), but death is life's biggest riddle.

What possible gain can workers have from all their life-long toil

(3:9) since death causes them in the end to toil "for the wind

(5:16)?" A generation comes and goes to death and is forgotten

(1:4; 2:16). Death makes all toil "wearisome" and predictably

futile and, since everything dies, everything is deja vu

(disagreeably the same). People of long ago and people yet to

come will both alike be forgotten and all their labors will be

forgotten because of that great leveller called Death. Death is

what makes life at heart such an unhappy business, and there is

nothing man can do about this crooked state of dying affairs

(1:15). So this life in itself is found wanting, and death is

the reason. Many who claim to be Jewish claim that life is

wonderful as it is, but these people are not Biblical Jews, any

more than that Jewish man Karl Marx was a Biblical Jew with all

his philosophizing about the worker's existence "under the sun.

The French philosopher Pascal noticed how we habitually block out

the thought of our own coming demise. We do this in order to

maintain a fragile sense of mental happiness. Death is an end

too incomprehensibly ominous to contemplate. Yet our thoughts

keep returning to glower at its reality. And though we try to

divert ourselves with continuous activity and company and

"unhappy business," we know that each of us must ultimately die

and see everything we have done unravelled into nothingness.

Where can we then find pleasure in anything we do? What in the

world, what under the sun, are dying men to do with their

meaningless lives?

The author makes a test of various activities and pursuits:

wisdom, madness, folly, pleasure, laughter, wine, women, song,

great building projects, great "life works," great acquisitions,

possessions, treasure-collecting, and he finds only emptiness and

meaninglessness in all these. Whatever pleasures these things

brought him were fleeting indeed. The more wisdom he acquired,

the more sorrow he became aware of. The more money he acquired,

the more vexation came with it. Death robs all men, because

everyone goes to the grave naked and penniless. So what use is

money, in the face of death? And since the sage and the fool

must both go to the same all-consuming grave, what use is wisdom,

in the face of death?

The author acquired much wisdom and his wisdom remained with him

(2:9), although wisdom can be ephemeral even in this life, in

view of senility and the effects of aging, so grimly portrayed in

ch. 12. But since man cannot extend his life or control what

happens after his death, all that his wisdom attains for him may

fall into the hands of some foolish oblivion as soon as he dies,

so what good is wisdom, anyway, in the final analysis? The same

fate (death) befalls everyone. No man has an heir he can really

trust, since even one's posterity is also subject to death and

chance, which can, and eventually will, given sufficient time,

play havoc with anyone's legacy. So death destroys life's

meaning. Death makes one hate life (2:17). Death makes one hate

one's work (2:18). Wise men, for all the work of their minds,

are no better than mad men or fools because all alike die.

Indeed, man is no better than the beasts who are also subject to

the same fate. And man is ignorant! Man doesn't know what G-d

has done or will do (3:11). Man doesn't know what will take

place after his death. Men doesn't know if his human spirit

awaits a fate different than animal extinction (3:20-22). Man

needs G-d to give him some answers, because if death completely

swallows and obliterates man, then Mankind that G-d created to

work and till the ground and have dominion over the animals is

himself no better than an animal.

This is the problem. Death. What is the answer? Is there

anything that death cannot obliterate? Yes, the author of

Ecclesiastes says. The work of G-d. It endures and death has no

dominion over it (3:14). But what is the work of G-d? What does

G-d do, in the final analysis? G-d judges everyone, and he has

appointed a time to judge the world (3:17). G-d judges the sinner

by bringing all things he does into judgment (11:9). The sinner's

life is dispensed with not as the sinner pleases but as G-d

pleases, and the wages of sin that G-d pleases to dispense is a

meaningless death (2:26). But death cannot obliterate this

judgment that G-d metes out. Therein is where lies the hope of

the resurrection from the death, which this book questions but

does not negate. The author does not merely say, "Eat, drink and

be merry, for tomorrow we die." In fact he says just the

opposite. He says, "I've tried that, and I don't recommend it."

G-d will bring everything into judgment (11:9); therefore, fear

G-d (5:7). Do not live for this world because this world in

itself is meaningless and empty and fallen and dying. Live for

G-d and enjoy everything that he gives you as a gift from him.

Otherwise, there is no pleasure in this life. Death is man's

lot. To be able to accept this as a fact of life is itself a

gift from G-d. G-d is a mystery and creation was created good

but it is now fallen (7:29). Man has limits to his wisdom. There

is no power in man that will save him from the day of death.

All he can say is that death cannot take away the good that the

G-d-fearer has. "It will be well with those who fear G-d,

because they stand in fear before him." The author seems to be

questioning and looking for something new under the sun (1:9-10),

which was what the Moshiach is when he comes walking out of the

tomb in his glorious resurrection body. Otherwise, "there is no

work or thought or knowledge or wisdom in Sheol (the abode of the

dead), to which you are going" (9:10). The righteous and the

wise and their deeds are "in the hand of G-d" who endures and

whose judgment not even death can thwart. This is the assurance

of wisdom that makes the resurrection of the dead the vibrant

hope and the only answer to the riddle that death poses to the

author of this book.

Philosphers like David Hume may say that they are not afraid to

die, but put a pistol to their breasts, then threaten to kill

them, and see (with Boswell and Yochananson) how the wisest

philosopher will behave. The illusions of genteel philosophy

will not help us face the rude indignities of death when they

brutally rap at the door.

The problem of evil as it churns bitterly around in our minds

often tempts us to doubt the existence of G-d, especially a G-d

who is safely removed from both suffering and death and waits

austerely in heaven to judge us. If we think of death's

inescapableness and even of Moshiach Yehoshua as "a nice, dead

prophet," where do we have to go with the guilt of our moral

failures as our years quickly arraign us into the courts of the

inevitable graveyard?

Facing the evil of the human condition and the absurd,

meaningless, sniper fire of death picking off everyone around us,

we begin to feel a deep inner unhappiness and anxiety. We ask

ourselves, what is lurking at the bottom of all our fears--is it

not the fear of death? Many psychological researchers are now

saying that the fear of death has a central place in human life,

so much so that some believe a culture's very concept of reality,

its model for "the good life," and its moral codes are all

intended to protect people psychologically from the ubiquitous

terror of death. Of course, Freud disagreed that every fear is

ultimately the fear of death. Yet he dais admit that "the dread

of death, which dominates us oftener than we know, is...usually

the outcome of the sense of guilt."

We suspect that a certain amount of our present sufferings come

from our own faithless treacheries haunting us from the past. And

the dread of something worse possibly coming back to torment us

after death prevents us from ever being fully at ease with our

dwindling and frail mortality. In light of death's unknown

hellish judgments, as Hamlet says, "the conscience does make

cowards of us all." Death is truly an awesome "undiscovered

country" from whose dreadful domain no traveller can return.

Yet the English philosopher Hobbes once wrote, "G-d, that could

give life to a piece of clay, hath the same power to give life

again to a dead man, and renew his inanimate and rotten carcass

into a glorious, spiritual and immortal body." This very point

is what separates the religion of the Bible from that of Homer,

for the Greek g-ds could not revive the dead. They were not truly

omnipotent. But omnipotence is precisely the claim of the G-d of

the Bible whose Hebrew prophets even predicted the coming of the

Moshiach. Their promise was that through this coming King and

Redeemer, G-d would personally destroy death and bring

immortality and bodily resurrection to light at last.

However, the Torah teaches that the penalty of unintentional evil

that must be paid to redeem G-d's people from ultimate divine

judgment is the death of a sacrificial victim called an Asham,

"ah-sham" guilt offering, which had to be brought to the kohen

for slaughter (Leviticus 5:14-19). The prophets said that the

coming Moshiach would be an eternal kohen and his death would be

a momentous "ah-sham" guilt offering for sin (see Psalm 110:4;

Isaiah 53:10). The merciful purpose of such a blood sacrifice is

to purify humanity from its unpunished sin so that all who turn

from evil and have faith can be justly forgiven. How significant

it is, then, that hundreds of years before their words were

fulfilled, the prophets of the Hebrew Bible predicted that "My

Servant" the Moshiach would be named Yehoshua (or Moshiach

Yehoshua--see Jeremiah 23:5-6; Zechariah 3:8; 6:11-12; Ezra 3:8).

Further, these Hebrew prophets predicted that the Moshiach would

offer himself as a blood sacrifice and then afterwards see the

light of resurrection life (see Isaiah 52:13-53:12 in the Dead

Sea Scrolls). As it says in Hebrews 2:14-15, this was to release

those who throughout their life have been subject to servitude

and bondage through their fear of death (thanatophobia).

Would you like to be freed from that great fear behind all your

other fears? Would you like to be delivered from the fear of

death and the dread of punishment? Would you like to have true

peace with G-d? Isaiah 53:5 says of the Moshiach, "the

punishment that brought us peace was upon him." His blood and

"his wounds can heal you" from the fear of death and the dread

of punishment (Isaiah 53:5). But faith comes from exposure to

the Word of G-d as it is obediently taught and studied and

faithfully proclaimed. Why rely only on your own thoughts when

you can seek to know G-d's? Reach out to Moshiach Yehoshua by

faith. Trust him to forgive your sins and receive Him and obey

Him as L-rd as you worship among a body of believers where the

Bible is believed and faithfully taught.

People don't get saved unless they feel lost. Ecclesiastes

(Hebrew, Qohelet) depicts the utter emptiness and futility of

life that only the resurrection of the Moshiach can alter. Do

you remember those instant writing pads you played with as a

child? You raise the sheet and all your work vanishes...That's

what life is like. The only thing that gets preserved is what

G-d calls to judgment (12:14). All else in this life is chasing

after wind.

"There is nothing new under the sun," (1:9) yet what is old will

also be lost, and memory will not give it permanence, for it too

will be forgotten. Only the Word of the L-rd will stand forever

(I Shliach Kefa 1:25) and our labors for the L-rd (I Cor. 15:58).

All empty hedonism, worldly amusements, materialism, secular

education, secular art, workaholic personal kingdom-building

(with or without nepotism) will pass away. The world with all it

craves for is coming to an end (I Yochanan 2:17). G-d rewards

sage and fool alike--with death! (2:16). Therefore, worldly

wisdom is an empty mirage. G-d is the only one capable of

escaping or breaking the empty cycle of vanity described in

2:24-26. This G-d did in the new creation age that is already

dawning in the resurrection of His filial Word, our Savior and

L-rd, Moshiach Yehoshua the Moshiach.

Eccles. 3:21-22 shows that had the Moshiach not brought in the

dawn of the resurrection age, there would be nothing for us to do

but to be happy in the ministry of our vocational calling.

However, since the resurrection has occurred, we can be happy in

our "tent-making" means to effect the Great Commission ends of

the work the Moshiach has assigned us (II Thes. 3:7-12; I Thess.

4:11-12; Eph. 4:23). This means denuding ourselves of our own

cultural and "class consciousness" regarding educational and

vocational status, and to take the Bible and Shliach Sha'ul as

our model in using the gifts of vocation (and even possibly

celibacy) to the Lord's advantage in doing cross-cultural

outreach at home and abroad.

Society is wicked, oppressive, and evil and the life of this

world--in itself--is not worth living, arising as it does from

the futile envy and mutual jealousy and ambition of dying men

(4:4). A philosophical skepticism about yourself will also keep

you from bringing worldly ambition into the L-rd's work, and will

keep you from vain, restless, striving in the ministry. Cure:

take a walk in the out-of-doors and meditate on Ecclesiastes.

Dream dreams for G-d (without a vision you die), but strip off

the vainglory and pompous arrogance (5:6).

Ask G-d to give you the ability to enjoy life and to keep your

heart "occupied with joy" (5:19). If you are a congregational

leader you will have to marry and bury people. Use the Word! Use

Song of Songs to marry and Ecclesiastes 5:1a etc., to bury.

Worldly humor is as empty and sinister as the jestors in Nero's

Circus or at Hugh Heffner's Playboy Club (7:5), and every

philanderer knows that a woman's worldly laughter is a prelude to

the bedroom (Eph. 5:4-5). This kind of affair is far worse than

the deprivations of celibacy (Eccles. 7:26-27). 8:15 shows that

radical abstinence (health-breaking fasts, etc.) is unbiblical

because it impunes the goodness of G-d's creation. The preamble

to all kiruv outreach for Moshiach is 8:5-6: the hope of the

worldly dead is extinquished.

Learn to live in humble and careful fear of the L-rd, asking him

daily for a wise heart (10:1-2), since you can ruin your whole

life's good works and good name with a little folly.

"Slaves I see on horsebeck" (10:7) means that the celebrities and

stars and princes of this world are in reality mere garbege

supervisors since their world is actually a junk heap at the

mouth of hell and not Moshiach's Kingdom.

A warning for flakey students: "Fools find hard work irksome; he

who does not know the way cannot go to town" (10:15). Our school

is to show you the way to do cross-cultural ministry at home or

abroad--a task more complex than pursuing a diploma at a diploma

mill. You must do the ministry, plant a cross-cultural fellowship

among Jews or Muslims, etc., write and perform a performing arts

ministry vehicle before an audience. If you cannot do anything

for G-d here as an outgrowth of our school, how can you hope to

succeed overseas or anywhere else?

Be careful what you say: it will fly away and be heard afar


Become a good steward of your time (11:6). Also the time is now

to get your time-management act together.

Notice the Faulknerian As I Lay Dying poetic "death tableaux" in

the picture of old age in 12:3-5.

Eccles. 12:12 warns about too many books wearing you out. But

don't throw out books related to Hebrew, Tanakh (Old Testament),

Greek, Brit Chadasha Scriptures Survey, Messianic Yeshiva

studies, Messianic Prophecies and Rabbinic Literature,

Judaeo-Christian History and Philosophy, Historical Theology and

Doctrine, Cross-cultural communication and the Arts and ministry

formation. This is our curriculum at Artists For Israel Institute

and books related to these subjects you never have too many of in

the teaching and preaching minstry of the body of Moshiach.


G-d made Man upright, but they have devised many schemes.


A book that is traditionally read at Pesach is Shir HaShirim "The

Song of Songs" (meaning "the best of all possible songs").

There are several reasons why Shliach Sha'ul is correct when he

interprets the book as making reference to the Moshiach and his

wedding banquet with his people. In Eph. 5:25-27, Shliach Sha'ul

says, "Husbands, love your wives." The Song of Songs contains

love poems and refers to the son of Dovid's Chatunah "wedding")

in 3:11. King Shlomo here, the son of Dovid, is not the ultimate

One who brings peace. One greater than Shlomo is here, the rose

of Sharon, the lily of the Valley (2:1), the fairest of ten

thousand (5:10). And He does have a bride who is faithful to his

covenant with her. She is the people of G-d. He is her king

(1:2-4,12) and her shepherd (1:7-8). Shliach Sha'ul says,

"Husbands, love your wives, just as Moshiach loved his people and

gave himself up for her in order to make her holy by cleansing

her with the washing of water by the word, so as to present her

to himself in splendor, without a spot or wrinkle or anything of

the kind--yes, so that she may be holy and without blemish." On

the same theme, Song of Songs says (4:7), "you are altogether

beautiful, my love; there is no flaw in you. And the son of

Dovid's covenant bride is called (tahm-mah-TEE) "my perfect one"

(5:2; 6:9). It says, Look! "Who is that coming up from the

wilderness...leaning upon her beloved" (8:5)? And the answer is,

the people of G-d, for they were married in the wilderness, they

became wedlock in covenant marriage with the L-rd at Mt. Sinai,

and the Pesach is the wedding banquet, celebrating the covenant.

I Cor. 10:4 says that the beloved Rock they leaned on in the

Exodus wilderness was Moshiach. For I Cor. 5:7 says, "Moshiach,

our Pesach Lamb, has been sacrificed."

But to keep the bridal garments clean, we need to clean out the

old yeast (I Cor. 5:7). We need to catch the proud little foxes

that spoil the vineyard of our love relationship with the

Moshiach (2:15). We need to seek him, while he may be found. Song

of Shl. 3:l says, "Upon my bed at night I sought him whom my soul

loves." "With great delight" He wants you to sit in his shadow

(2:3) today. He wants you to be faint with love for Him (2:5)

today. Look, it says, who is this making His appearance like the

dawn, terrible as an army with banners (6:10)? Look, He is

coming, leaping over the mountains, bounding over the hills

(2:8). Even tonight he is standing at the wall you have built to

shut him out. A garden locked is your soul (4:12). But tonight

He is gazing into the windows of your inner most being. I'm

talking about Ha'arye Y'huda the Lion of Judah, the One to whom

the nations belong, the harvester of the world. He is standing

even now on His threshing floor, and you are Ruth lying at his

feet. "Kiss the Son, (Nahsh-koo bar), lest He be angry and you

perish in the way. Happy are all who take refuge in Him (Ps.

2:12). He is the "desired of all nations" (Hag. 2:7). He is

altogether desirable (Song of Shl. 5:16). He is saying to you in

love tonight, "Arise and come. G-d wants to make a Spring visit

to your soul. "For now the winter is past, the rain is over and

gone. The flowers appear on the earth; the time of singing has

come, and the voice of the turtledove is heard in our land. The

fig tree puts forth its figs (are not the Jewish people beginning

to turn to Him?), and the vines are in blossom; they give forth

fragrance." The Moshiach is saying to your soul tonight, "Arise,

beloved, come." (See 2:10b-13.) By His death He paid the

bride-price and purchased us for Himself, for His very own

(8:12). Now He wants to set a seal on our hearts forever (3:6).

By His resurrection, He proved that his "love is as strong as

death" (8:6). Right now you are a wall. He wants you to become

a door he can enter. It's time to turn from self and yield to

Him. Holy Covenant love requires that. Any bride can tell you.

But a bride must be clean and dressed in white especially at

Pesach time. If we come to Him confessing our need to be cleansed

by Him, we will be able to say, 'I am my beloved's and he is

mine" (6:3). "He brought me to the banqueting table, and his

banner over me is love" (2:4).

The Ruach Hakodesh wants to awaken love in your heart for the

Moshiach of Israel tonight. You must open to him and let him

ravish your soul. Although editors have tried to format this

love song as a drama, their attempts have not been persuasive.

Therefore, ignore any dramatic personae supplied in your Bible.

These are not in the Hebrew. We must let the Bible interpret

itself. This is where G-d affirms erotic romantic love in

marriage. Because marriage itself is a mystery, it echoes on a

human level the relationship between the Moshiach and his people.

For just as the old humanity was made male and female, so the new

humanity is made Moshiach and his bride.

Chapter 2:7 is a refrain. See 3:5 and 8:4. The significance of

this refrain seems to be that love must be allowed to grow

naturally, in its own time. It is not to be rushed or forced or

given an artificial stimulus. Promiscuous modern "dating" is

unscriptural and dangerous, like quick-chicken hormones, discos,

raunchy rhythm music and low cut necklines. Look at 3:4. Being

married is belonging to someone more indissolubly (Matthew 19:6;

Genesis 2:18) than one's own parents. This is a mystery, beyond

all comprehension, the way of a man with a virgin, that a man

leaves his father and mother and joins himself to his wife and

they become one body

The Brit

Chadasha Scriptures stands for the equality of women (Gal.

3:28;p I Cor. 7:4; 11:11-12), although this doctrine does not

obviate the hierarchy of function in the body of the L-rd and in

the family, where women and children do not L-rd it over men,

though women can hold offices and can speak for the L-rd as


Look at 6:8-9. Like election, erotic romantic marital love is

selective, unique, personal and mysterious (why this girl and no

other?) It is likely that this poetry was used in the context of

weddings. Look at 7:1-7. The poetic imagery is oriental and

culture-bound. Just as one man can't see what another man sees

in his wife, so it is with cultural divergences in language, ways

of perceiving, customs, etc. That's why the gift of Shliach is

important. Those who have the cross-cultural gift to go to a

particular people-group can see beauty and worth in that

culture, whereas those without this gift cannot see the same

beauty and worth in that particular culture.

Look at 8:1. Loved ones long to be together--they are one flesh

and erotic love is the glue to hold them together in holy

matrimony for the sake of the children. See Malachi 2:15. Song

of Shl. 8:10-11 is a polemic against polygamy and its barter

mentality where the shared spouse becomes an object for loan. See

8:6. G-d is a furious cuckold with tender reconcilling heavenly

love in the one hand and furious betrayed love in the other. (See

notes on Hosea).

See Isaiah 7:14 notes on Song of Sol. 6:8.


There are sixty queens and eighty concubines, and virgins without



The first six chapters of Isaiah summarize much of the rest of

the book. In his prophecy, Isaiah preaches against ethical

relativism (5:20), loitering drunks who disregard the L-rd and

his works (5:11,22), cut-throat land-grabbing nobility (5:8),

unjust murderers (1:15,21; 5:7), fortunetellers and fraternizers

with pagan mockers (2:6), idol worshippers (2:8), humanism

(2:22), blind guides leading the people into disaster (3:12), the

haughty rich who exploit in greed the penniless (3:15-16),

justice-subverting bribe-takers (5:23) and all those who reject

the Word of G-d (5:24). Invasion by foreign armies (5:26-30),

firey destruction, and exile (5:13,29) will cause a reversal of

fortune for these people, and the Day of the L-rd will cause the

haughty rich to be brought low (2:17) and the poor in spirit to

become purged in the fire and holy (1:25; 4:3).

Along with the survivors will come in the aftermath the Moshiach,

the Tzemach (Branch) of the L-rd (4:2) who is identified (in the

book of Isaiah itself, not merely in Jer. 23:5-6; 33:15 or Zech.

3:8) with the Tzemach T'zadik (Righteous Branch) of the L-rd and

of Dovid, the Tzadik Avdi the Righteous Servant of the L-rd

(53:11) and Dovid (37:35). This Moshiach-Servant is associated

with the L-rd in many ways: He too is "raised high and lifted up"

(compare 52:13; 6:1); He too is glorious, Jesse's glorious root

(compare 4:2 and 11:10 with 6:3, noticing also the word Shoresh

[root], linking 11:10 and 53:2); He too is the rallying

focal-point of the nations (compare 11:10 to 2:2-4 and see the

one "to whom the obedience of the nations belongs"--Genesis

49:10; see Ezekiel 21:27 [21:32 in the Hebrew Bible; Psalm 18:43;

Isaiah 42:1,4; 49:6); He too bears a divine name and governing

function (9:5-6); He too is Immanuel, (G-d-with-us), the

rightful owner of Israel's land (compare 8:8 and 7:14 to 5:5); He

too, this anointed Moshiach-Servant (11:2; 42:1), is righteous

(see 11:4-5 and 42:21; 51:5). The Moshiach-Servant, through the

Dovidic covenant, witnesses as a light to the Gentiles (9:6) to

those outside the covenant (Isaiah 55:3).

Job standing rejected and forsaken with mockers around him (Job

17:2) reminds the reader of the picture we have of the suffering

Servant of the L-rd in Isaiah 53 or the mocked Dovidic King in

Psalm 22 (compare Job 27:4 to Isa. 53:9). In the midst of the

false accusations Job "holds fast to his righteousness" (Job

27:6) and waits on the L-rd to confirm the innocence of his cause

(Job 42:7-8). So the mocked sage who becomes a fool that the

world curses and makes sport of is depicted in Isaiah 53. We have

seen this picture before in that other image, the judge of

Israel, Samson, being made sport of by the Philistines (Judg.

16:25) or in the King of Israel, Dovid the sage, pretending to be

mad before a similar scoffing Philistine audience (I Sm.

21:13-15). When sages like Moshe or Dovid are nearly stoned by

the people (Ex. 17:4; I Sm. 30:6) we see this reemerging picture

of the rejected-yet-vindicated-as-righteous Sage of Israel.

Significantly, the Son of Dovid is depicted as the sage par

excellence in the life of Shlomo in I Kings. Then II Chronicles

intensifies this portrait and gives Messianic prophetic

significance to Dovid's Son as the Moshiach Sage of Israel.

Finally, Isaiah combines the two portraits of the sage found in

Job and Shlomo and depicts the Dovidic Servant of the L-rd as the

mocked and rejected sage-counsellor (9:5-6) filled "with the

spirit of wisdom" (Isa. 11:2) who seems to labor "in vain" but

trusts his cause to the L-rd (Isa. 49:4) and, after mockery and

rejection (Isa. 53:2-4), is finally vindicated by G-d as

righteous (see Isa. 53:11-12).

The Moshiach is the eternal Kohen who sprinkles the nations with

a Cosmic Day of Atonement (Yom Kippur) sacrifice. (Ps. 110:4;

Zechariah 6:11-13; Isaiah 52:15; Lev. 16:14-17).

The Moshiach is the Seh Elohim (the Lamb of G-d) provided from

heaven as the sacrifice in order that G-d's people might be

passed over and redeemed from divine judgment, as Isaac was and

as the nation of Israel was. G-d sent His Word and healed His

people from the plagues of judgment He poured out on the heathen.

G-d saved His people in order that they might make an exodus to

new abundant life in accordance with His gracious covenant

promise in the Moshiach (Gen. 32:8; Ps. 107:30; Isa. 53:5-6,10;

Deut. 7:15; Isaiah 42:1,6-7; 40:3; 42:16; 43:19; 49:5-26).

The words "son" and "child" are very important to Isaiah's

message. His own two sons are given portentous names (7:3;

8:1-3) and the conception of the second son in the womb of his

prophetess-wife is divinely timed. In chs. 7-9, Isaiah refers to

his own son and to Dovid's son, a son he calls "G-d with us" and

"Mighty G-d." Isaiah shows us a Deliverer who can rule the world

(9:5-6), and yet he marvels at this personage being born as a

humble child, just as a little child leads the rest of creation

in the future kingdom--Isaiah 11:6. The future kingdom is

described in passages which include 2:1-4; 4:2-6; 11:6-9; 25:6-8;

35:1-10; 60:1-22. The future king of this glorious kingdom is

described in passages which include 7:1-12:6; 32:1-20;

49:1-57:21; 61:1-11. The Moshiach is the Descendent of the Woman

who will battle that Ancient Serpent, Satan (Gen. 3:15), called

"Leviathan the twisting serpent" in Isa. 27:1.

The secondary, if not primary meaning of the word Ha'Almah in

Isaiah 7:14 is virgin because the same Hebrew word means virgins

in Song of Shlomo 6:8, since the king's female companions were

queens and either concubines or virgins (see Esther 2:13-14,17),

not mere unmarried maidens who may have previously cohabited with

another men--a capital offense in Israel and a disqualification

for the king's harem in the book of Esther. In Esther 2:13-14,17

there are two harems, one for the virgins, and one for the

concubines. Queen Vashti occupied another area, as did Esther

when she became queen. Many older Jewish Bibles admitted this by

translating its plural form as Almot "virgins" in Song of Shl.

6:8. In Isaiah 7:14, the prophet is referring to a "sign" for

the dynasty of Dovid, and the ultimate fulfillment of that

prophesy involves no one other than Yehoshua, G-d's Immanuel,

whose virgin mother was betrothed to a descendent of Ahaz's

Messianic Davidic dynasty--see Hebrews 7:14; Romans 1:3; Matthew

1:1,16; Luke 3:23,31. The legal right to the throne came through

the father--see Babylonian Talmud Baba Bathra 130a on Deut.

21:16. Also, see Ignatius' Epistle to the Ephesians, "Miryam of

the seed of David."

The Branch of the L-rd and of Dovid is called "the L-rd" in Mal.

3:1 and Ps. 110:1, since Adon refers to Hashem in Zechariah 4:14

and 6:5. Therefore, we shouldn't surprised if the name of G-d is

given to the Moshiach in Isa. 9:5-6. The Hebrew words Moshi'a

and Go'el found in the books of Judges and Ruth point to this

Savior/Redeemer figure, the Moshiach. See Isaiah 49:26. Three

kings serve as foils in Isaiah's depiction of the Moshiach: Ahaz

son of David, Hezekiah son of David (compare 7:4-17 and

27:1-7,21-35), and the Persian King Cyrus, called Moshiach

(45:1), because he saves the Jewish people from the Babylonian

Exile and sends them home to rebuild their land and Beis

Hamikdash. About 734 B.C.E. Rezin King of Damascus (Syria) and

Pekah King of Israel organized a coalition to rebel against

Assyria. When Ahaz refused to join them and they invaded Judah

(7:1), Ahaz apppealed directly to Assyria for help, beginning the

process of foreign invading armies and exile that would swallow

his throne in 586 B.C.E. Assyria captured Damascus (732 B.C.E.),

Samaria (722 B.C.E.) and Babylon (defeating Assyria) captured

Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E. Isaiah warned Ahaz's son and successor,

Hezekiah about the coming Babylonian captivity (see 39:5-7 and

6:11-12). Isaiah also prophesied about the release from Exile

and the return to the land (48:20f).

For prophesies by Isaiah against the nations, see 13:1-14:23;

21:1-10; 43:14-15; chp. 46-47 (Babylon): 14:28-32 (Philistia see

ch. 20 on Ashdod); ch.15-16 (Moab); 17:1-11 (Damascus); chp.

19-20 (Egypt); 21:11-12 (Edom); 21:13-17 (Arabia); ch. 23 (Tyre);

23:4,12 (Sidon); 10:5-19; 14:24-27; 37:33-35 (Assyria); 18:1-7

(Cush, Nubia south of Egypt);

Isaiah was well aware of Deuteronomy 4:26-27 which says that sin

will cause the people to be "utterly destroyed...and...only a

small number of you will remain." Isaiah was also aware of the

covenant reprisals in Deuteronomy 28:32-33,36-37,41,45-62.

Therefore, when he begins to prophesy, he sees only a few

survivors left after G-d's scourge of judgment is finished (see

1:9; 10:22). Isaiah foresees that Assyria will be G-d's rod of

judgment (10:5) against Israel, though later G-d would destroy

the Assyrian hordes as He did the oppressive Midianites in Judges

7:22-25 (see Isaiah 9:4; 10:24-27). The fulfillment of these

very prophecies, as well as 30:31 and 31:8, about the destruction

of Assyria came in 701 B.C.E. (see 37:36-38) when the Assyrian

army was supernaturally defeated. Later, the capital of Assyria,

Nineveh, would be destroyed in 612 B.C.E., as Isaiah (31:8-9),

Nahum, and Jonah had predicted.

Isaiah also predicts the Babylonian captivity. (See Isaiah

39:5-7; 14:3-4) It is important to keep the historical facts in

mind: Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon brought down the

Assyrian Empire in 605 B.C.E. at the battle of Carchemish (see

Isaiah 10:9) in the Upper Euphrates in South Turkey,and Cyrus the

king of Persia brought down the Babylonian Empire in 539 B.C.E.,

when Cyrus took the city of Babylon and released the Jewish

people to return to Israel (see Ezra 1:1).

So Isaiah saw both the Assyrians and the Babylonians coming as

G-d's instruments of judgment on the unrepentant Israelites, and

he also foretold the great latter day exodus that would occur

when G-d would bring His people back from Exile and they would

stream into Zion with Messianic and Millennial fulfillment. In

fact, Isaiah foretold an end-time exodus which would eclipse the

Exodus from Egypt. It would be so great he says (Isaiah 43:18)

there will be "no need to think about what was done before." This

"streaming to Zion" theme is a recurring motif in Isaiah,

including the notion that G-d will make a supernatural causeway

(like the highway He made through the Red Sea) for the remnant of

repentant and humbled survivors to return to Him through the

wilderness. (See Isaiah 2:2; 4:5-6; 14:1-2; 27:12-13. See

especially 11:15-16, also ch. 35; 10:25-27; 40:3-11; 43:16-21;

46:3-4; 48:21; 51:10; 52:12; 56:6-8; 60:11-14; 63:9-13).

But Isaiah saw that the remnant would be pathetically few (1:9).

As we shall see in the second half of Isaiah, a remnant of one,

the Suffering Servant of the L-rd, will be sacrifically stricken

to death for the transgressions of the people as a whole (Isaiah

53:8,10). Over and over the recurring theme in Isaiah is that

the cataclysmic fires of judgment continually bring the ultimate

Day of the L-rd near, the Assyrian and Babylonian armies

functioning as divine proxies as the fires of their armies serve

to refine the wicked dross from the remnant (see Isaiah 1:25).

For all the rulers of the world are under the control of the G-d

of Israel. The theme of Proverbs 21:1 is seen in Isaiah 37:29

and in the passages about Cyrus. The "nations are but drops in a

bucket," but "the King's heart is in the hand of the Lord" and,

if invaders are allowed to punish G-d's wayward people, it is

G-d's method of refining out that faithless segment of the people

who refuse to fear G-d and repent. So, G-d, the refiner, has

this smelting process to remove waste products (dross) as he

tests the metal of His people's faith by means of foreign

military threats (see Isaiah 48:10).

Following each cycle of warning and judgment, there is a hopeful

promise of blessing, restoration, and the promise of the coming

of the Moshiach. Notice this judgment-restoration pattern in

relation to all the Messianic prophecies in Isaiah, esp. 1:2;

7:14; 9:6-7 (5-6, Hebrew); 11:1-5,10,12; 16:5; 22:22; 32:1;

33:17; 37:35; 42:1-9; 49:1-13; 50:4-9; 52:13-53:12; 55:3; 61:1-2;


It is important to note that G-d uses military defeat and exile

to show His people that they are estranged from Him. He is "the

Holy One" and their sins have made Him hostile to them and have

placed them under His covenant ours. (Isa. 59:2). But the Good

News of Isaiah is the announcement of release from the exile of

sin (61:1-4) and from hellish divine estrangement through the

coming of the Moshiach, G-d's instrument of reconciliation (see

Isaiah 52:7-53:12). Through Him, those who repent will find

that, though their sins "are scarlet, they may yet be white as

snow (Isaiah 1:18).

See also Isaiah's teaching that hell is eternal torment in Isaiah

66:24; 14:11; 48:22; 50:11; 57:21; 1:31. Cf. also Dan. 12:2;

Matt. 25:46; Mark 9:48; Rev.20: 10.

The nation of Israel as servant (Isa. 41:8; 42:19; 44:1) is

restored from divine estrangement and exile (Isa. 42:1; 49:1;

52:13-53:12) by an individual, the Moshiach, the beautiful

"Branch of the L-rd," "David My Servant" (Isaiah 4:2; 33:17;

37:35: 52:13; 53:11) who restores the nation to a right

relationship to G-d (Isa. 49:5-6; 53:11).

Skeptics think Isaiah could not have foreseen the Exile (but see

5:13,29; 6:12; 27:8) and beyond so clearly (i.e. predicting Cyrus

King of Persia by name (Isaiah 45:3) and therefore postulate 2 or

3 or more other later unnamed prophets who suppoudly padded out

the more supernatural parts (i.e. 41:2,25; 44:28-45:5,13; 46:11),

cloaking themselves under Isaiah's name, as they wrate at various

times over 100 years after Isaiah's death. Some liberal scholars

believe "Second Isaiah" wrote chs. 40-55 from Babylon and "Third

Isaiah" wrote chs. 56-66 later still, from Israel after the end

of the Exile some 180 years after the death of Isaiah. Some

liberal scholars think they see the hand of even later "Isaiahs"

in chs. 56-66. But all this speculation does not build faith or

edify, nor is there any more exegetical warrant for these

theories than for the single author assertion, which the Brit

Chadasha Scriptures and Moshiach Yehoshua Himself affirms (see

Mark 7:6). We must remember that the writing prophets of the

Hebrew Bible were not ghost writers. It does not seem credible

that the Jewish people would know the names of the authors of

such tiny books as Obadiah and Yoel (Joel) but not have a clue as

to the identity of the author of Isaiah chapters 40-66, probably

the most magnificent section of prophecy in the entire Bible.

Furthermore, virtually every theme in chapters 40-66 of Isaiah

can be found, at least embryonically, in chapters 1-39, a fact

that makes multiple authorship an improbable hypothesis.

Also the many verbal parallels between chs. 1-39 and chs. 40-66

discredit this liberal theory. King Josiah is predicted by name

in I Kings 13:2 and Moshiach Yehoshua is predicted by name in

Zechariah 6:12 (cf. Ezra 3:8) nearly 300 years and 500 years

respectively before three sons of David were born. Since the last

of these predictions can be proven beyond all doubt, there seems

no excuse to doubt the other predictions or, for that matter,

Isaiah's authorship of the entire book bearing his name.

Isaiah's message is that, even though the nations will stream to

Jerusalem in the end (2:2-3), in the meantime in pride and

rebellion both Israel and the nations have exalted themselves

against the L-rd, and he will judge them in an awesome display of

power which will leave only a few survivors (1:9). Therefore, the

inference is, if G-d can "part the sea" for the Exile and the

Return, why can he not also use His right arm of power to raise

up eternally alive and victorious both the Moshiach and the dead

for the Millennium (2:4; 11:6-10; 24:23; 33:24) and the new

heavens and the new earth (65:17)?


Therefore the L-rd himself shall give you a sign; Behold, a

virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name

Immanuel. [This word Ha'almah is translated "virgin" not only in

the rabbinically translated Septuagint but in older modern Jewish

translations of the same word in Song of Songs 6:8, so there is

no good reason not to trandate the verse as above.]


The g-dly king Josiah was eight years old when he began to reign

(640 B.C.E.) and forty years old when he was killed (609 B.C.E.).

Around Josiah's 21st year of life, the young prophet Jeremiah

began preaching. He was to have many years of preaching ministry,

during the following: the reign of the Josiah's 23 year-old son

Jehoahaz (609 B.C.E.) who ruled only three months in Judah and,

after being deposed and exiled by Pharaoh Neco, died in Egyptian

captivity (Jer. 22:11-12; II Kings 23:30-34); the reign of

Jehoiakim (609 B.C.E.), who was installed as king over Judah at

the age of 25 and ruled 11 years; the reign of Jehoiachin (598

B.C.E.), who was installed at age 18 and ruled little more than 3

months before he was taken prisoner to Babylon by King

Nebuchadnezzar; the reign of Zedekiah (597 B.C.E.) who was 21

years old when he began to reign and was blinded by

Nebuchadnezzar shortly before the fall of Jerusalem in 586 B.C.E.

The evil reigns of these miserable sons of Josiah were prophecied

by Isaiah who said, "I will make boys their princes, and babes

shall rule over them" (Isa. 3:4). Jer. ch. 36 shows Jehoiakim

burning the Bible.

Jeremiah objected to G-d at his call that he was too young to

preach, but G-d silenced him (1:2). G-d appointed him to be a

preacher who would "pluck up and pull down, destroy and

overthrow, build and plant" (1:10; 12:14-17). Jeremiah's

preaching would cause stumbling blocks (6:21), testing and

refining the people (6:27). Fire would come out of his mouth and

destroy kingdoms (see 5:14; 23:29). Just as Elijah said there

would be neither rain nor dew except at Elijah's word (I Kings

17:1), so Judah would be uprooted and taken into Exile and then

(70 years later-- 25:11) Judah would be planted back in Israel

(31:28), but these cataclysmic events would happen only at

Jeremiah's word.

Immediately in Jeremiah's ministry G-d shows him the coming

crisis, represented by a "boiling pot, tilted away from the

north" (1:13). This pot was going to boil over and pour its hot

lava of destruction as foreign soldiers came down on Jerusalem

from the north. This threat from the north (1:14; 4:6; 6:1,22;

10:22; 13:20; 16:15; 25:9,26; 31:8) became concrete in the

persons of King Nebuchadnezzar's Babylonian soldiers. G-d is

telling Jeremiah to preach that there is no escape from these

soldiers. The people have broken G-d's Law and now G-d is sending

His divine marshalls to put the people under arrest and take them

off to Babylon to serve a 70 year prison sentence in Exile. Go

peaceably Jeremiah preaches, and you will live. If the nation

humbles itself and waits on the L-rd, the nation will return. But

whoever attempts to resist the divine arrest will be put to

death. They will be like bad figs (24:8), and because of their

disobedience G-d will not give them a heart to know Him (24:7).

This was Jeremiah's hard message, which cost him dearly, and

brought great persecution down on his head. But, ironically,

weak, isolated Jeremiah, the maggid with the dangerous and

wrath-provoking message, is in much safer hands than the

sonerous-voiced false prophets and power weilding political

leaders, who stir up violence against Jeremiah as a traitor. For

the L-rd promises to protect Jeremiah but to put to death these

enemies of his, both Jews and Gentiles, with judgment beginning

at the household of G-d (see 1:18-19; 25:8-9,29) and climaxing in

the Day of the L-rd (25:33; 46:10). "Flight shall fail the

shepherds" (25:35), a prophecy that proved true for fleeing King

Zedekiah, the last king of Judah (52:1-11). All the wicked must

drink the lethal cup of judgment that is coming (25:28), even

ultimately that anti-Moshiach the king of Babylon (Jer. 25:26).

The reason for the coming Babylonian Exile is given in 5:18-19,

the land of Israel was full of elilim (idols). See also 9:12-16;

10:5,18,21; 16:11-13. The sin of Manasseh (15:4; II Kings 21:6),

especially child sacrifice (Jer. 7:30-34) brought great national

disaster of Judah, just as the abortion holocaust will bring

great grief on America. Consequently, G-d's wrath burns against

her, and G-d is going to turn Jerusalem into an abortion and it

will be no place to marry or to bear children (16:3-4).

Jerusalem will be like a rejected prostitute (3:2-3; 4:29-31)

because she has stubbornly rejected the L-rd, her true husband,

and has given herself in spiritual adultery to false g-ds, the

Seals and all the worthless foreign idols that have taken over

her land. Nothing short of the Babylonian exile would cure her

of this sin of changing her g-ds (2:11). What is amazing is that

the kingdom of Judah does not learn her lesson by seeing the

idolatrous northern kingdom of Israel go off (722 B.C.E.) into

captivity because of this very sin (3:6-10); Judah has to undergo

a similar punishment herself to get cured of idolatry. But, to

put it simply, the main fault that brought all this punishment on

G-d's people was refusal to listen to the prophetic Word of the

Scriptures (25:4-7; 32:33-35; 35:15-17).

Jeremiah did not have a popular message to preach (look at it--

13:19; also 15:10), and many people opposed him. Who wanted to

hear someone prophesy massacre and national desolation (see, for

example 9:22)? But all Jeremiah was preaching was Deuteronomy 28

and its covenant curses (see Jer. 11:2-4; 34:18). Nevertheless,

some men from Jeremiah's home town (Anathoth near Jerusalem) were

so embarrassed and infuriated by his preaching that they started

a conspiracy to kill him (11:8-23). The political leaders were

stupid, because they did not inquire of the L-rd (10:21); also

the wise, because they had rejected the Word of G-d (8:9). And

the rest of the people either scoffed at all preaching (5:12-13)

or championed the false prophets who contradicted Jeremiah's

message predicting war and judgment. Jer. l4:16 says that people

who listen to false prophets will be destroyed with them (so take

heed, you in the cults, or you who love your rabbi or your

priest). The false prophets were incompetent to warn against

coming disaster because G-d had not sent them (14:14) and they

had no knowledge (14:18). These spiritually stupid false

shepherds assured the people of peace even while the flames of

war were ready to ignite (6:14; 8:11; 23:30-40; 27:9-22;

29:8-19). The human heart is devious above all else and perverse

beyond understanding (17:9). Other lying false prophets in

Jeremiah are Pashhur the false kohen? (20:1), Hananich the false

prophet (28:1-17), Ahab son of Kolaiah and Zedekiah son of

Maaseiah (see 29:21-23 which says that a sexually immoral

preacher is by definition a false prophet). And look what

happened to Shemaiah of Nehelam who wrote a scathing letter from

the Exile against Jeremiah (29:24-32). False teachers (scribes,

rabbis) nullified the Word of the L-rd by their lying pen with

which they banded down their own traditions (see Jer. 8:8). A

true scribe (like Baruch) does not seek great things for himself

in a

tribulation world that is on the brink of destruction (45:5).

Because of these false political and religious shepherds (23:1-2,

11-22), the situation in the land was beyond remedy. The people

refused to know G-d (9:6). The time of repentance and revival in

Israel had past (8:20); doom and judgment were inevitable on

king, kohen, prophet, and inhabitant of Jerusalem (13:13). But

Jeremiah saw beyond the Exile and the Return and he had in view

the Brit Chadasha (31:31-34; 11:10; 22:9) and the coming of the

Moshiach (23:5-6; 33:14-18) and the shepherds that G-d would

raise up at that time: "I will give you shepherds after my own

heart, who will feed you with knowledge and understanding (3:15;

see also 23:3-4)."

With the ominous look of a weeping undertaker (9:1) called to

preside over the funeral and burial (in Exile) of the whole

nation, Jeremiah comes on the scene and makes his doleful

appearance (see 15:17). Jerusalem and its neighboring towns are

under a death sentence (33:5; 34:2,22). Read 16:1-9. Commanded

to celibacy (since what is going to happen to Judah now will make

it no place to raise children), Jeremiah is also instructed by

G-d that his devastatingly sad message will close down wedding

chapels (7:34). He is to shake the dust or the mourner off his

feet (16:5), since deaths en masse will now be divine punishment.

Mourning is futile when death is judgment and is coming like an

epidemic on the entire population. However there will be a

she'erit Yisroel (remnant of Israel), because G-d will not make a

full end of His people (see 4:27; 5:18; 6:9). A wonderful

restoration is prophesied (32:37-41; 33:6-33; 46:27-28). A great

end-time Exodus from the north is predicted in Jer. 16:14-l5;

31:8, which is a prophecy that is not exhausted by the Return

from Babylon but must surely also include Soviet Jews returning

from the Soviet Union (due north of Israel) in the greatest

Exodus ever, one that will shortly double the population of

Israel in our own time. The prodigal nation will come home

(31:13--"I will turn their mourning into joy") and will be

ultimately reconciled to G-d and to His Moshiach (33:14-18; cf.

Zech. 6:12; Ezra 3:8 his name is Yehoshua), through individual

moral accountability (31:10-11, 18-20; 29-30) and "one way"

(32:39), the way of the new birth circumcision of the Brit

Chadasha (31:31-34; 4:4; 9:25-26; 32:40; Deut. 30:6).

Because of the pressure that was on him, Jeremiah was tempted to

wallow in self-pity and to speak bitterly. But G-d promises that

if he will "utter worthy words" G-d will protect him and make him

a "fortified wall of bronze" (15:19-20). But the true prophet

must speak G-d's word faithfully (23:28).

We see Jeremiah as a type of the Moshiach (compare Jer. 11:19 to

Isa. 53:7). Like that other Messianic type Boaz in Ruth 2:20,

Jeremiah is a kinsman-redeemer (32:7), showing that G-d will

ultimately redeem his exiled land, showing hope in the midst of

bitter tragedy (32:24-25). He prophesied Es-Tzarah (the "time of

Jacob's trouble"--30:7) and the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash

(7:14; 22:5; 26:4-6) and the Exile and the coming of the Moshiach

who will be "raised up" out of this tribulation (30:9), just as

Yehoshua prophesied the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash and the

Roman Exile and the Second Coming (see Mark 13:1-27). We see

Jeremiah buried in mud but then raised to the right hand of power

(given favor with both King Zedekiah and King Nebuchadnezzar) in

Jer. ch.38. See also 39:11.

Jer. 42:18 shows the folly of relying on the deceptive "help" of

Egypt. Here we see that we must not look at events or people but

listen to the word of the L-rd and rely on Him. When it comes to

Egypt, even after the Exile, some people never learn (44:7-10).

See 44:17-19,25; 7:18 on "the queen of heaven" a Canaanitish

g-ddess of fertility, Ashtoreth (Judges 2:13), a heathenish title

shamefully imposed on Miryam by the Roman Catholic Brit Chadasha


39:8 shows Nehemiah's job now awaits him. See also 52:14.

One disciple of Jeremiah's came over 600 years later. Read Jer.

16 and Romans 11.

Today Jewish people have been restored to their land (30:18) and

are honored in every field of endeavor (30:19).

Saddam Hussein of "Babylon" (modern Iraq) should have believed

30:16: "all who prey on you I will make a prey." Also see 50:24;


On Jeremiah's preaching against the nations, see the following

chapters: Babylon (chs. 50-51); Philistia (ch. 47); Moab

(ch. 48); Egypt (ch. 46); Edom (49:7-22); Tyre and Sidon (47:4);

Ammon (49:1-6); Kedar end Hazor (49:28-33); Elam (49:34-39).

Historical facts and dates: 640 B.C. King Josiah, an

eight-year-old child, begins his reign. He will only live to be

40 years old and will be killed in battle by the Egyptians, but

during his reign there will be a breath of both revival and


627 Jeremiah is called of G-d to be a prophet. Ashurbanipal, last

of the great Assyrian rulers, dies. Judah is under tribute to

Assyria whom power was beginning to wane.

626 Nabopolassar begins neo-Babylonian Empire, revolting against

Assyria and beginning his 21-year reign. His son Nebuohadrezzar

would destroy the Jerusalem Beis Hamikdash in 586 B.C. 621

Discovery of the book of the Law in the Beis Hamikdash (Jer.


612 Ninevah, the capital of Assyria, is sacked by the Babylonians

and Medes as Nahum predicted.

609 King Josiah is killed at Megiddo by Neco of Egypt who was on

his way to fight to rescue Assyria from Babylon. This is believed

to be the famous site known as Armageddon, where Revelation says

the final battle will take place.

609 Jehoahaz (Shallum) ruled Judah for three months before being

deposed by Neco and taken to Egypt in chains as collateral to

assure high indemnity payments.

609-598 Jehoiakim reigns over Judah as Egyptian vassal enthroned

by Pharaoh Neco. He was an evil king (see Jer. 22:21). 605

is the year of the Battle of the Assyrian city of Carchemish

(the ruins of which are on the Euphrates in what is today Syria

and Turkey) which fell when the Assyrian Empire finally succumbed

in defeat. Nabopolassar sent his son Nebuchadnezzar to defeat the

Assyrian ally Pharoah Necho and the Egyptians there (the

Egyptians had occupied the city but lost the war--see Jer. 46)

and then Babylonian soldiers entered Israel, taking Daniel etc

hostage (II Kg. 24:1). Jehoiakim abandoned Egyptian suzerainty

and became a vassal of Babylon. Because the people of Judah had

seen a few temporary victories of the Egyptians, they refused to

believe Jeremiah's prophesies about Babylon destroying Judah and

this brought persecution on Jeremiah. But Jeremiah trusted in no

foreign alliances, especially with Egypt (44:26,27). Later the

Pharoah Hophra did prove useless in protecting Jerusalem from the

angry hand of Nebuchadnezzar when he began his siege in January

of 588.

604 King Jehoiakim burns the Word of G-d (36:22f) but Jeremiah is

inspired to write it again, this time with a judgment upon

Jehoiakim (36:24-31).

601 Beause of a temporary victory of Egypt against Babylonia, the

pro-Egyptian party in Jerusalem persuades Jehoiakim that Judah

should side with Egypt again in spite of Jeremiah's warning

(Jeremiah 22:13-19). This act of rebellion against Nebuchadnezzar

spelled Jeholakim's downfall, and he received the burial not of

an honored king but of a donkey (23:19), for Judah's enemies were

armed by Nebuchadnezzar to attack her (II Kings 24:2).

597 Jehoiakim dies. Eighteen-year-old Jehoiachin (Coniah), who

only reigned three months, is captured. Nebuchadnezzar captures

Jerusalem and deports King Jehojachin to Babylon with many

others, including Ezekiel. Nebuchadnezzar replaces Jehoiachin

with Zedekiah (II Kings 24:17). Zedekiah, a third son of Josiah

to come to the throne, soon after permits nationalistic minded

nobles to imprison Jeremiah.

539 Zedekiah's revolt begins.

586 Nebuchadnezzar again occupies Jerusalem because Zedekiah had

entered into negotiations with Egypt (II Kings 25:1-7).

586 Destruction of Jerusalem. Zedekiah tries to flee but is

captured and taken to Nebuchadnezzar's throne in Riblah (in

modern Syria) and Zedekiah's family is slain and he is blinded

and taken in chains to Babylon where he died (39:6-7). Jeremiah

is released from prison by the Babylonians and given to the care

of Gedaliah.

586 Gedaliah appointed governor of Judah and assassinated.

Jeremiah is taken to Egypt where he predicts the conquest of

Egypt by Nebuchadnezzar (43:8-l3), fulfilled 568-567. 585

Jeremiah in Egypt.

Jeremiah was "a man of strife and dissension for all the land"

(15:10), a prophet nailed by the driving, firey hammer of G-d's

Word, a lonely, weeping prophet of vision who stood out against

the shallow optimism and political expediency that would lull his

nation into the inevitable divine judgment of war and national

disaster. But like Moshiach Yehoshua, Jeremiah was without honor

in his own hometown (11:21), which was three miles northeast of

Jerusalem, a village called Anathoth. He belonged to the tribe of


What does G-d require of you? To feed on his Book until you get

'My words into your mouth'--then preach them. We want the L-rd's

ministries to grow numerically and we want to do all we can to

see new people discipled, but we need to remember that Jeremiah's

message was so strident (judgment, defeat, impending death and

disaster) that only a small number of people were friendly with

him. Ahikam hid Jeremiah when he would otherwise probably have

been killed after his third Beis Hamikdash sermon (Jer. 26:24)

Nahum and Zephaniah and Habakkuk were contemporary preachers.

Hilkiah was the g-dly kohen who discovered the book of the Law

during the early part of Jeremiah's ministry, and Huldah was the

prophetess who helped to spark Josiah's reforms because she

prophesied disaster would overtake his nation (II Kings 22:16; II

Chr 35:1-25). But most people seemed to shy away from Jeremiah.

After Josiah died, real persecution was in store for this lonely

prophet of G-d.

A key theme verse is 1:10. G-d has the nations in his hands like

a potter (18:5-10) molding clay pottery and when they displease

him, he can squeeze them into destruction like he did Nazi

Germany. In the same way G-d has uprooted and then replanted the

nation of Israel (31:27). Here is his promise: Stay in G-d's will

and under his discipline and he "will build you and not

overthrow, plant you and not uproot." (42:10) But here is his

warning: "I am going to overthrow what I have built, and uproot

what I have planted--this applies to the whole land. And do you

expect great things for yourself? Don't expect them. For I am

going to bring disaster upon all flesh--declares the Lord--but I

will at least grant you your life in all the places where you may

go (45:4-5). See 1:13-16; 2:19; 4:5f where Jeremiah also preaches


The maggid (preacher) is not ignorant of what G-d is doing in the

world, and as a co-worker with G-d, the maggid's (preacher's)

words are actually G-d's hammers and planting forks.

Jeremiah foresees G-d's nemesis, Babylon, coming (just as

Yochanan in Revelation saw eschatological Babylon coming). And he

sees that since Babylon is G-d's marshall, the only thing for the

Jews to do is to put their hands up and submit to the arrest of

exile; otherwise, they will be fighting G-d and will be

destroyed. His message sounded like treason to unregenerate ears,

and most people would not listen to him though he preached for 23

years. (See 25:3-14 for a sample of his main message.) How would

you like to preach 21:8-10? The seventy year exile was an awesome

punishment, a virtual life imprisonment away from one's homeland.

Today, Jeremiah would also be rejected in this world and he would

probably also find himself in prison or assassinated. He would

probably shout "Howl, you shepherds, and yell...for the day of

your slaughter draws near...the peaceful meadows will be wiped

out by the fierce wrath of G-d (25:34,37)." Howl, King Fahd of

Saudia Arabia with your personal yacht the size of an oceanliner!

Howl Qadhdhafi of Libya with your women bodyguards and

international murder unlimited! Howl, Mayor of New York, you

Herod who would make it a crime not to hire perverts as

money-changers in the Beis Hamikdash! You will not go unpunished!

"For I am summoning the sword against all the inhabitants of the

earth" (Jeremiah 25:29). Jeremiah preached to the g-dless that

you have rejected the Word of the L-rd, so your wisdom amounts to

nothing! (8:9)

(But can you say all this with tears? See 8:19-23.)

Unregenerate men are repulsed by a Jeremiah. Unregenerate men are

not interested in what G-d is doing, only what man is doing

(humanism). See 1:16. What does the unregenerate do? See 2:13. If

the unregenerate loves a G-d, he loves a strange one. He says,

"It's no use" and joins the vast millions involved in the cults.

The Jews in Egypt told Jeremiah, "I can't give up my cult because

I'm so blessed by it." (chapter 44) The unregenerate follows the

willfulness of his own evil heart. The unregenerate person is

described in 4:22. Even if he is wealthy and cultured, he is

still a low-life rebel (5:4-5). He is persistent in rebellion,

clings to deceit, and refuses to repent (8:5).

Unregenerates, whether Jewish or Gentile, don't believe the Word

of G-d when it says that a holocaust is coming. They didn't

believe the Babylonians were coming, they didn't believe the

Nazis were coming, they didn't believe Moses (Dt. 18, 28) so how

could they believe Moshiach Yehoshua? (Jer. 5:12-14) And Gentile

Christians become proud and arrogant, forgetting that the root

supports them, not they the root.

A heart circumcision is needed, opening the heart and cutting

away the thickness. But the irony is that those who think they

are spiritual Jews are not and those who ARE spiritual Jews don't

know they are. Moshiach Yehoshua is the living Torah who cuts the

Brit Chadasha (Jeremiah 31:31-34) and only he can cut us with the

new creation circumcision. A hellish reprisal awaits all those

who refuse to submit to his circumcision and believe on Moshiach

Yehoshua Moshiach and him hanged on the Aitz (11:6-8). 34:18

shows us what the sacrifice of G-d (climaxing at Moshiach's Aitz)

means: repent or this will happen to you!

G-d threatens to withdraw the rain (as he is doing in Africa)

because the people are like fowlers lying in wait, setting up a

trap to catch people: the pimps, the hookers, the bar-hopping

nymphomaniacs, the porno store owners, the lottery ticket

sellers, the drunken mothers on welfare, the rock-crazed teeny

boppers (see 5:26). And the liberal rabbis, the liberal kohens

and liberal ministers, the cultists--they all preach an easy soft

set of lies and the people who hear them love it (5:31).

Then there is the problem of clericalism. A prosperous

professional clergy casts revels in its gnostic knowledge and

cult of adoration and won't do street preaching and be spit upon

by irate Jewish people. (9:22-23)

Do you realize that you are being raised up as G-d's watchmen?

(6:17) You are to watch and pray until you have a word from the

L-rd. You are to stand in the council of the L-rd, and see and

hear his Word, and then you are to proclaim it and obey it

(23:18,22) and turn his people back from their wicked ways. A

true maggid (preacher) has a true burden from the L-rd; it is the

application of a text to the discerned needs of the people he is

addressing. A maggid (preacher) can pray and get a word from the

L-rd for the people (42:4).

You are to tell people, "Don't trust your religion. Don't say,

"I'm Catholic! I'm Jewish!" (7:3) "I attended mass! I went to

High Holy Day Services! (7:8-10). And don't say a word about 'The

Queen of Heaven!' (7:18). In Jeremiah's third Beis Hamikdash

speech (Jer.26) he warned that G-d was going to make the Beis

Hamikdash like Shiloh. From the time of Joshua until the time of

Eli, Shiloh had been the place of Jewish worship. But remember

Eli and his wicked sons (I Sam. 2:12) who ministered there?

Consequently, the L-rd allowed the Philistines to destroy Shiloh

and Jeremiah is pointing to another army coming to do the same

thing to Jerusalem if the people do not repent.

Jeremiah is an example of a prophet who is a virtual refugee from

the existing authorities, both religious and political. We learn

a lot about the ministry from him. 22:15-16 speaks about the

sacrificial lifestyle of a man of G-d. He is faithful and

fearless for the sake of the flock. Hasn't G-d given you a little

flock? Do you let them stray and scatter? Get a partner and pray

about your little flock, pray about specific people and then go

together and minister to that person together. If you can be

trusted with one, G-d will add to your flock.

Who will shepherd the Israelis? (See 23:1-4)

Jeremiah did prophetic "street theatre" mimes, interpreted

dramatic actions and he was not afraid of the "flesh" of his

hearers (20:10-11; 1:18). Note the acted parable of the soiled

loincloth in chapter 13 and the interpreted mime with the yoke in

chapter 27. Also see 51:63-64. (This one was interrupted by a

mime meddler, a false prophet.) Jeremiah 26:2 says that G-d

commanded him to stand out-of-doors and preach in the open air.

He could do it because he knew he was sent (26:15). Has G-d sent

you to New York?

Why can't we have a street dance company (with musicians)? See

30:19; 31:4; 31:13.

Jeremiah 30:7 calls the tribulation the "time of Jacob's

trouble", but see 31:7-9. During Hitler's Holocaust the ships

started arriving in Israel. G-d was providing a haven of refuge

even during such tribulation.

The Israel of G-d is eternal (31:36); we have been grafted in and

so also will the remnant of all peoples and the last days

remnant of the Jewish people. The Brit Chadasha kehillah is a

miraculous Jewish-Gentile fellowship. However, the Jewish nation

is an esohatologically significant people group--see 46:28.

Notable verses: Jeremiah predicts who will defeat Babylon

51:11,28. The Moshiach will be called the L-rd (Jer. 23:5-6)

Notable themes: The reversal of the imprisoned prophet who is

obedient to G-d and freed while the disobedient people go off in

chains to exile is a key picture here. Thinking of Jeremiah in

the dungeon of King Zedekiah must have comforted Shliach Sha'ul

in the dungeon of Nero in Rome.

Zedekiah had to be physically blinded to realize he was

spiritually blind, as was also true of Saul.

We see what Nietzsche, Sartre, Lenin, etc., would like to do to

the Bible when King Jehoiakim cuts it up and burns it without

fear in chapter 36.

The Brit Chadasha kehillah needs kiruv outreach associations,

shlichut agencies, and other Brit Chadasha kehillah

organizations. An example of such an organization is found in

chapter 35. It is a "second decision" organization, requiring

commitment to a certain "mandate" and membership involves one in

committed activity beyond normal religious life. The prophet

Jeremiah and Baruch constitute a sodality as well. A sodality is

a grouping together based on common purpose or interest. Rav

Sha'ul's company in Acts 13:13 is another example.

The local Brit Chadasha kehillah sometimes does not see this

structure in the Bible and tries to control and destroy the

autonomy and legitimacy of these sodalities, which also sometimes

abuse their autonomy and fall into disrepute because they do not

realize that they are servants of the local Brit Chadasha

kehillah and not beyond its correction.

Sodality members who have leaders with no ordination by a larger

body are following a potential independent rebel who is

unaccountable to anyone. This is how Jim Jones and all manner of

cults and scandalous failures begin and is not Scriptural.

Get a prayer partner and start doing visitation outreach together

with the people you pray for. Follow Jeremiah's model and prepare

to go on the street and do either a brief sermon or sketch or


Notice the very important prophesy that the exile would last for

70 years (Jer. 25:11-12). Daniel refers to this prophecy in Dn.9

Jeremiah's real estate inheritance activities are his prophetic

verification that the word of G-d regarding the restoration of

Israel would come true (see 37:12; 29:10).

Jer. 21:8 says that there are two ways, the Derech HaChayim, the

way of life, the way of covenant blessing, and the Derech

Hamavet, the way of death, the way of the covenant curse. The

fool chooses the way of death. He knows about the rental covenant

he signed with the Landlord, but he says, "I don't have to read

it, or study the fine print, I can forget about the rent due

notices, I can lay around in filth and create a fire hazard, I

can have noisy parties all night long and walk the dog without

going outside (I once had a neighbor who did that--but he was

very clean, he always insisted on hosing down the floor once a

day, no matter what the tenant below him screamed as his

apartment was flooded)." He never worried about the rent

covenant. No covenant curses will ever cross my threshold! he

said, as he hosed down his dogs and his living room floor. But

G-d's Word shows us something different. The wrath of the Lamb,

the covenant reprisals of the Lamb, those curses that crossed the

threshold to destroy the Egyptians, will not pass over you unless

you come out from among them and stand under the blood mark of

the Lamb. (If you stand under your own opinion or your own whim

or the way that seems right to you, you will be destroyed.) And

there's no way to touch both the two doorposts and then the

lintel with blood, as it says in Ex. 12:7 without forming a

bloody tav: not a Ku Klux Klan cross: Not a Gentile anti-Semitic

cross: a Jewish cross commanded by the G-d of Israel through

Moses. A mezuzah full of good works and religion on the threshold

is Jewish but not Jewish enough. The bloody tav of Moses is

necessary. Those without it can expect none of the diseases of

Egypt to pass them by. All over the world the curse of lust and

uncleanness and AIDS is crawling across millions of thresholds.

Following close behind crawls the curse of racism and poverty and

drugs and homelessness and crime and murder and prostitution and

abortion and genocide and war and ecological disaster and,

ultimately, Armageddon and "the End" itself. Do not boast about

tomorrow. Do not say, "When the overwhelming scourge passes

through" it will not touch you (Is. 28:18).

When we celebrate Pesach, we need to also celebrate Jeremiah's

Brit Chadasha and our redemption from the plagues of Egypt by the

Moshiach-Lamb who took our plagues.

Notice that G-d gave Jeremiah a very important and shocking, even

enraging, message and then did not tell him to share it with

Baruch and a few kindly souls in a quiet, sympathetic, Brit

Chadasha kehillah audience. No, G-d commanded Jeremiah to go

into the "lion's den" and preach in the Beis Hamikdash area

itself where a riot was inevitable (read very, very carefully

Jer. 26:2). This is our model of what preaching is, not a Brit

Chadasha kehillah ritual performed tamely between the offering

and the benediction for the benefit of a few religious folk, but

a dangerous, life-or-death confrontation ordered by G-d at a

particular place where G-d's enemies are given one final warning

before G-d's judgment disastrously falls upon them. A street

preacher in front of a Roman Catholic cathedral to irate

Catholics as they come out of Mass is closer to what Jeremiah was

doing when he preached than what most American clerics

(especially those who are wealthy and liberal) do when they

preach, particularly those whose pulpits are privileged spaces

for pampered, smooth-talking Pharisees.

If we have any illusions that humanism is right when it says that

human nature is essentially good, Jer. 42:1-43:7 should convince

us otherwise. The heart of man is desperately wicked--who can

know it? (Jer. 17:9) If Man were good, surely these "good" people

would say, "Jeremiah, we know you are a true prophet. We've seen

all that you prophesied in the last nearly 40 years come true. As

you predicted, Judah is now in exile in Babylon. Therefore, we

will listen to G-d and respect and obey you as G-d's prophet."

Instead read Jer. 43:2 to find out what they did say. Here we

see that man needs a supernatural miracle in his heart to bring

him to the point where he can know G-d and stop rebelling against

G-d's word (Lam. 1:18).



Behold, the days come, saith the L-rd, that I will raise unto

Dovid a righteous Branch, and a King shall reign and prosper and

shall execute judgement and justice in the earth.


In his days Judah shall be saved, and Israel shall dwell safely:

and this is the name whereby he shall be called, The L-rd Our


JEREMIAH 31:31-34


Behold (Look). the time is coming, saith the L-rd, that I will

make a Brit Chadasha with the house of Israel, and with the house

of Judah:


Not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in

the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the 2

land of Egypt; which my covenant they broke, although I was a

husband unto them, saith the L-rd:


But this shall be the covenant that I will make with the house of

Israel; After those days (after that time), saith the L-rd, I

will put my torah within them (in their thoughts and emotions)

and write it in their hearts; and will be their G-d, and they

shall be my people.


And they shall teach no more every man his neighbor, and every

man his brother, saying. Know the L-rd: for they shall all know

me. from the least of them unto the greatest of them, saith the

L-rd: for I will forgive their iniquity, and I will remember

their sin no more.

[Notice this passage is talking about an intimate, inward

knowledge of G-d, of a sense of relationship, even fellowship

with G-d, as well as the assurance of forgiveness of sins; in

short, regeneration. Jeremiah foresaw Brit Chadasha Jews and he

understood that the Word of G-d would somehow effect the miracle

of the Brit Chadasha "in their hearts." Have you become a Brit

Chadasha Jew? You can. Yehoshua the Word of G-d (sharper than

any sword, able to circumcise and consecrate the most heathen

heart) says, "Behold, I stand at the door, and knock: if any one

hears me calling and opens the door, I will come in to him, and

dine in devekut with him, and he with me." (Revelation 3:20)]


Lam. l:21; 2:21f speak of two phases of the Day of the L-rd, the

first already past in the fall of Jerusalem and the dissolution

of the people of Judah, and a second in store for the gloating

enemies of G-d's people. Therefore those who speak of "Israel's

Final Holocaust" had better be reminded that it will also be a

holocaust for all the nations of the world. Jeremiah is the

traditional author of Lamentations in the closing days of Judah's

conflict with Babylon around 586, the date of Jerusalem's final

capitulation to Nebuchadnezzar.

The ninth of Ab (August) is the Jewish commemoration of this

disaster, and on that day this scroll is read in the synagogue

following the evening services. The other minor fast days

associated in some way with this event are the Tenth of Tevet

(marking the beginning of the Babylonian siege of Jerusalem), the

Seventeenth of Tammuz (which marks the first breach in the walls

of Jerusalem during the Babylonian siege), and the Fast of

Gedaliah (commemorating his assassination after he was appointed

Governor of the Jewish people by