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זרע זה מלך המשיח מדרש רבה כג ה

that Moshiach, through his sufferings, will win our victory over Satan.)

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The study of the language of the Hellenistic Synagogue is quite rewarding. We will begin with a short book (only 25 verses). Take the test at the end of this page to pursue the diploma of our school.





language of the Hellenistic Synagogue.


You may think that Greek is dreadfully difficult and not at all interesting


and yet you may be very excited about going into the ministry.


But doing one without the other could be hazardous to your health.


Now think for a minute:  this letter, written by the half brother of the Messiah,


was written because certain false teachers were engaging in sexual immorality with certain


congregants.  Now if G-d the Father had set his love upon these congregants and they were


being kept for Yeshua the Moshiach and the Marriage Supper of the Lamb, can you imagine


the wrath that would be poured out on the false teachers?  


Ministerial Casanovas will burn in the lake of fire because they are


touching what belongs to another, namely the Moshiach Yeshua. 


Moreover, since congregants themselves are in danger of being


misled by immoral ministers, the congregants have the moral responsibility to


keep themselves in the love of G-d”


(verse 21 agaph Qeou thrhsate [this is a command] THIS IS ANCIENT JEWISH GREEK LIKE THE TARGUM HASHIVIM), and


yet, even this rests not completely on their own shoulders,  for G-d is able to


fulaxai umaV aptaistouV (v.24 “keep or guard you free from stumbling”)


since you are “kept for Yeshua HaMoshiach” (at his parousia)


as it says in v 1 Ihsou Cristw tethrhmenoiV



Now let’s get back to this book.


We will call it just "Yehuda." Note the system of

paragraph divisions. "Salutation" and "Judgment on False Teachers



used by permission), p. 827, are paragraph divisions put there by the editors

to help you clarify the structure of the book as a kind of

overlaid outline. If there is a parallel passage as here (II

Shliach Kefa 2:l-l7) it is included underneath the paragraph

divisions. Shliach Kefa says many similar things in the second

chapter of his second book. Notice that the "warnings and

exhortations" running from Yehuda verses 17 to 23 are warnings to

us in light of the terrible judgments (spelled out from verses 3

to 16) that will fall on sexually immoral ministers in the Brit

Chadasha kehillah. (Note: every seminary student should be required


to study this book in the original language as it is given here.


The fear of the L-rd will then fall on him to protect him from


immorality in the parsonage. This book is even more frightening in Yiddish.)


Just from the paragraph divisions, it becomes

obvious that Yehuda is saying, "Since all this happens to them,

don't be one of them, and make sure you aren't one of them by

heeding my warnings that I now am giving you." Of course, these

paragraph divisions are not part of what Yehuda wrote so they can

be wrong, but, nevertheless, they can be helpful in seeing the

over-all structure and message of the book at a glance. Before

we look at each word, it should be helpful to have the whole alphabet


and the whole text we are studying in front of us.















MU m

NU n

XI x


PI p










Here's the whole book. Look at each word (there are 461 words in

25 verses and we will number the words 1 to 461 below so that we can



refer to each word by its number). We will take them apart one by one and hopefully we

will have more yirat Shomayim (fear of Heaven [G-d]) when we finish than we had when we


1 IoudaV 2 Ihsou 3 Cristou 4 douloV, 5 adelfoV 6 de 7 Iakwbou,

8 toiV  9 en 10 Qew 11 patri 12 hgaphmenoiV, 13 kai 14 Ihsou 15 Cristw 16 tethrhmenoiV,

17 klhtoiV

18 eleoV 19 umin 20 kai 21 eirhnh 22 kai ?23 agaph 24 plhqunqeih.

25 Agaphtoi, 26 pasan 27 spoudhn 28 poioumenoV 29 grafein 30 umin 31 peri

32 thV 33 koinhV 34 hmwn 35 swthriaV,

36 anagkhn 37 escon 38 grayai 39 umin, 40 parakalwn

41 epagwnizesqai 42 th 43 apax 44 paradoqeish 45 toiV 46 agioiV 47 pistei.

48 Pareisedusan 49 gar 50 tineV 51 anqrwpoi, 52 oi 53 palai

54 progegrammenoi 55 eiV 56 touto 57 to 58 krima,

59 asebeiV, 60 thn 61 tou 62 Qeou 63 hmwn 64 carita 65 metatiqenteV 66 eiV

67 aselgeian, 68 kai 69 ton 70 monon 71 despothn 72 kai 73 kurion 74 hmwn,

75 Ihsoun 76 Criston 77 arnoumenoi.

78 Upomnhsai 79 de 80 umaV 81 boulomai,

82 eidotaV 83 [umaV] 84 panta 85 oti 86 [o] 87 KurioV, 88 apax

89 laon 90 ek 91 ghV 92 Aiguptou 93 swsaV, 94 to 95 deuteron 96 touV 97 mh

98 pisteusantaV 99 apwlesen.

100 AggelouV 101 te 102 touV 103 mh 104 thrhsantaV 105 thn 106 eautwn 107 archn,

108 alla 109 apolipontaV 110 to 111 idion 112 oikhthrion,

113 eiV 114 krisin 115 megalhV 116 hmeraV 117 desmoiV

118 aidioiV 119 upo 120 zofon 121 tethrhken,

122 wV 123 Sodoma 124 kai 125 Gomorra, 126 kai 127 ai 128 peri 129 autaV 130 poleiV,

131 ton 132 omoion 133 tropon 134 toutoiV 135 ekporneusasai, 136 kai

137 apelqousai 138 opisw 139 sarkoV

140 eteraV, 141 prokeintai 142 deigma, 143 puroV 144 aiwniou 145 dikhn 146 upecousai.

147 OmoiwV 148 mentoi 149 kai 150 outoi

151 enupniazomenoi 152 sarka 153 men 154 miainousin,

155 kuriothta 156 de 157 aqetousin, 158 doxaV 159 de 160 blasfhmousin.

161 O 162 de 163 Micahl 164 o 165 arcaggeloV,

166 ote 167 tw 168 diabolw 169 diakrinomenoV

170 dielegeto 171 peri 172 tou 173 MwusewV 174 swmatoV, 175 ouk

176 etolmhsen 177 krisin 178 epenegkein

179 blasfhmiaV, 180 alla 181 eipen, 182 Epitimhsai 183 soi 184 KurioV.

185 Outoi 186 de 187 osa 188 men 189 ouk 190 oidasin

191 blasfhmousin, 192 osa 193 de 194 fusikwV

195 wV 196 ta 197 aloga 198 zwa, 199 epistantai, 200 en 201 toutoiV 202 fqeirontai.

203 Ouai 204 autoiV, 205 oti 206 th 207 odw 208 tou 209 Kain 210 eporeuqhsan,

211 kai 212 th 213 planh 214 tou

215 balaam 216 misqou 217 execuqhsan 218 kai 219 th

220 antilogia 221 tou 222 Kore

223 apwlonto.

224 Outoi 225 eisin 226 oi 227 en 228 taiV 229 agapaiV 230 umwn 231 spiladeV

232 suneuwcoumenoi 233 afobwV, 234 eautouV 235 poimainonteV, 236 nefelai 237 anudroi

238 upo 239 anemwn 240 paraferomenai, 241 dendra 242 fqinopwrina 243 akarpa

244 diV 245 apoqanonta 246 ekrizwqenta,

247 kumata 248 agria 249 qalasshV 250 epafrizonta 251 taV 252 eautwn

253 aiscunaV, 254 astereV 255 planhtai 256 oiV 257 o 258 zofoV

259 tou 260 skotouV 261 eiV 262 aiwna 263 tethrhtai.

264 Proefhteusen 265 de 266 kai 267 toutoiV

268 ebdomoV 269 apo 270 Adam 271 Enwc 272 legwn,

273 Idou 274 hlqen 275 KurioV 276 en 277 agiaiV 278 muriasin 279 autou,

280 poihsai 281 krisin 282 kata 283 pantwn 284 kai 285 elegxai 286 pasan

287 yuchn 288 peri 289 pantwn 290 twn 291 ergwn 292 asebeiaV 293 autwn 294 wn

295 hsebhsan 296 kai 297 peri 298 pantwn 299 twn 300 sklhrwn 301 wn 302 elalhsan

303 kat 304 autou 305 amartwloi 306 asebeiV.

307 Outoi 308 eisin 309 goggustai 310 memyimoiroi,

311 kata 312 taV 313 epiqumiaV 314 eautwn 315 poreuomenoi,

316 kai 317 to 318 stoma 319 autwn 320 lalei 321 uperogka,

322 qaumazonteV 323 proswpa 324 wfeleiaV 325 carin.

326 UmeiV 327 de, 328 agaphtoi,

329 mnhsqhte 330 twn 331 rhmatwn 332 twn 333 proeirhmenwn

334 upo 335 twn 336 apostolwn 337 tou 338 Kuriou 339 hmwn 340 Ihsou 341 Cristou

342 oti 343 elegon 344 umin 345 [oti] 346 Ep 347 escatou

348 [tou] 349 cronou 350 esontai 351 empaiktai

352 kata 353 taV 354 eautwn 355 epiqumiaV 356 poreuomenoi 357 twn 358 asebeiwn.

359 Outoi 360 eisin 361 oi 362 apodiorizonteV,

363 yucikoi, 364 pneuma 365 mh 366 econteV.

367 umeiV 368 de 369 agaphtoi, 370 epoikodomounteV 371 eautouV

372 th 373 agiwtath 374 umwn 375 pistei,

376 en 377 Pneumati 378 Agiw 379 proseucomenoi,

380 eautouV 381 en 382 agaph 383 Qeou 384 thrhsate

385 prosdecomenoi 386 to 387 eleoV 388 tou 389 Kuriou 390 hmwn

391 Ihsou 392 Cristou 393 eiV 394 zwhn 395 aiwnion.

396 Kai 397 ouV 398 men 399 eleate 400 diakrinomenouV,

401 ouV 402 de 403 swzete 404 ek 405 puroV 406 arpazonteV,

407 ouV 408 de 409 eleate 410 en 411 fobw

412 misounteV 413 kai 414 ton 415 apo 416 thV 417 sarkoV 418 espilwmenon 419 citwna.

420 Tw 421 de 422 dunamenw 423 fulaxai 424 umaV 425 aptaistouV

426 kai 427 sthsai 428 katenwpion 429 thV 430 doxhV

431 autou 432 amwmouV 433 en 434 agalliasei,

435 monw 436 Qew 437 swthri 438 hmwn

439 dia 440 Ihsou 441 Cristou 442 tou 443 Kuriou 444 hmwn 445 doxa

446 megalwsunh 447 kratoV 448 kai 449 exousia

450 pro 451 pantoV 452 tou 453 aiwnoV 454 kai 455 nun 456 kai 457 eiV

458 pantaV 459 touV 460 aiwnaV. 461 Amhn.



Yehuda 1:1


IoudaV (ee-OO-dahs = Yehuda).

This is the first word in the book of Yehuda. It is important

because the name appears elsewhere in Mark 6:3, where Yehoshua/Yeshua/Ihsou  is

said to have brothers and sisters, and his brothers are named

"Ya'akov," "Yosi," "Yehuda" and "Shimon." These are called the

adelfoi (brothers) of Yehoshua/Yeshua. They were not members


of the Twelve. Until the resurrection appearances brought them to

faith (I Cor. 15:7; see I Cor. 9:5 adelfoi tou kuriou the

achim haAdon; Acts 1:14), somewhat like Sha'ul of Tarsus, they

opposed Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua and did not accept his claims (Mark


3:21; Yochanan 7:5), nor were they impressed by his miracles, but

were like the other unbelievers in Nazareth (see Luke 4:16-30)

and Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua marvelled at such unbelief (Mark 6:6) in

the face of so many miracles and signs. For the people of

Nazareth took offense at Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua. Familiarity breeds

contempt, and his sisters were still living among them in

Nazareth (Mark 6:3), and the townspeople knew all his brothers

and his mother, remembering his deceased foster father Yosef

also, no doubt. Therefore, how could a common worker seemingly


like themselves, a mere carpenter, a manual laborer (with what

the Greeks considered a menial trade), a mere man whom they

remembered as a child, have Messianic pretensions?  This is the

point of Mark 6:3, and explains why Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua as a


prophet with a Messianic aura was persona non grata in his own

hometown. Also in that Jewish culture, to call a man the son of

his mother (Mark 6:3), even when the woman had been widowed, had

an uncomplimentary innuendo of illegitimacy (see Judges 11:1;

also see Yochanan 8:41; 9:29). However, such rumors help to

confirm the truth of G-d-with-us, Moshiach Ben haAlmah, since

only Miryam and Yosef had supernatural information regarding the

true nature of Miryam's first pregnancy, and outsiders, even

their other children, might very well suspect the worst, and what

but the Moshiach's resurrection itself could confirm Miryam's

indelicate testimony?  Biblical evidence that many did suspect

the worst confirms that the circumstances of the birth of

Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua were not normal, and that the Brit Chadasha

scriptural witness to the Moshiach's supernatural entrance on the

human scene was not a mere fabrication superimposed on a normal

birth. Luke and Matthew had access to interview enough people to

ascertain the truth, if this miracle were a mere later tradition

of the Brit Chadasha kehillah without historical and early

attestation. G-d made sure that Rav Sha'ul had in his ministry

team a man with the education and expertise of a First Century

historian, so that before this generation of eye-witnesses had


died off, their eye-witnessed testimony could be pieced together


in what become Luke-Acts. Luke tells us he spoke to autoptai

(eyewitnesses), Luke parhkolouqhkoti (having investigated)

anwqen (from [the] beginning) pasin (everything) akribwV


(carefully) kaqexhV (in an orderly way)--see Luke 1:2-3. This

was done with a view to establishing asfaleian (certainty)--see

Luke 1:4. Oxford Classical scholar William M. Ramsay had a

high regard for Luke as a historian, and his books should be

consulted by those with an open mind. This is all relevant to

the first verse of Yehuda, as we will see. Look at the first

Greek word again. IoudaV

#1. Turn to p.433 in UBSGNT where you see this word in Acts 7:45 Ihsou (ee-ee-SOO = Yehoshua/Yeshua).


Proof that this is the way the


Hebrew word Yehoshua (Joshua) was written is found in Acts 7:45.


Cristou = (khree-STOO = Moshiach)


douloV (DOO-lohs = servant/slave).

Notice the difference in the endings. Insou Cristou douloV


These two words in Jude 1:1 end in


-ou and the last word ends in -oV. These are called case


endings. Greek is an inflected language, meaning that words

show their relationship to one another by adding recognizable


components to the base form. These components are called case


Look at the following sentence in English and see how the Greek

case endings, when we add them, indicate which noun is the

subject of the verb's action, which noun is the object of the


verb's action, etc. A noun is the name of a person, place, or


"Listen, 0 Believer, Yehuda, the servant of Moshiach Yehoshua,

wrote a letter to the Called." (Fifteen words)


Before we talk about noun case endings, let's motivate you to put out the effort to learn. In the very first verse of Yehuda, the noun case endings will tell us that we have Elohim HaAv (noun case ending = dative of agent) loving us and we have

a "Rebbe HaMelech HaMoshiach" and we are being kept or preserved for him (noun case ending dative of advantage).


So words #14 and #15 Ihsou Cristw are important to notice because Cristw


is in the dative case.  This is called dative of advantage.  We are being kept or preserved


for the advantage or benefit of Moshiach, this is what dative of advantage means.  So remember


what Yeshua said in Yochanan 6:37, “All that the Father gives Me will come to Me.”


Let’s illustrate this.  In America there are girls who are Pakistani Americans.  Their parents often


go back to Pakistan and arrange who their husband will be.  Then in America when they go to high


school they are not allowed to date American boys because they are being kept for their Pakistani


husband-to-be in Pakistan.  What this little OMEGA w with subscript i  on the end of


Cristw is telling us is that this word is a dative of advantage, meaning we are kept FOR Moshiach,


like a Pakistani-American girl is kept FOR her Pakistani husband, for his advantage, for his benefit.


So do you see all the meaning that can be packed into one little letter at the end of a word,


in this instance, a dative case ending, showing us that Cristw


is in the dative case and that it is to be construed as dative of advantage, meaning


that we can say of ourselves that “having been loved in G-d the Father and having been


kept for Yeshua HaMoshiach (dative of advantage).   This makes our calling, our divine summons, very

exciting indeed. Notice the intensive way we can read the Brit

Chadasha now, in slow motion, clinging to the letters in prayer

(devekut beotiot). It makes one want to start praying in

the Spirit.  It also puts a certain fear in us, in that

OMEGA w with subscript i  on the end of


Cristw for I know a true story where a Pakistani American girl was flirting with an


American high school boy and the Father became very angry because his daughter


was being kept for a boy in Pakistan who had been arranged by the Father to be


her husband.  Now think for a minute:  this letter written by the half brother of the Messiah


was written because certain false teachers were engaging in sexual immorality with certain


congregants.  Now if G-d the Father had set his love upon these congregants and they were


being kept for Yeshua the Moshiach and the Marriage Supper of the Lamb, can you imagine


the wrath that would be poured out on the false teachers?   The American high school boy


mentioned above had better stay away from a Pakistani American girl whose Father has


arranged for her to be given in marriage to a boy in Pakistan, and teachers had better stay


away from congregants that have been kept for Yeshua HaMoshiach.  Now look how the Greek noun case endings would be added to the

same sentence.  Remember we said that -ou and -oV. are called case


endings. Greek is an inflected language, meaning that words

show their relationship to one another by adding recognizable


components to the base form. These components are called case


Watch how we show the way the meaning is construed by showing


the relationship of the nouns to each other by adding case endings,


thus indicating by case endings which noun is the subject, which is the object of the preposition,


which is the direct object etc. Please be patient as we go through this because we are


leading up to something very important, namely that the inerrancy of the Bible is at


stake in the discussion we will be having regarding various words in this book and


the case endings of these words.

"Listen, Believere, YehudaaV servantoV Yehoshuaou Moshiachou,

wrote letterhn CalledoiV." (Nine words. Compare this to the English


above: "Listen, 0 Believer, Yehuda, the servant of Moshiach Yehoshua,

wrote a letter to the Called." (Fifteen words)


See why G-d chose for the language of the New Testament Hellenistic


Synagogue Greek rather than English, and this is only the first advantage,


Each of these noun case endings has a name: vocative, nominative,

genitive, accusative, dative. The name indicates the kind of

meaning relationship the noun has with the other words in the


#2. Nouns that are subjects of the verbs of a sentence are in the

nominative case and this -oV ending on douloV (the fourth word

in the book of Yehuda) indicates that the word is in the

nominative case. In this instance, however, douloV is in


apposition to IoudaV, which is the subject. Apposition means

that the second expression identifies or supplements the first

expression. So the second noun, douloV, is in the nominative

case because it identifies the first noun, IoudaV (the

subject) and is in apposition to it. Actually, IoudaV is

called an independent nominative because it is the greeting of a

letter, and the greeting is without normal subject-verb


grammatical relationship. That is, the standard form of ancient

letters of this period began, not "Dear Simon" but "Writer's name

to name of addressees, greetings."

#3. The genitive case is often translated with "of" in English


because it is the case that attributes some quality or


relationship to the noun modified. Yehuda is Yehoshua/Yeshua the

Moshiach's servant. This is called genitive of relationship,

because Jude's servitude as a servant is in relationship to

Yehoshua/Yeshua the Moshiach. Notice the literal translation of Yehuda

1:1 reads: "Yehuda, of-Yehoshua/Yeshua Moshiach servant." The inverted

order indicates emphasis falls on the last word, servant: "Yehuda,

SERVANT! of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua"--possibly inferring that Yehuda,

in proper reverence toward the status accorded Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua

by virtue of his supernatural entrance and exit (Virgin Birth and

Resurrection), which Yehuda himself may at one time have

misinterpreted as illegitimacy, dare not call himself "BROTHER!

of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua." This is true, in spite of the fact that

Yehuda was the half brother of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua. To be a man's

half brother is to be a male offspring having only one parent in

common with another male offspring. Miryam was not a perpetual

virgin, according to the Biblical record, if we give the Biblical

account preeminence over human tradition. Look at Ya'akov 1:1

where Ya'akov also indicates a similar modesty and reverence by

calling himself the "servant" rather than the "brother" of the

Moshiach Adoneinu. The Shlichim themselves, however, do not

hesitate to call these men "the achim of HaAdon" (I Cor.9:5; Acts

1:14) and Yehuda and Ya'akov were considered "pillars" among the


Messianic Adat Bnei Yisroel and the Yerushalayim messianic kehillah


as well as traveling emissaries of Moshiach.

#4. In Greek, nouns show how they relate to other nouns by means


of case endings. Subjects are nominative. The genitive case

indicates some attribute or quality to the noun modified. Direct

objects have accusative noun case endings. Indirect objects are

indicated by the dative case endings. In English, we rely largely

on word order and other signals to convey these ideas, not word

endings. We might say in English, "Listen, 0 Believer: Yehuda,

the servant of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua, wrote a letter to the Called."

#5. "Yehuda" is the subject of the verb "wrote." "Servant" is in

apposition to "Yehuda." "Letter" is the direct object of the verb

"wrote," receiving its action. "Called" is the indirect object

because it is more remote than the direct object or "catches" the

object of the verb.

#6. In the English sample sentence above, endings of words don't

show relationships between the nouns in a sentence. In Greek,

however, "Yehuda" would have a nominative ending to show it was

the subject, and "servant" would also have a nominative ending

because it is in apposition to (defines) "Yehuda." In Greek, an

appositive agrees in case with the word it describes; therefore,

"servant" and "Yehuda" are both nominative, indicating the

appositional relationship between these nouns. In Yehuda 1:1, the

- aV ending in IoudaV and the - oV ending in douloV are both

nominative endings to show us that "servant" is in apposition to


#7. In our hypothetical sentence above, "Believer" would have a

vocative singular case ending (because we say a noun is vocative

if it is what is being addressed).

#8. "Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua" would have a genitive ending. As we just

explained, the genitive case is often translated with "of" in

English because it is the case that attributes some quality or

relationship to the noun modified. Yehuda is Moshiach's servant,

the servant of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua. We might say in English,


"Listen, 0 Believer: Yehuda,

the servant of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua, wrote a letter to the Called."


"Letter" would have an accusative case ending, because it is the direct object of the

verb "wrote." "Called" would have a dative ending, because it is

the indirect object indicating the "catcher" of the object of the

verb's action. The Called are the people that are called or summoned with a divine call.

#9. Here are some of the Greek case endings:



A. Some nominative singular endings: - a - h - aV - hV - oV - on - V


Some nominative plural endings: - ai - oi - a - eV

Some genitive singular endings: - aV - hV - ou - oV - ewV

Some genitive plural endings: - wn

Some dative singular endings: - a with a i subscript - h with a i subscript


- w with a i subscript - i

Some dative plural endings: - aiV - oiV - si(n)

Some accusative singular endings: - an - hn - on - a - V

Some accusative plural endings: - aV - ouV - a - aV - eiV

Some vocative endings: often the same as the nominative but

sometimes just - e is added to the noun stem

#10. As we saw in #1, the Greek noun case endings afford

extremely accurate and economical means to indicate the

relationship between one noun and the other words in a sentence.

For instance we know that the word "these" toutoiV word #134

in verse 7 above can refer to "certain men" tineV anqrwpoi

[words #50-#51] in verse 4, "a people" [laon word #89] in

verse 5, and "angels" or malachim [aggelouV, word #100] in

verse 6 but can not refer to "Sodom and Gomorrah" in verse 7,

because Sodom and Gomorrah are treated as feminine nouns but the

nouns "certain men," "people." "angels," and the adjective

"these" are all masculine. Since "these" is an adjective and

adjectives agree in gender, number, and case with the nouns they

modify, this fact keeps one from construing verse 7 in a way

that would make the Bible contradict itself and contain error, as

we will explain. First, let's look at the exegetical problem.

Verse 7. Just as Sodom and Gomorrah and the cities around them,

since they in the similar manner to these...which these? certain

men(v.4)? angels (v.6)? people (v.5)? all of the above? What

precisely is "similar" the exact physical nature of the sin? the

spiritual nature of the sin? the punishment?

Let's start again with verse 7: "Just as Sodom and Gomorrah and

the cities around them, since they in the similar manner to

these, the cities indulging in sexual immorality against the

course of nature and turning aside from the right way and going

after strange flesh, are set forth to lie in public view as an

example of undergoing the punishment of everlasting fire."

#11. The inerrancy of the Bible is at stake in the Greek case

endings here. For if verse 4-7 teaches that reprobate angels

have sex like Sodomites or vice-versa, then Luke 20:35-36, which

says angels do not marry or procreate, is seemingly contradicted.

However, there is nothing said here about marriage vows


or procreation. The point seems to have to do with lust,


and strange lust, or unnatural lust.


The similarity is not necessarily in the physical nature of

the sin. Fornicators (lusting and operating in the strange


taboo area outside lawful marriage) revolting from Moses to have an


orgy around a golden calf, fallen angels revolting from G-d and

lusting to demonically possess people (which are not their


domain), and similar lusting rebels like homosexual sinners in

Sodom and fornicating false teachers in Yehuda's Brit Chadasha

kehillot--all these do not have the precise sexual sin in common.

But Yehuda goes on to show his interest is not in the sexual

habits of sinful angels but in the similar way the wicked are

punished. See the connecting thread from destroyed (v.5, word

#99) to eternal chains (v.6, #117,#118) to an example by

undergoing a punishment of eternal fire (v.7, #143,#144). Yehuda

is setting forth a warning to the Brit Chadasha kehillot about

the fate of these false achim, these false morim (teachers), who

have crept into the meetings and brought their sexual immorality

with them. On the reoccurring theme of punishment, which in each

instance is hellish, see Yehuda 4,5,6,7,l0,ll,12 "twice dead",

13,l5). So the inerrancy of the Bible hangs on one little point

in the Greek, in this instance, the noun case endings of key

words to which we have just drawn your attention. This will all

be clearer to you when we actually deal with verses 5-7 and after

you have gone over this material a few times.



You did not learn your multiplication tables

without repetition and you will not learn Greek without

repetition either. So be patient with yourself. (Yehuda 1:1)

adelfoV (ah-del-FOHS = brother) de (deh = and) )

Iakwbou (ee-ah-KOH-voo = Ya'akov)

#12. The - oV ending on adelfoV tells us this noun is nominative

and is, like douloV, in apposition to IoudaV. de is a

conjunction meaning "and." The -ou ending of Iakwbou tells us

that we have another genitive of relationship, with Yehuda being

Ya'akov's brother. So Yehuda, whose famous mother



is "Em HaAdoni" (Luke 1:43; Mark 3:31), is reverently alluding to the

Mishkan of Immanuel Adoneinu (Yochanan 1:14), even as Yehuda directs the kavod of

the Mishkan of Immanuel in human flesh (Yochanan 1:14) away from himself (and his

family and Mother--something that many religionists have failed

to do), saying only this: "As far as Rebbe HaMelech HaMoshiach

is concerned I am an eved (servant, slave); as far as Ya'akov is

concerned I am an ach (brother)." Since the word "Ya'akov" is

given without further clarification, this can only be the leader

of the Jerusalem messianic kehillah (community), the Shliach

Ya'akov the ach HaAdon (see Moshiach's Letter Through the Shliach

Ya'akov to the Brit Chadasha Kehillah, also Acts 15, Gal.l:19;

2:9,12; I Cor.l5:7).

(Yehuda 1:1) toiV (tees = to the [ones]) en (en = in) Qew

(theh-OH = G-d, Elohim) patri (pah-TREE = Father, HaAv)

hgaphmehoiV (ee-ghah-pee-MEN-ees =having been loved)

#13. If you look at the bottom of the page 827 in your




you will see a footnote on hgaphmehoiV, which is a reading

accepted with an "A" grade of certainty by the Bible Society

Committee and is attested by many ancient manuscripts including

p72 (which is a papyrus manuscript we know is dated around C.E.

275). In this UBSGNT textual apparatus we see that hgaphmehoiV is

preferred to hgiasmenoiV "having been set apart for use that is

kadosh," though the various manuscripts for this variant are also

given. Bruce Metzger's A Textual Commentary on the GNT (United

Bible Society) tells why the Committee chose one variant over

another. The New Revised Standard Version, the translation which

Bruce Metzger supervised, helpfully translates these important

variants in italics at the bottom of each page. Also see the

book list at the end of this section, particularly the

Greek-English Interlinear information.

#14. en is a preposition (relation word) and when it occurs with

its object in the dative case, en means "in."

#15. "The" is the definite article in English. When the definite

article toiV in this case, see word #8] appears alone here, it

functions as a relative pronoun and is translated with the last

word in verse one, klhtoiV, as "to the (ones) which are called."

A definite article actually goes with its noun or substantive (a

word used as a noun) and agrees with it in case, gender, and

number. In this instance both the lone definite article or

pronoun (toiV) and the substantive with which it agrees

(klhtoiV) are dative, masculine, plural, and the word order puts

the emphasis on the divine calling or summons. Learn this rule: A

definite article agrees with its substantive (noun or pronoun or

word used as a noun) in gender, number and case.


to the called ones having been loved in Elohim HaAv

Elohim HaAv loves us from all eternity and we are called or

invited or summoned not on the basis of merit or deserts or divine debt,

as though G-d owes us anything. Yehuda is writing "to the Called

ones, which in Elohim HaAv are beloved." This participle

hgaphmenoiV is in the passive voice, meaning it is not

referring to our love of G-d but His love of us, of which we are

viewed here as the passive recipients. This participle is in the

perfect tense, which means His love for us before time began has

continuing effects on us even now in the present. We will explain this more as

we go along. But we need to pause here and meditate on these

words and savor the fact that Elohim HaAv has been loving

us and is still loving us from before the creation and in that

love we are called. And the love for us that He had back in the

primal past has continuing effects on us even now. What a

tremendous amount of meaning is packed into one word, word #12.





#16. An article makes a noun definite. Luke 18:13 says, "G-d, be

merciful to me tw amartwlw [toh ah-mahr-toh-LOH = "THE

sinner"], meaning not "sinner in general," but "THE sinner," in

other words, well-known as such, or more than all others. In

Greek, the article is used with pronouns, proper names,

participles, infinitives, prepositional phrases, and clauses, not

just nouns (as in English). Here in Yehuda 1:1 the article serves

a "bracketing" function, "to the [in Elohim HaAv having been

loved and for Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua having been

kept] Called ones." All of this tells us what kind of "Called

ones" we are, and that we have Elohim HaAv loving us and we have

a "Rebbe HaMelech HaMoshiach" and we are being kept or preserved for him.


So words #14 and #15 Ihsou Cristw are important to notice because Cristw


is in the dative case.  This is called dative of advantage.  We are being kept or preserved


for the advantage or benefit of Moshiach, this is what dative of advantage means.  So remember


what Yeshua said in Yochanan 6:37, “All that the Father gives Me will come to Me.”


Let’s illustrate this. I am deliberately repeating this part so that it will sink deeply into your heart.  In America there are girls who are Pakistani Americans.  Their parents often


go back to Pakistan and arrange who their husband will be.  Then in America when they go to high


school they are not allowed to date American boys because they are being kept for their Pakistani


husband-to-be in Pakistan.  What this little OMEGA w with subscript i  on the end of


Cristw is telling us is that this word is a dative of advantage, meaning we are kept FOR Moshiach,


like a Pakistani-American girl is kept FOR her Pakistani husband, for his advantage, for his benefit.


So do you see all the meaning that can be packed into one little letter at the end of a word,


in this instance, a dative case ending, showing us that Cristw


is in the dative case and that it is to be construed as dative of advantage, meaning


that we can say of ourselves that “having been loved in G-d the Father and having been


kept for Yeshua HaMoshiach (dative of advantage).   This makes our calling, our divine summons, very

exciting indeed. Notice the intensive way we can read the Brit

Chadasha now, in slow motion, clinging to the letters in prayer

(devekut beotiot).

  It also puts a certain fear in us, in that

OMEGA w with subscript i  on the end of


Cristw for I know a true story where a Pakistani American girl was flirting with an


American high school boy and the Father became very angry because his daughter


was being kept for a boy in Pakistan who had been arranged by the Father to be


her husband.  Now think for a minute:  this letter written by the half brother of the Messiah


was written because certain false teachers were engaging in sexual immorality with certain


congregants.  Now if G-d the Father had set his love upon these congregants and they were


being kept for Yeshua the Moshiach and the Marriage Supper of the Lamb, can you imagine


the wrath that would be poured out on the false teachers?   The American high school boy


mentioned above had better stay away from a Pakistani American girl whose Father has


arranged for her to be given in marriage to a boy in Pakistan, and teachers had better stay


away from congregants that have been kept for Yeshua HaMoshiach.  It is not possible to get


all of this meaning from the English translation of Jude 1:1.  One has to look at the verse in the


Hellenistic Synagogue Greek.  When one does, a certain fear of the L-rd comes upon the reader,


especially if he is a teacher.  Ministerial Casanovas will burn in the lake of fire because they are


touching what belongs to another, namely the Moshiach Yeshua.  Moreover, since congregants


themselves are in danger of being misled by immoral ministers, the congregants have the moral responsibility to


keep themselves in the love of G-d” (verse 21 agaph Qeou thrhsate [this is a command]), and


yet, even this rests not completely on their own shoulders,  for G-d is able to


fulaxai umaV aptaistouV (v.24 “keep or guard you free from stumbling”) since you are “kept


for Yeshua HaMoshiach” (at his parousia) as it says in v 1 Ihsou Cristw tethrhmenoiV

Notice the way the definite article looks in Greek.




Nominative o h to

Genitive tou thV tou

Dative tw (with i subscript) th (with i subscript) tw (with i subscript)

Accusative ton thn to



Nominative oi ai ta

Genitive twn twn twn

Dative toiV taiV toiV

Accusative touV taV ta

In English, the definite article "the" tells you nothing about

the way the noun it modifies is used in the sentence. Not so in

Greek. Here it is necessary to digress for a moment from Yehuda.

#17. Also, the omission of the definite article where it would be

expected to appear may emphasize the noun's quality or character

or nature, as in Yochanan 1:1.

#18. Each part of a sentence containing a subject and a verb is

called a clause. In Yochanan 1:1 there are three clauses.

CLAUSE #1 "In the beginning was o logoV "

CLAUSE #2 "and o logoV was with ton Qeon" [here the article

ton before Qeon refers to Elohim HaAv as in II Cor.13:13 and

frequently in the Brit Chadasha. "G-d" should not, however, be

translated "the G-d" any more than QeoV in

CLAUSE #3 should be translated "a G-d."]

CLAUSE #3 "and QeoV (no article before "G-d" here, emphasizing

the noun's quality or nature--"G-d by nature" was o logoV."

In the beginning was the Memra (Hashems creative agent),


and the Memra was with Hashem,


and the Memra was (as far as His Nature was concerned) nothing less than Elohim!


This is saying the Chochmah of Hashem had the very nature of G-d!

He was in the form of the mode of being of G-d! [Php.2:6, morfh Qeou ]


Because QeoV comes first in the third clause of Yochanan 1:1, we know it is

emphasized. How do we know? We don't expect to see the predicate before the subject.



We would normally not expect to see "G-d by nature"

coming before "was the Word." Here is the reason. A sentence has

a subject and a predicate. The predicate is that which is stated

about the subject. If a noun in the predicate ("G-d") by means

of a linking verb merely renames the subject ("the Word"), we

call that noun the predicate noun or predicate nominative.

#19. The part of the sentence that further defines the subject

and follows a verb of being or a linking verb is called the

predicate nominative. In the sentence, "The Word was by nature

G-d," "G-d" is the predicate nominative because it further

defines the subject "the Word," which is linked to "G-d" by a

verb of being. But the predicate nominative in CLAUSE #3 above

is in a deliberately abnormal position. This means Yochanan

intended to emphasize the word G-d, and we should notice his

deliberately abnormal word order of the predicate nominative,

"G-d by nature" (putting it first instead of last) and therefore

translate CLAUSE #3 "and the Word was G-d by nature!" with an

exclamation point or italics or some other way to indicate

emphasis. Notice this does not say that the Word is all there is

to G-d (as in popular Sabellian heresies current today). This

says that what Elohim Avinu was by His very nature, the Chochmah

of Hashem was by nature.--namely G-d! And this Chochmah of

Hashem took on flesh as Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach (see chp 1 of The

Besuras HaGeulah According to the Shliach Yochanan, verses 14 and


Here is the complete translation of Yochanan 1:1:

"In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with Hashem

(ton Qeon), and the Word was by nature G-d!"

Not merely divine, for the word for divine or g-d-like is qeioV

(THEE-ohs) used in II Shimon Kefa 1:4. We will study that word

when we get to that book of the Brit Chadasha.

Philippians 2:6 says that, in contrast to Adam, the Second Adam,

Moshiach, "though he was in the form of the mode

of being of G-d, did not look upon equality with G-d as something

to be seized, but, no, he emptied himself, divesting himself of

what was His, and took on the form of the mode of being of a

servant--i.e. the suffering servant of Isaiah 53)." Now we return to Yehuda from our short digression.


(Yehuda 1:1)

kai (keh = and) ) Ihsou (ee-ee-SOO = for [dative of advantage] Yehoshua/Yeshua) Cristw* (*this is w with i subscript)

(khree-STOH = Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach, see Yochanan 1:49)

tethrhmenoiV (teh-tee-ree-MEN-ees = having been kept [safe from

harm] klhtoiV (klee-TEES = Called ones).

Now let's translate the whole of verse 1:

"Yehuda, a servant of Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach (Yochanan 1:49)

Yehoshua/Yeshua, an ach haYa'akov; to the ones Called, having been loved

in Elohim HaAv and having been guarded for Rebbe, HaMelech

HaMoshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua."

#20. Look at the last three letters of the last word in Yehuda 1,

oiV in klhtoiV and go back and look at word #8 above, toiV.

toiV is a definite article used here as a personal pronoun "the

(ones)" and it links with klhtoiV ("the called" see Romans 1:6),

because both words are dative, masculine, plural (see definite

article chart above, B). Even though klhtoiV is an adjective,

it is used like a noun or substantive here, and is called a

pronominal adjective, "the Called (ones)."

#21. A substantive is the name of a noun or pronoun or any word

used like a noun. Notice the oiV at the end of both of the two

participles (a participle is a verbal adjective): "having been

lovedoiV and "having been keptoiV" which shows that these

words are also dative, masculine, plural and therefore link with

and describe the substantive klhtoiV. We can now translate all

of Yehuda v.1.


"Yehuda, (as far as) Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua (is

concerned) (I am) a servant, (as far as) Ya'akov (is concerned)

(I am) an ach (brother); to the called (ones), (the ones) having

been loved in Elohim HaAv and having been kept safe from harm for

Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua."

#22. Both the verbal adjectives (participles) "loved" and "kept"

are in the passive voice, meaning that the subject receives the

action. (Review #15 above.) The subject is not acting but is

being acted upon. So the "called" are being acted upon with

ahavah (love) and keeping security in Elohim HaAv and for Rebbe,

HaMelech HaMoshiach. Looking at the dative case ending on the


word Cristw* (*w with i subscript), we term



"for Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua

"dative of advantage," meaning His interest is affected and it is

for the advantage of Him and His coming that the called ones are

preserved or kept safe. Notice how much more meaning can


be so economically unpacked in the language of the Hellenistic


Synagogue as opposed to English and other languages. All this


is said in just the first 17 words.

#23. Also, both verbs are in the perfect tense, meaning that this

action in the past is a completed action with lasting effects

that are still going on in the present. Therefore, the Called ones are

even now wrapped in this eternal love originating in the past and in this keeping security that

originates in Elohim HaAv and is sustained for His Rebbe,

HaMelech HaMoshiach Ben HaElohim.

#24. This verb "kept" threw (tee-REH-oh) is very important. It

appears no less than 5 times in Yehuda's short little letter

containing only approximately 461 words. The word appears in v.

1, v.6 (twice), v.13 and v.21 in a book of the Bible that

contains only 25 verses.


  1. Those who are called are the ones "having been kept for Rebbe,


HaMelech HaMoshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua" (Yehuda 1:1; see also Luke 22:32).

 2. Malachim (angels) who did not keep their own position of

 authority but deserted their proper domain G-d has kept bound for

 hellish judgment (Yehuda 1:6).

 3. Hellish black darkness has been kept forever for these

 libertine, fornicating, authority-rejecting scoffers who have

 slipped into the Brit Chadasha kehillah and whose presence

 constitutes the crisis that has provoked Yehuda's

 Gehinnom-fire-and-damnation letter (Yehuda 1:13; compare Yehuda


 4. Keep yourselves in the love of G-d (Yehuda 1:21) that you are

 in according to Yehuda 1:1. Notice we are counting the actual words



of the author and not the mere whims of an English translator's word choices.



Now we begin to be able to see the

 real burden of Yehuda's message. He has a mitzvah (commandment)

 of Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach for the Brit Chadasha kehillah. As

 a servant of Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach, he must deliver this

 mitzvah, which is not optional. As called ones, you have been

 kept for Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua. Learn from the

 malachim. Keep your position, which some of them didn't. Keep

 yourselves in the holy love of G-d (the ahavas Hashem). Keep

 building yourself up in the most holy doctrinal body of Emunah

 (Faith, the Ani Ma'amin, what we believe). Keep davening in the

 Ruach Hakodesh. Fear G-d when you see these authority-rejecting

 scoffers kept forever for the punishment of the Sodomites, and

 for the punishment of fornicators in the wilderness and for the

 punishment of the evil malachim, false teachers, etc.

Now you can begin to preach what Yehuda is preaching. Now you

get his point. This word study is more difficult with Strong's

Exhaustive Concordance, which lists only Yehuda verse 6 under

"kept". You need something like The Englishmen's Greek

Concordance, which lists all references under the listing threw.

Do you see what a rich feast it is when you are able to enter


the world of the First Century Hellenistic Synagogue and actually


read what is being said by this descendent of Dovid HaMelech, Yehudah,


a pre-Churban Bayis Sheni Judaism Zeken of the Messianic


Edat Bnei Yisroel in Yerushalayim and what is written of an inspired nature


and is part of the First Century Hellenistic Synagogue messianic


Masorah HaZekenim.


Now let's learn how to pronounce the Greek letters (modern Greek

pronounciation) and their sounds.


a (ah as in "car") alpha ahl-phah

b (v as in "van") beta (Modern Greeks call it vee-tah)

g (gh as in "gawdy" pronounced deep in the throat) gamma (Modern

Greeks say GHAH-mah)

d (soft "th" as "the") delta (dhehl-tah)

e ("eh" as in "bet") epsilon

z (z as in "zero") zeta (Modern Greeks call it ZEE-tah)

h (ee as in "see") eta (Modern Greeks say EE-tah)

q (hard "th" as in "third") theta (Modern Greeks say THEE-tah) i


i (ee as in "see") iota (Modern Greeks say YOH-tah)

k (k as in "keep") kappa (Modern Greeks say KAH-pah)

l (l as in "lamp") lambda (Modern Greeks say LAHM-dhah)

m (m as in "man") mu (Modern Greeks say mee)

n (n as in "now") nu (Modern Greeks say nee)

x ("ks" as in "excellent") xi (Modern Greeks say ksee)

o (oh as in "coke") omicron (Modern Greeks say OH-mee-krone)





p (p as in "part") pi (Modern Greeks say pee)

r (r as in "rose") rho (roll tongue like Scottish "r")

s (s as in "sun") sigma (SEEGH-mah, and look at the first letter

of word #27 in Yehuda and compare initial sigma to final sigma V in

word #1)




t (t as in "top") tau (pronounced "tahf" by Modern





u (ee as in "see") upsilon (EEPS-ee-lone, Modern Greek)

f (f as in "fall") phi (pronounced fee)

c chi (Modern Greek khee) (kh as in the sound at the end of the word Koch with strong gutteral

before consonants and "oh" and "ah" sounds; smoother gutter

before "eh" and "ee" sounds. practise: CristoV KHREES-tos =

Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach in the Orthodox Jewish Brit Chadasha




y (ps as in lips") psi (psee, Modern Greek)

w (oh as in "coke") omega (oh-MEH-ghah, Modern Greek)


ai (eh as in "bet" this is the Modern Greek pronunciation)

ou (oo as in "booty")

oi (ee like E as in "see")

ei (ee like E as in "see")

ui (ee like E as in "see")

au, eu, hu (af, ef, eef) when followed by the consonants q, k, x,

p, s, t, f, c. .. an, en, hn when followed by a vowel or the

consonants g, d, l, m, n, r.



Open your UBSGNT to word #173.

wu is not a dipthong. The two letters are pronounced

separately. MwushV Moh-ee-SEES (Moshe Rabbeinu) is pronounced

"Moh-ee-SEES." because the two dots above the upsilon are

diaeresis, breaking what looks like a dipthong into two letters

pronounced separately. You will have to look at this in the UBSGNT



because we do not have the diaeresis two dots here on this page.

(Yehuda 1:2) ) eleoV (EH-leh-ohs = mercy) umin (ee-MEEN = to

you, plural) kai (keh = and) ) eirhnh (ee-REE-nee = peace, Salvation

Shalom of Hashem) kai (keh =end) ) agaph (ah-GHAH-pee = love,

agape, ahavah) plhqunqeih (plee-theen-THEE-ee = may it be


Look at the very bottom of p. 827 at the cross reference note for

Yehuda v.2. 2 Pe 1:2 = II Shliach Kefa 1:2. This verse uses

almost the exact same expression. Look it up on page 799 in your

UBSGNT. As you will see, if you take the time to look up II

Shliach Kefa 1:2., looking up these Greek cross-references can be

a rewarding study to find allusions, parallels, quotes. In this

case it may mean that the letters were written at nearly the same

time or contained common source material.

#25. In Greek, there are four "moods." These tell us something

about the verb from the speaker's point of view, in terms of

whether the verbs action is a fact, a command, a wish, a possibility or

exactly how "realistic" the action of the verb is. The verb above

is found in the dictionary at the back of your UBSGNT under

plhqunw on p.144 first word on the right hand column,

"plee-THEEN-oh", "increase, multiply, spread". Look closely at

the verb plhqunqeih in Yehuda v.2. As we can tell from the last

four letters of the verb (qein), it is in the optative mood,

expressing a wish conceived of by the speaker as attainable. In

other words, Yehuda's addressees are made to understand that not

only does Yehuda pray or wish that their mercy and peace and love

will be multiplied, but he is saying that this outcome is an

attainable outcome. The Brit Chadasha Scriptures are optimistic

about "the Called" no matter how many troubles or even scandalous false teachers



may try to enter and disturb the Brit Chadasha kehillah! Yehuda is saying, "May there be

multiplied 'to you' [see the plural pronoun (umin, word #19

below] an abundance of mercy (needed in the midst of the temptation of dangerous

false teaching) and peace (salvation and deliverance from the divine wrath that

pursues the unholy false teachers) and love (G-d's love will flow

through them to others who also flee from the false teachers).

#26. We say the verb is in the optative mood, because "mood"

expresses the relationship of the verb to reality from the

speaker's point of view. If he is stating a fact, he uses a verb

in the indicative mood. If he is making a command, he uses the

imperative mood (see imperatives Yehuda v.17,20-24). If he wishes

to indicate uncertain contingency or conditional possibility, he

uses the subjunctive mood. For example, notice the subjunctive

mood of the verb in this sentence: "If you continue (indefinite

predication is uncertain and contingent) in my Word, then you are

truly talmidim of mine." (Yochanan 8:31, p.350, UBSGNT). There is

another verb in the optative mood (we know this from the sai at

the end of ) Epitimhsai in Yehuda 9 (word #182), where the

archangel Michael says to the devil, "May the L-rd rebuke you!"

The optative mood tells us that not only does the archangel

Michael wish that the L-rd will rebuke the devil, but such an

outcome is attainable.

Back at B. we looked at all the ways to write "the" (the

definite article) in Greek. Now, since we just read the personal

pronoun umin, let's look at ways the personal pronoun

(I,you,he,she,it,they,etc) is written in the Brit Chadasha


D. The Personal Pronoun

I. First Person (I, of me, to me, me, we, of us, to us, us)


Nom egw hmeiV

Gen emou, mou hmwn

Dat emoi, moi hmin

Acc eme, me hmaV

2. Second Person (you--sing. and pl.--to you, of you, etc)


Nom su umeiV

Gen sou umwn

Dat soi umin *see above word #19, Yehuda 1:2)

Acc se umaV

3. Third Person (they, of them, to them, etc) Note: this is used

as an intensive pronoun. "David HIMSELF said" (Mark 12:36)...the

SAME Spirit (II Cor.4:13).


Masc Fem Neuter

Nom autoV auth auto

Gen autou authV autou

Dat autw* (*w with i subscript) auth* (*h with i subscript) autw* (*w with i subscript)

Acc auton authn auto


Masc Fem Neuter

Nom autoi autai auta

Gen autwn autwn autwn

Dat autoiV autaiV autoiV

Acc autoiV autaV auta

Yehuda 3

(Yehuda 1:3) ) Agaphtoi (ah-gah-pee-TEE = Beloved ones p1. [this is a vocative plural case ending]), pasan

(PAH-sahn = all) spoudhn (spoo-DEEM = haste, diligence)

poioumenoV (pee-OO-men-ohs = making) grafein (GRAH-feen = to

write) (umin (ee-MEEN = you p1.) peri (peh-REE = concerning)

thV (tees = the) koinhV (kee-NEES = common) hmwn (ee-MOHN

= of us) swthriaV (soh-tee-REE-ahs = salvation, i.e. yeshuat Elokeinu)

The first thing you need to do is to go back and review C until

you can figure out all the transliteration above, and can read

this verse through correctly, with Modern Greek pronounciation.

Find a native Greek-speaker and let him or her read aloud to you

or even make you a tape reading the book of Yehudah.

We are also going to give you the same Yehuda material in Yiddish, Hebrew, Russian,


French, Spanish,and Ladino.

#27. ) Agaphtoi in Yehuda 1:3 is a plural noun and is in the

vocative case (review the other CASE ENDINGS at A. and paragraph #7). Almost as if to

soften the blow of all his necessarily strident words about

Gehinnom, Yehuda calls his addressees "Beloved" no less than

three times (see also verses 17 and 20). He does not want to

throw in doubt their assurance of salvation even while he exhorts

them in order to put the fear of G-d into them.

#28. poioumenoV is a participle. Review paragraph #21,

paragraph #21 above). Whenever you see "men" embedded in a word,

look for a possible participle. poiew "make,

do,etc"...see p.145 in your UBSGNT Dictionary.) This participle

is present in tense, which means that its action takes place at

the same time as the main verb escon ("I received") in the next

clause (review paragraph #18). Therefore, we translate "while I

was making such-and-such (first clause), I received such-and-such

(second clause)." The "I received" is called an epistolary

aorist, meaning a "point action" verb from the viewpoint of

the reader at the time he reads the epistle or letter. We call this an


epistolary aorist.

#29. grafein is an infinitive. Infinitives are verbal nouns.

This infinitive "to write" expresses purpose and also is in the

present tense.

#30. For umin (word #39) and hmwn (word #34) see D. For thV

review B.


Beloved, while I was hastily making (giving) all diligence for

the purpose to write (of writing) you (p1.) concerning our common

(in the sense of what all believers share) salvation...

anagkhn (ah-NAHNGK-een = necessity) escon (ehs-KHOHN = I

received) grayai (GRAH-pseh = to write) umin (ee-MEEN = to you

p1.) parakalwn (pah-rah-kah-LOHN = exhorting, urging)

epagwnizesqai (eh-pah-goh-NEE-zehs-theh = to contend for, fight

for, agonize for) th* (*h with i subscript) (tee = the) apax (AH-pahx = once)

paradoqeish* (*h with i subscript) (pah-rah-do-THEE-see = delivered or handed down

i.e. as authoritative and authorized [this is one of the most important words of the



Hellenistic Synagogue, here meaning the whole Massorah HaZekenim of the Messianic Edat Bnei Yisroel) toiV (tees = to the)

agioiV (ah-GHEE-ees = saints, kadoshim) pistei (PEES-teh =

dative of advantage = faith, in the sense of a body of authoritative doctrinal belief,



the Ani Maamin of the true Judaism of G-d).

Look at the very bottom of p.827 at the cross-reference note for

Yehuda v.3 where the reference I Tim. 1:18 is given. Here

Shliach Sha'ul likewise exhorts Timotiyos "to fight the good


#31. grayai (word #38, Yehuda 1:3) is another infinitive (see

paragraph #29). However, this infinitive is in the aorist tense,

which here suggests a precise point-in-time action. Yehuda was

going to write a sermon about what all believers have in common,

but a necessity fell on him at a precise point in time to write

about this specific emergency he is now going to describe. ecw

("I have") is here escon ("I received") in the aorist tense.

Yehuda received a necessity, which was to urge the Called ones to

fight for the faith. A question you and I should ask ourselves

is, "Have I received this same necessity to urge that the true

faith, the true orthodox Jewish emunah, be fought for, contended

for" Notice: while Yehuda was preparing grafein (ein indicating infinitive, to write,

present tense, word #29), he had to grayai (to precisely at a

point in time--aorist tense infinitive--write). This subtle nuance indicates

the emergency situation that prompted his writing. Yehuda was

going to write a general sermon about "our common salvation," but

then a particular situation arose (undoubtedly having to do with



the libertine false teachers, the certain men he will talk about) which threw Yehuda into great

urgency because this emergency (described in Yehuda v.4-16 with

recommendations on how to respond to it in Yehuda v.17-23) puts

the doctrinal definition of the faith in jeopardy in the sense

that the very identity of what is the faith (that is,the Brit

Chadasha kehillah's doctrinal belief), must now be fought for.

#32. paradoqeish* (h* with i subscript) (word #44, Yehuda 1:3) is an aorist passive

participle form of the verb paradidwmi, which means "deliver,

hand down, pass on, transmit as authoritative." Because the

participle is in the passive voice (review paragraph #22--see

also word #24 plhqunqeih* ,(*with i subscript) (Yehuda 1:2), we translate

paradoqeish* (* with i subscript) having been transmitted or delivered



as authoritative, i.e. as Orthodox Judaism." Because it

is an aorist tense participle the focus is on a precise point in

time (review #31), namely when Rebbe, HaMelech HaMoshiach (who is

the Word) "once and for all" delivered the transmitted "faith"

(as a body of doctrine) to Moshiachs Shlichim and they in turn as his

authoritative emissaries handed it on in writing to be delivered

to the kadoshim. As Yehuda Ben Yosef Ben Dovid, the half brother of Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua

and the brother of Ya'akov Ben Yosef Ben Dovid, and as a hearer of Shliach Kefa at

Shavuos (Acts 1:14), would not Yehuda be in a position to know

about this "once and for all" definitive transmission of

normative Orthodox Judaism doctrine



parakalwn (word #40) is from parakalew, which is the

kind of exhorting and urging that generals give their fearful

troops to send them courageously into battle. Epagwnizomai (as

it appears in the Dictionary p.65 "struggle in behalf of" but

appears as word #41, epagwnizesqai, is the word for the

strenuous struggles and efforts of athletes in the Olympic games.

The normative body of doctrine for all faithful believers, which

is the inerrant Bible and its propositional revelation, was "once

for all" received from the Rebbe HaMelech HaMoshiach by the

Shlichim and handed down as authoritative from generation to

generation to us. But this chain of paradosiV (authoritative

teachings preserved and handed down) is now threatened by false

shepherds or ministers who pervert the whole religion, doctrine,

practice, ethics, everything--short-circuiting the Shlichim's

chain and creating or trying to create monstrous pseudo-Brit Chadasha kehillot. How

do we know that the "certain men" referred to in Yehuda 4, 8,

10-16 are ministers and not just immoral laymen in the Brit

Chadasha kehillot Look at Yehuda 12 (words #235 and #236),

where it says eautouV poimainonteV ["themselves shepherding"],

a nearly direct quote from Ezekiel 34:8 in the Targum Hashivim Septuagint, which

says, poimeneV eautouV, where the reference is to false

shepherds or leaders who feed only themselves and refuse to feed

the flock of G-d (see Yochanan 21:15-17). Since the target of

Yehuda's attack, "certain men" (Yehuda v. 4), "shepherd"

themselves and do not shepherd the sheep but, according to Yehuda

8, "reject authority" (presumedly including Yehuda's authority),

it follows that they are clearly immoral spiritual leaders or

ministers, and they must be resisted with all possible strength

because they have betrayed the paradosiV (authoritative

teachings preserved and handed down) and thus threaten the very

doctrine and practice that defined "once for all" what the

Orthodox Jewish "faith" (as a body of doctrine) is. See Yehuda v.20 where

pistiV also means a body of doctrine (on this, see p.143 in the

UBSGNT dictionary). Also see I Cor. 15:3 where Shliach Sha'ul

says he faithfully handed over the paradosiV he received. Also

see II Thes. 3:6. Also see II Tim. 2:2 where Shliach Sha'ul

commands Timothy to take the paradosiV Shliach Sha'ul

transmitted to him and faithfully transmit it to faithful men who

will be able to transmit it to others. This is why the OJB was



published and particularly why the OJB makes so much of the word HaAlmah.



This is THE faith once for all transmitted to the Kadoshim and contemporary



and future Messianic leaders should not lose the Hellenistic Jewish Synagogue paradosiV. Shliach Sha'ul made

provision for this perpetual transmission of paradosiV by means

of a two year school or yeshiva he conducted in Ephesus (Acts

19:9-10) with the result [the word wste indicates result in

Acts 19:10) that many faithful ministers took the unadulterated

word throughout the whole area in an unbroken and

trans-generational chain of paradosiV. This is also the goal of

Omanim Lema'am Yisroel Messianic Yeshiva (Artists For Israel

Institute), a goal which can never be accomplished unless the

AFII students not only learn but learn to teach this Greek course

and can therefore accuratedly read and transmit to the next

generation the paradosiV inerrantly presented in the Brit

Chadasha Scriptures.

Yehuda 4

pareisedusan (pah-ree-SEHD-ee-sahn = crept in, slip or sneak

instealthily) gar (ghahr = for) tineV (tee-nehs = certain)

anqrwpoi (AHN-throh-pee = men, there were no Jezebel



false prophetesses apparentlythe culprits were men), oi (ee = the [ones]) palai

(PAH-leh = of old, i.e.long ago) progegrammenoi

(proh-gheh-ghrahm-MEN-ee = foretold/ordained in writing) eiV

(ees = for) touto (TOO-toh = this) to (toh = the) krima

(KREE-mah = judgment)


tineV (word #50) is an nominative masculine plural adjective

meaning "some" and it modifies the nominative masculine plural

noun anqrwpoi ("men", word #51). The sexually immoral false

teachers are "men" (not women) and, as to how many of them there

are, Yehuda uses this indefinite adjective to indicate there are

"some." Here are the endings that tell us the gender and number

of an adjective. Do you see why the -eV at the end of tineV (word

#50) tells us this adjective is nominative, masculine, plural

(Look for the **** below in the adjective endings.)


Masc Fem Neuter

Nom oV, V h, a on, n

Gen ou, oV hV, aV ou, oV

Dat w* (w* with i subscript), i h* (h* with i subscript), a* (a* with i subscript) w* (w* with i subscript), i

Acc on, a hn, an on, -


Masc Fem Neuter

Nom oi, eV**** ai a

Gen wn wn wn

Dat oiV aiV oiV

Acc ouV aV a

#33. Yehuda is saying that the danger he is alarmed about is not

outside but inside the Brit Chadasha kehillah. In some ways it is

a subtle danger because of the sinister and secret entry made by

"certain men," probably itinerant teachers (II Yochanan 10), who

are actually able to pass themselves off as believers. But G-d

is not fooled because his prophets had designated them for

condemnation long ago krisiV--see the word in Yehuda v. 4, 6, and

15). ( oi is a masculine singular plural definite article (see

B.). However, here it is used alone as a personal pronoun.

(Review paragraph #15.) We would translate it "the (ones)."

progegrammenoi is a participle. See the -men- (review paragraph #28). A

participle is a verbal adjective. Participles can perform the

function of an adjective and describe nouns or pronouns, even

though participles have tense and voice like a verb. The verbal

adjective (participle) that describes the "ones" [oi] in Yehuda

v. 4 is perfect in tense and passive in voice: "the

having-been-ordained-in-writing ones." As an adjective, this

participle progegrammenoi (review adjective endings at E)

is nominative in case, masculine in gender, and plural in number

and agrees in gender, number and case with the word oi

word #52]. progegrammenoi is a participle that is in the perfect

tense, like "having been loved" and "having been kept" in Yehuda

v.1. The perfect tense has to do with a completed action in the

past which has continuing effects even in the present. The thing

that signals the perfect tense to a Greek reader who sees the

word progegrammenoi (which is found in the Greek dictionary as

prografw) is the way the gamma (g) repeats itself. This is called

reduplication and indicates the perfect tense. The condemnation

of these false teachers was settled long ago but its effects are

continuing even in the present. Their very behavior, described

in Yehuda v. 12, 13, and 16, shows they are being kept for judgment

and even now are "storing up wrath for themselves" (Rom.2:5).


In English we have to indicate the subject separately from the

verb each time, because the English verb does not have endings

that indicate the person and number of the subject.



I jump (1st pers. sing.)


you jump (2nd pers. sing.)

he, she, it jumps (third pers. sing.)

we jump (1st pers. plur.)

you (p1.) jump (2nd pers. plur.)

they jump (3rd. pers. plur.)

However, in Greek the ending of the verb automatically includes

the subject pronoun, so the pronoun doesn't have to be used as a

separate word each time, and when the pronoun is actually spelled

out as a separate word, it can then be used for emphasis and

other things, which is much more efficient than English. For

example, Yehuda didn't have to use the pronoun for "they"

(autoi--see D) when in Yehuda v. 11 he wrote "they went the way

of Cain" because the "they" is in the -san ending of the aorist

tense Greek verb for "they went" eporeuqhsan (see the


Present future and perfect tenses use these endings

I mi, w mai

you V sai

he/she/it si, ei tai

we men meqa

you (pl.) te      sqe

they nsi, asi    ntai

Imperfect aorist, and pluperfect tenses use these endings

I n,a   mhn

you V    so, ou

he/she/it -,e  to

we men     meqa

you (pl.) te   sqe

they n, ***san    nto

Imperative mood (review paragraph #26) forms do not use the first person

you (sing.) qi, e   so, ou

he/she/it tw     sqw

you (pl.) te      sqe

they tw      san     sqwsan

#34. There are 6 tenses you need to be familiar with in your

Greek NT. Once you know to look for them, they will give your

reading of the Brit Chadasha Scriptures a brand new, exciting

vividness and "close-up" precision, like a motion picture with

all kinds of interesting slow-motion shots.

1. Present tense: one of the possible stresses of the present

tense is continuous action in the present as in Yehuda v 8, "these

men are polluting [miaiousin] their own bodies." This

infectuous, Brit Chadasha kehillah-destroying activity is going

on right now, even while Yehuda writes, which explains his

urgency in writing the letter. Ignorant, weak-willed congregants

(II Tim.3: 6-7) are being infected and defiled by false shepherds

as a continous action at the present time. miainousin comes from

miainw, meaning "to stain, to defile" with the idea of being

infectuous. The ousi(n) ending of the verb tells you it is 3rd

person plural and present tense in the indicative mood. As we go

along we are going to look at the verb luw "I loose, I untie, I

set free." See Mark 11:4 [page 165], "And they left and found a

colt having been tied to a door out on the street and luousin

(they are untying) him."



luei (see Luke 13:15)



luousi(n) (see Mark 11:4)

2. Imperfect tense: continuous action in the past can be stressed

as in Yehuda v 18, "the Shlichim were saying elegon, word #344]

to you, `In the last days there will be mockers...`. The

Shlichim gave a continuous warning in the past, (so whoever

follows these false teachers has no excuse). legw, meaning to

say, tell, declare, in the dictionary form becomes imperfect when

the augment (in this case epsilon (e)) is affixed to the beginning of

the dictionary stem of the word, (e + leg = elegon). The

unadorned dictionary stem (without the augment e in front) is the

present tense (see paragraph #34.1 above) form of the word. With the

augment epsilon e, the present tense changes to the imperfect tense.

(Do not become overwhelmed. You add "ed" to change verb tenses

from "I jump" to "I jumped" and you don't think that is so hard

to understand. Neither is this. See F.) See Yochanan 5:18,

"...eluen [he was breaking] the Shabbos..."

This is the imperfect tense.





elue(n) [see Yochanan 5:18]




3. Future tense: this tense is also found in Yehuda 18, "In the

last days there will be [esontai, future of the verb of being,

eimi] mockers." The future is indicated by the sigma (s) infix.

Let's look at luw again, this time in the future:







4. Aorist tense (see paragraph #31). The aorist tense views the action as

a point in time or else the action is viewed as a whole, with the

kind of action (continuous, completed, etc) left unspecified. At

a certain point, or looking at their action as a whole, "certain

men stole their way secretly into the Brit Chadasha kehillah"

(Yehuda 4). pareisedusan (word #48) in Yehuda 4 is in the

aorist tense. The aorist form of pareisdunw is indicated by the

sigma alpha (sa) infix. This is called 2nd aorist; 1st aorist has an

augment in front of the stem, as below. See Acts 22:30,

"...elusen [he released him] and ordered the chief kohanim to

be assembled ..." Let's look at luw again, this time in its

aorist form (all these are in the indicative mood):





eluse(n) [Acts 22:30]




5. Perfect tense: The angels that did not keep their

blessed position G-d "has kept in eternal bonds under darkness"

and the action G-d took has lingering effects because they are

even now kept for the Judgment Day! This verb tethrhken (word

#121) is the perfect form of threw (notice the reduplicated t

when the verb is in the perfect tense and review paragraph #33). Let's look

at luw again, this time in the perfect tense:










6. Pluperfect tense is like the perfect tense but the

resultant state is in the past time, as in Mark 16:9 where the

pluperfect verb says, "Miryam Magdalene, from whom (Moshiach

Yehoshua/Yeshua) had cast out seven demons." The action was completed

with on-going effects but the casting out occurred in the past

(many years before, from Mark's point of view). The pluperfect

verb there ekbeblhkei [from ekballw, drive out, expel],

indicates its pluperfect tense by the -kei- and the reduplicated

beta (b) (review paragraph #33). Let's look at luw again, this time in the

pluperfect tense:







Yehuda 4 (continued)

asebeiV (ah-seh=VEES = ung-dly ones), thn (teen = the)



tou (too = of the) Qeou (theh-OO = of G-d) hmwn (ee-MOHN = of us)

carita (KHAR-ree-tah = grace, Chen v'Chesed) metatiqenteV

(meh-tah-tee-THEHN-tehs = alter in the sense of perverting) eiV

(ees = for) aselgeian (ah-SEHL-ghee-ahn = sexual

licentiousness, unrestrained sexual vice)

asebeiV is an adjective, meaning "ung-dly, living without

religious scruples or morals or faith" and it modifies

tineV anqrwpoi "some men" at the beginning of Yehuda 4.



Rom.5:6 says that Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua died for the asebeiV.



And I Shliach Kefa 1:10 infers that unmerited favor or grace (carita) is

virtually a synonym for the Besuras Hageulah, that by grace we

are free from punishment, that by grace we are free from

self-efforts to be our own Savior or Goel Redeemer, including salvation by means

of works of the Law of Moses. But these irreligious impostors

have perverted this freedom into freedom from the moral law. Look at word 59, word 292, word 306, word 358 which speaks about the ung-dly, which is what they are in Yehuda's Midrash, where they are seen as foreshadowed in the prophetic writing of Moshe Rabbeinu and word 58 KAPPA RHO IOTA MU ALPHA in word 114, word 177, and word 281 to show the horrible judgment that awaits them at the parousia. Look

at I Shliach Kefa 2:16 and II Shliach Kefa 2:19.




thn is a definite article (review B) modifying carita, which is the

direct object of the verbal adjective or participle metatiqenteV

(review paragraphs #4 and #5).

Look especially at II Shliach Kefa 2:2, which speaks of false

prophets and teachers in the last days and "many will follow

their aselgeiaiV and because of them the way of truth will be

maligned and in their greed they will exploit you" (II Shliach

Kefa 2:3). Here is a picture of rich ministers who are extremely

able fund-raisers but they don't avoid the appearance of evil or

evil itself and they bring reproach on the whole Messianic

movement. Yehuda 4 (continued)

kai (keh = and) ton (tohn = the) monon (MOH-nohn =

only) despothn (deh-SPOH-teen = Master) kai (keh = and) kurion

(KEE-ree-ohn = L-rd) hmwn (ee-MOHN = of us) Ihsoun

(ee-ee-SOON = Yehoshua/Yeshua) Criston (Khree-STOHN = Moshiach)

arnoumenoi (ahr-NOO-meh-nee = denying).

Look at the very bottom of p.827 at the cross-reference note on

Yehuda 4, which speaks of Gal.2:4 and the false (Judaizing)

believers similarly secretly slipped in to spy in Jerusalem on

the Gentile freedom from salvation-by-works circumcision. Look at the other

cross-reference on Yehuda 4, II Shliach Kefa 2:1 which also

contains the same exact Greek words "despothn arnoumenoi"

("Master denying"), where Shliach Kefa preaches that G-d's

punishment is falling on the same false prophets that Yehuda is


#35. There is a definite article in this part of Yehuda 4.

Review B. Since the endings of the article, the adjective and

the noun are generally the same, if you learn the endings of the

article, you will have learned many of the endings of the nouns

and adjectives as well.

#36. Look at participle above (word #77). It is based on

arneomai, "I deny, disown, repudiate." We have already

mentioned the passive voice (paragraphs #15, #22, #32). This participle is

in the middle voice, as is indicated by the -men-. The middle

voice usually indicates that the subject performs the action on

himself, or for his own benefit (for himself), or in some way

involves self in the action beyond being the subject. The

meaning here is "ung-dly men denying for themselves the only

Master and Adoneinu Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua."

Active voice--the subject acts ["As I hear, krinw (I judge)"]

(Yochanan 5:30)

Passive voice--the subject is acted upon ["Judge not, lest

kriqhte (you be judged)"] (Luke 6:37). The -qh- indicates

passive voice here.

Middle voice--the subject performs the action out of personal

interest or advantage or for his own benefit or acts with the

self in some way. apokrinomai "I answer" (mai is a middle

ending) may have developed from "I draw a judgment for myself"

but is is translated as an active verb (here I answer)].

Yehuda 5

Upomnhsai (eep-ohm-NEE-seh = to remind) de (deh = but) umaV

(ee-MAHS = you) boulomai (VOO-loh-meh = I intend),

eidotaV (ee-DOH-tahs = knowing) [umaV] (ee-MAHS = you)



panta (PAHN-tah = all things) oti (OH - t e e = t h a t)

[o] kurioV (o KEE-ree-ohs= the L-rd) apax (AH-pahx =once) laon (lah-OHN = a people) ek (ehk =

out of) ghV (ghees = land of) Aiguptou (eh-GHEEP-too = of

Egypt) swsaV (SOH-sahs = having saved) to (toh = the) deuteron

(DEHF-teh-rohn = afterwards, in the second place) touV (toos =

the [ones]) mh (mee = not) pisteusantaV (pees-TEHV-sahn-tahs

=believing) apwlesen, (ah-POH-leh-sehn = He destroyed).




Notice the superscript footnote 3 next to apax in Yehuda 5 on p.828 in

the UBSGNT and then look at footnote 5 in the textual apparatus.

First you are given the textual attestation for the words used in

the text. The Hebrew letter ALEF (a symbol for the manuscript

[MSS] Sinaiticus) is one of the manuscripts containing the text

as it appears. On page 10* in your UBSGNT Introduction you can

see that ALEF is kept in London and was copied in the 4th century

(actually around C.E.350). This manuscript is an uncial, meaning

it is written entirely in capital Greek letters. The Greek letter

PSI is also an uncial (see UBSGNT p. 11*), and it too contains

the text as it appears. However, the editorial committee gives

this reading only a "D" level of certainly, and, because there is

such a high degree of doubt for the reading they chose, they list

in the textual apparatus for the rest of footnote 5 other

variants that are also possible and the

manuscripts which support each variant: apax panta, oti

IhsouV (found in the middle of footnote 5 on p.828), "once for

all time all things, that Yehoshua/Yeshua" has some important MSS

attestation, attested by uncials A, B, and "Queen of the

Miniscules" 33, etc; This reading would mean that the

pre-existant Moshiach (his Hebrew name is Yehoshua/Yeshua--see UBSGNT

Acts 7:45, same as Joshua) delivered his people out of Egypt.

Translation: Now I wish to remind you, although you are fully informed,

that the L-rd, who once saved a people out of the land

of Egypt, afterward destroyed those who did not believe.





Yehuda is warning, "Not once saved, always saved," but "Once saved,

afterward destroyed."

The participle eidotaV is concessive here: "although

knowing/informed." [ ] Square brackets [ ] around [umaV] and [o]

in the text of Yehuda 5 are used to enclose words whose presence

or position in the text is regarded as disputed. If you ever see

double brackets as around Yochanan 7:53 - 8:11, these kinds of

brackets are used to enclose passages which some regard as later

additions to the text, but which retained their position because

of their evident antiquity and importance.

A word needs to be said about textual criticism here. Textual

criticism is the business or removing unintentional copyist

errors and intentional scribal emendations in order to re-create

as closely as possible the (now lost) original "autograph"

documents of the inerrant and inspired writings of the authors of

the Bible. In order to do this, the editors of the UBSGNT study

hundreds of different kinds of extant ancient documents (papyri,

uncials, and miniscules) and manuscripts and compile the basic

Greek text, placing significant variants (those that affect the

meaning in an important way) along with their manuscript evidence

in the textual apparatus below the basic text. p72 (copied 3rd

century) is a papyrus document that preserves all of I and II

Shliach Kefa and Yehuda. p72 was found in Egypt in the middle of

the 20th century 1700 years after the scribe copied it. The dry

climate in Egypt kept it from decomposing. These variants should

be added to your English translation as a possible marginal

reading. Anytime you see a p with a number on the right of it

(as in p72), you know that this refers to a papyrus manuscript,

and papyri manuscripts, in many cases, represent the earliest

extant readings, so they usually cannot be ignored in

establishing the original text. (Remember that the United Bible

Society 4th edition of the Greek NT and the older Nestle-Aland

27th edition of the Novum Testamentum Greece have the same basic

Greek text, but a different textual

apparatus. In the past, many beginning Greek students preferred

the UBSGNT because the Greek letters are easier to read, although

the basic Greek text of Yehuda is exactly the same in both


It has been helpful to scholars to conceive of the vast number of

ancient NT manuscripts into various groups that contain many of

the same variant readings and other similar characteristics.

Since these groups have related kinds of readings, they are

conceived of as different "families" of manuscripts, and include

those manuscript families labeled "Alexandrian," "Western" (that

is, non-Alexandrian), "Byzantine," etc. Some scholars believe

the Byzantine family has a great deal of harmonization,

interpolation, and other kinds of scribal changes. These scholars

believe Erasmus uncritically used manuscripts in this "Byzantine"

family to publish his Greek NT (C.E. 1516) and this family of

manuscripts became the so-called "Textus Receptus" and the

received text of the Greek Orthodox as well as the basis for the

King James Version translation. However, many Greek

scholars give more credence to the Alexandrian

(named after Alexandria in Egypt) "family" of manuscripts

represented by manuscripts like Codex B, 325 C.E.), Codex

Sinaiticus, papyri p66 and p72. Note how often you see B and

ALEF in the UBSGNT texual apparatus! Codex B is generally

considered to be the most valuable ancient manuscript in the

world, quite accurately reflecting the earlier Brit Chadasha text

from early in the 2nd century. This is a matter of controversy that cannot be settled here.

Yehuda 6

aggelouV (ahng-EH-loos = angels) te (teh = and) touV (toos =

the) mh (mee = not) thrhsantaV (tee-REE-sahn-tahs = having

kept) thn (teen = the) eautwn (eh-ahf-TOHN = of themselves)

archn (ahr-KHEEN = domain) alla (ahl-LAH = but) apolipontaV

(ah-poh-lee-POHN-tahs = having deserted, abandoned) to (toh =

the) idion (EE-dee-ohn = own) oikhthrion

(ee-kee-TEE-ree-ohn = habitation,dwelling, home) eiV (ees = for)

krisin (KREE-seen = judgment, condemnation) megalhV

(meh-GHAH-lees = of [the] great) hmeraV (ee-MEH-rahs = Day)

desmoiV (dehs-MEES = bonds, chains) aidioiV (ah-ee-DEE-ees =

in everlasting, eternal) upo (ee-POH = under) zofon (ZOH-fohn

= gloom, darkness) tethrhken (teh-TEE-ree-kehn = He has kept [completed action in the past from which a present state emerges],

In anticipation of the next verse, remember that the antecedent

of the masculine pronoun toutoiV in Yehuda 7 cannot be Sodom and

Gomorrah which are treated as feminine. As we have already said

(review paragraphs #10 and #11), we believe Yehuda is bringing in the angels

as a specimen of Gehinnom-fire punishment like burning Sodom and

not as a specimen of specific sexual sin. In verses 5 and 6 we

read about the fall from grace of certain people who were saved

but then afterwards did not believe and certain angels who left

their domain. Now in verse 7 we are going to look at the

punishment of Sodom and Gomorrah, and see how these other people

and angels met the same fate. However the sin of the angels is

more like Esau's in that they desert the ruling authority they've

been given by G-d (see Hebrews 12:16-17) and (possibly in

demon-possession) lust after strange flesh to assert their

authority over human bodies instead of their own assigned

heavenly dominion. The common sin of all the damned in Yehuda's

extended illustration here is touV mh pisteusantaV ("the ones

not believing") in verse 5, a phrase that is both masculine and

plural and could also be referred to by ton omoion tropon toutoiV



("in a similar manner to these-- "these" being masculine

and plural) in verse 7. Therefore, regardless of Yehuda's

personal opinion, the Ruach Hakodesh kept him from error in

breaking the analogy of Scripture in what he wrote. Satan did

not sin sexually when he left his home in heaven (Rev. 12:4) and

seduced Eve in Genesis 3 (see II Cor. 11:3). Since angels are

not like us, vessels of clay, their lust is of a spiritual

nature. They are also capable of disbelieving in the Biblical

sense of proudly, rebelliously, disobeying. In any event, the

fact that toutoiV ("these") in v.14 definitely refers back to

tineV anqrwpoi in v.4 means that the same word toutoiV v.7)

cannot be excluded from referring to the very same tineV anqrwpoi



also, which means that the reference need not be to

angels after all. Review which words are definite articles (see

B). Review #34.5.

Yehuda 7

wV (ohs = as) Sodoma (SOH-doh-mah = Sodom) kai (keh = and)

Gomorra (GHOH-mohr-rah = Gomorrah) kai (keh = and) ai (eh =

the) peri (peh-REE = round) autaV (ahf-TAHS = them) poleiV

(POH-lees = cities) ton (tohn = in the) omoion (OH-mee-ohn =

like, similar) tropon (TROH-pohn = manner) toutoiV (TOO-tees =

to these) ekporneusasai (ek-pohr-NEHV-sah-seh = indulging in

sexual immorality against the course of nature p .5 6) kai

(keh = and) apelqousai (ah-pehl-THOO-seh = turning aside from

the right way and going p.19) opisw (oh-PEE-soh = after)

sarkoV (sahr-KOHS = flesh) eteraV (eh-TEH-rahs = different,

strange), prokeintai (PROH-keen-teh = they are let forth p.151)

deigma (DEEG-mah = an example, sample) puroV (pee-ROHS = fire)

aiwniou (eh-oh-NEE-oo = of everlasting) dikhn (DEE-keen =

punishment) upecousai (eep-EHKH-oo-seh =

undergoing p.188).


as Sodom and Gomorrah, and the cities around them, in the similar

manner to these (that is, tineV anqrwpoi v.4,(cf. v.14), laoV

people, v.5, touV mh pisteusantaV, the ones not believing, v.5

and aggelouV, angels v.6), indulging in sexual immorality

against the course of nature and turning aside from the right way

and going after strange (different) flesh, are set forth to lie

in public view as an example of undergoing the punishment of

everlasting fire.

The different or strange "flesh" points to its forbidden aspect.

When a man and woman become one flesh, any other flesh is

different or strange or forbidden. The angels abandoned their

proper dwelling and entered a forbidden realm and these cities

referred to abandoned their proper flesh and went after strange

flesh, i.e., homosexuality. What Sodom and Gomorrah do is done in a similar manner

as what is done by angels. Satan was unbelieving and rebellious and

left his appointed sphere and lusted after and seduced Eve but

not sexually and physically (II Cor.11:3). The Ruach Hakodesh

inerrantly protected both Moses in Genesis 6 and Yehuda in Yehuda

7 from contradicting each other. Mark 12:25 is the base point of the canonical

exegesis of this passage. Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua also said that lust

(even without physical consummation) is as evil as the actual

sexual deed (Mat.5:28). We go to all this trouble to show you the

care that is needed in exegesis of Scripture in the original

languages in order to avoid erroneous teaching.

Yehuda 8

Note: the page numbers given with each verb tell you where the

verb is found in the dictionary at the back of the UBSGNT. Look

them up and study the meanings.

OmoiwV (oh-MEE-ohs = likewise) mentoi (MEN-tee =indeed) kai

(keh = and) outoi (OO-tee = these) enupniazomenoi

(en-eep-nee-ahz-OH-men-ee = dreaming [ones] p.62) sarka

(SAHR-kah = flesh) men (men = on one hand) miainousin,

(mee-EH-noo-seen = defiling, staining) kuriothta

(kee-ree-OH-tee-tah = authority, lordship) de (deh = on the

other hand) aqetousin (ah-theh-TOO-seen = they despise, reject,

do not recognize) doxaV (DOHX-ahs = glories, glorious heavenly

beings) de (deh = but) blasfhmousin (vlahs-fee-MOO-seen = rail

at, blaspheme, revile, commit chillul Hashem, assail with

contemptuous or opprobrious language, defame)

These "dreamers" prefer their sensual imaginings to the sober

reality of G-d's judgment on Sodomites, etc. These false

teachers live in an unreal world. Like the Sodomites, they

pervert their bodies even while they pervert the grace of G-d

into license. Like the angels, they abandon their proper office

of authority. Yehuda is urging the "called ones" to flee from such

teachers. Israelites in the wilderness were also "in the

kehillah" but were nevertheless destroyed. Angels also fell from

their place into Gehinnom. Sodomites were burned to show Gehinnom

is the penalty for sexual immorality. These lawless dreamers,

who are ready to fall from their teaching chair in the Brit

Chadasha kehillah directly into Gehinnom (at the parousia--see

Yehuda 14-15) show contempt and disrespect for both their own

bodies and for angels, whom they blaspheme as an impudent and

brazen display of "freedom" from authority and moral

accountability. Their perverted doctrine of "grace" has made them

throw off all restraints of moral law; that is, they are antinomian, lawless. If Yehuda has himself

tried to assert the authority of his own Brit Chadasha kehillah

office over them, they have obviously rejected his authority as

well. Because they despise authority, they share in the

antilogia (rebellion p.16) of Korah, and cannot discern the true

greatness of those who should be honored. Nor can they discern

the angelic orders whose glory points to the majesty of G-d whom

they have sinned against. The Sodomites were so disrespectful in

their total depravity that they would have raped angels if

possible (review Gen. chp 19). These dreamers, in rejecting authority,

were tempting others into unbelief and into falling from the

place where they were kept. This is what Yehuda is trying to

stop. His concern is to give spiritual oversight, that of

guarding the flock from wolves.

Yehuda 9

o (oh = the) de (deh = but) Micahl (mee-khah-EEL -Michael)

o (oh = the) arcaggeloV (ahr-KHAHNG-eh-lohs = archangel),

ote (OH-teh = when) tw* (*w with i subscript) (toh = with the)



diabolw* (*w with i subscript)

(dee-ah-VOH-loh = devil) diakrinomenoV (dee-ah-kree-NOH-men-ohs

= contending, disputing, taking issue) dielegeto

(dee-eh-LEH-gheh-toh = he was discussing) peri (peh-REE = about)

tou (too = the) MwusewV (Moh-ee-SEH-ohs = of Moses) swmatoV

(SOH-mah-tohs = body), ouk (ook = not)

etolmhsen (eh-TOHL-mee-sehn = dared) krisin (KREE-seen =

judgment) epenegkein (eh-peh-nehngk-EEN = to bring upon,

pronounce) blasfhmiaV (vlahs-fee-MEE-ahs = of insulting, abusive

talk,blasphemy) alla (ahl-LAH = but) eipen (EE-pehn = he

said), Epitimhsai (eh-pee-tee-MEE-seh = may He rebuke) soi

(see = you) KurioV (KEE-ree-ohs = [the] L-rd [THIS IS AN IMPRECATORY PRAYER]).

The Brit Chadasha kehillah Fathers are the leaders of the faith

who lived in the early centuries after the death of Moshiachs Shlichim.

They quote from early manuscripts of the NT, and these quotes are

important in establishing the original text. A list of Brit

Chadasha kehillah Fathers and the approximate death dates are

given in the UBSGNT p. 32*f. Three of these were familiar with a

text that Yehuda is apparently quoting from, a text which is

otherwise largely lost now, existing today only in fragments.

The cross-reference note at the bottom of UBSGNT p.829 says that

Yehuda may be quoting from an apocryphal work called The

Assumption of Moses, according to Brit Chadasha kehillah Fathers

Clement, Origen, and Didymus, whose death dates are given in

starting UBSGNT p.32*. See also cross-references to Dan. 10:13, 21;

12:1 and Rev. 12:7 on Michael the Archangel (the word means

"prince of angels" and is found elsewhere only in I Thes.4:16) in

Scripture. Also see the cross-reference to II Shliach Kefa 2:10

and Zech.3:2 for possible allusions or quotes or similar language

in the Bible.

The Jewish people considered Michael to be the highest among the

angels and to be the representative of G-d.

The Pseudepigrapha -- a large group of Jewish writings outside

the Tanach and the Apocrypha in the Septuagint, written 200

B.C.E. to C.E. 200, which include apocalypses, legendary

histories, collections of psalms,and wisdom works written by

non-canonical "prophets" of the day. There is a version of this

story of Moses' death extant today but the one Yehuda refers to

is not available now, though known by Origen, Clement, and

Didymus. An aside: the two heavenly witnesses could be Moses and Elijah in

Rev. 11:3f, based on the idea that Moses' body was not recovered,

but G-d buried him (Deut. 34:6), and he appeared at the

Transfiguration and with Elijah went up into heaven. As such,

these two could also symbolize the Messianic kehillah (two or

more gathered in His Name) being given divine transport to heaven.

On diakrinw, "to take issue, dispute," see Acts 11:2 and Ya'akov

1:6 to see how the word is used and to get the exact nuance of

Yehuda 9.


dielegeto is in the imperfect tense (review #34.2),

indicating continuous action in the past.

The departures of Enoch (Gen. 5:24), Elijah (II Kings 2:16-17)

and Moses (Deut. 34:6) were all shrouded in mystery. Apparently,

in the text Yehuda is alluding to, Michael is commissioned to

bury Moses (Deut. 34:6 says G-d had him buried) but Satan opposes

Michael on the grounds apparently that Satan is the l-rd of this

world and that Moses was a murderer.



The Bible says to leave

room for the wrath of G-d. "Vengeance is mine, and I shall repay,

says the L-rd." Shliach Sha'ul says to reprove severely (Titus

1:13) certain Jewish would-be teachers. But he cautions Timothy

not to sharply rebuke an older man (I Tim. 5:l). We are not to

revile or to rail at people, even if they revile and rail at us

(I Shimon Kefa 2:23). Rav Sha'ul's temper may have gotten the

best of him in Acts 23:3-5. However, the prophets did excoriate

(flay verbally) their opponents at times.

Michael, even though he is the highest among the angels, shows

restraint and waits for the L-rd's rebuke of Satan, which will be

infinitely worse than any he could administer. All this

highlights the brazenness and g-dless irreverence of the

fornicating false teachers who attempt to impress their (female)

disciples by blaspheming angels.

Yehuda 10

outoi (OO-tee = these [men]) de (deh = but) osa (OH-sah

=what things) men (men = on one hand) ouk (ook = not) oidasin

(EE-dah-seen = they know) blasfhmousin (vlahs-fee-MOO-seen =

they rail at, speak insultingly, blaspheme), osa (OH-sah = what

things) de (deh= but) fusikwV (fee-see-KOHS = naturally) wV

(ohs = as) ta (tah - the) aloga (AH-loh-ghah = without reason)

zwa (ZOH-ah = animals; notice it is zw*a ?[*w with i subscript])


epistantai (eh-PEE-stahn-teh = they

understand), en (en = by) toutoiV (TOO-tees = these)

fqeirontai (FTHEE-rohn-teh = they are corrupted,


Yehuda uses de and men to draw distinctions. Yehuda begins to

expose these people for what they are: carnal men without the

Ruach Hakodesh. They know only their own animal instincts (which

even irrational animals know) and they know just enough to get

themselves ruined and destroyed. The lost man is brainless

asunetouV (Romans 1:31). Compare II Shliach Kefa 2:12,

"creatures of instinct, born to be caught and killed." See also

Phil. 3:19, "whose glory is their shame." It is shameful to G-d

and even to the human race for a "liberated" human being to act

like an animal. fqeirontai is a present passive indicative

verb, third person plural. Review #34.1, #36, #26.

Yehuda 11

ouai (oo-EH = woe) autoiV (auf-TEES = to them [DATIVE OF RECIPIENT, horrors are coming to them]), oti (OH-tee

= because) th* ( *h with i subscript) odw* (*w with i subscript) (oh-DOH = way) tou (too =

of the) Kain (KAH-een = Cain) eporeuqhsan

(eh-poh-REHF-thee-sahn = they went) kai (keh = and) th* (*h with i subscript) (tee =

to the) planh* (*h with i subscript (PLAH-nee = error) tou (too = of the) Balaam

(vahl-ah-AHM = Balaam) misqou (mees-THOO = of [for] reward [GENITIVE OF PRICE, the hellish error they assessed as worth a monetary trade])

execuqhsan (ehx-eh-KHEE-thee-sahn = gave themselves up) kai

(keh = and) th* (*h with i subscript) (tee = in the) antilogia* (*a with i subscript) (ahn-tee-loh-GHEE-ah

= rebellion [DATIVE OF PLACE, tells sphere where their rebellion took them down]) tou (too = of the) Kore (KOH-reh = Korah)

apwlonto (ah-POH-lohn-toh = perished).

Covetousness was a common motive with false teachers. They love

money. See I Thes. 2:3-5. Balaam was a Non-Jewish prophet, Korah

was a rebellious Levite, Cain was a murderer and a religious

libertine. Like Cain these false teachers are devoid of love.

Like Balaam, they are prepared in return for money to teach

others that sin does not matter. Like Korah, they are

insubordinate to Brit Chadasha kehillah leaders and careless of

how they address G-d's dignitaries. When they give themselves up

to the motive of feeding themselves and caring for themselves and

looking after themselves, when they give themselves over to their

sensual and materialistic appetites, they defy the authorized

leaders of the Brit Chadasha kehillah and make themselves their

own zekenim (elders). See II Shliach Kefa 2:10, "and especially

those who indulge the flesh in its corrupt desires and despise

authority. Daring, self-willed, they do not tremble when they

revile angelic majesties."

Yehuda 12

outoi (oo-TEE = these [DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOMINAL ADJECTIVE, men]) eisin (ee-seen = are) oi (ee =

the) en (en = in) taiV (tehs = the) agapaiV (ah-GHAH-pehs =

love feasts) umwn (ee-MOHN = of you) spiladeV (spee-LAH-dehs =

spots, stains, hidden rocks) suneuwcoumenoi

(see-nehv-oh-KHOO-men-ee = feasting together) afobwV

(ah-FOH-vohs = without fear), eautouV (eh-ahf-TOOS = themselves)

poimainonteV (pee-MEN-nohn-tehs = shepherding, looking after,

feeding, watching over), nefelai (neh-FEH-leh = clouds) anudroi (AHN-ee-dree

= waterless) upo (ee-POH = by) anemwn (ah-NEH-mohn = winds)

paraferomenai (pah-rah-feh-ROH-men-eh = being carried away),

dendra (DEHN-drah = trees) fqinopwrina (fthee-noh-poh-ree-NAH =

autumn) akarpa (AH-kahr-pah = without fruit) diV (dees =

twice) apoqanonta (ah-poh-thah-NOHN-tah = dying) ekrizwqenta

(ek-ree-zoh-THEHN-tah = having been uprooted),

For a possible allusion in Yehuda 12 to Ezek.34:8, see

cross-reference note at the bottom of UBSGNT p.829 for Yehuda

v.12 and also p.899 in "Index of Allusions and Verbal Parallels"

in the back of your Greek Brit Chadasha.

In the same way that hidden rocks in a harbor can sink a ship, so

these hidden "Korahs," defying the authority of their leaders,

are a peril that the addressees of this letter don't seem to be

aware of, a real danger to their souls. The ordinary congregant

has been slow to take action or to sound the alarm. Yehuda is

trying to wake up the Brit Chadasha kehillah to the magnitude of

this antinomian scourge so that these sham believers can be

expelled from the Moshiach's Tish.

These teachers are show without substance, rhetoric without

doctrine, posturing without pious example. They are twice dead,

dead before they professed the L-rd in trespasses and sins, and

dead again by their apostate and lawless rebellion after their

false profession. There is no spiritual life or benefit in their

ministry. Bare trees, no fruit, spiritually sterile. They did not

bring forth fruit in keeping with teshuvah (repentance) [Matthew


Yehuda 13

kumata (KEE-mah-tah = waves) agria (AH-gree-ah = fierce,

wild,stormy) qalasshV (thah-LAHS-sees = of the sea)

epafrizonta (eh-pah-FREE-zohn-tah = foaming up) taV (tahs =

the) eautwn (eh-ahf-TOHN = of themselves) aiscunaV

(ehs-KHEE-nahs = shameful deeds), astereV (ah-STEH-rehs =

stars) planhtai (plah-NEE-teh = wandering) oiV (ees = for

whom) o (oh = the) zofoV (ZOH-fohs = gloom) tou (too = of the)

skotouV (SKOH-toos = of darkness) eiV (ees = unto) aiwna

(eh-OH-nah = forever) tethrhtai (teh-TEE-ree-teh= it has been

reserved, kept THE VERB IS IN THE PASSIVE, meaning the subject receives the action, here a frightening thought).

Their glory is their shame (Phil. 3:19). They sin more that

perverted "grace" may abound (Rom. 6:1). They have not repented

(II Cor. 12:21) and are careless about wronging a

brother in their religious sexual intrigues (I Thes. 4:6). They

are savage wolves (Acts 20:29) in Moshiachs flock.

Stars are symbols of angels, so here again we have a reference to

the rebelling angels that left their habitation and came to earth

to enlist mankind in their rebellion. This is the meaning of

"wandering stars." On the metaphor of wild waves, see Isaiah


Yehuda 14

Proefhteusen (proh-eh-FEE-thev-sehn = he prophesied) de (deh

=and) kai (keh = also) toutoiV (TOO-tees = to these)

ebdomoV (EHV-doh-mohs = [the] seventh) apo (ah-POH = from)

Adam (ah-DAHM = Adam) Enwc (eh-NOHKH = Enoch) legwn

(LEH-gohn = saying),

The Book of Enoch is a long work sometimes called I Enoch or

Ethiopic Enoch (because until the Aramaic fragments were found in

the Dead Sea Scrolls we had the work only in Ethiopic translation

except for a Greek version covering only about one third of the

original Aramaic). Chapters 31-71 of I Enoch are not found in the

Qumran manuscript discoveries, suggesting they may have been

written later, that is, C.E. rather than earlier. Much of I Enoch

is so dated by most scholars. As far as Yehuda quoting from it

is concerned, Shliach Sha'ul also quoted from extra-canonical

sources to make his points on occasion. Yehuda's point could

have been made from Zechariah 14:5 or Daniel 7:13-14, but his

readers may have been more familiar with this other work.

Yehuda's quotation from Enoch does not mean that the Brit

Chadasha asserts that the book of Enoch must be inspired or equal

with Scripture or must be included in the canon of the Bible. An

inspired man might well use contemporary ideas which were not

contrary to revelation to make his argument, which is what Yehuda

obviously did in this instance.

Yehuda 14-15

Idou (ee-DOO = Behold, look!) hlqen (EEL-thehn = came THE L-RD CAME and the aorist is used in place of the future to stress the certainty of the parousia)

kurioV (KEE-ree-ohs = [the] L-rd) en (en = with) agiaiV

(ah-GHEE-ehs = holy ones, i.e. angels) muriasin

(mee-ree-AH-seen = ten thousands) autou (ahf-TOO = of him)

poihsai (pee-EE-seh = to do) krisin (KREE-seen = judgment)

kata (kah-TAH = against) pantwn (PAHN-tohn = all [men]) kai

(keh = and) elegxai (eh-LEHG-kseh = to rebuke or convict)

pasan (PAHS-ahn = every) yuchn (psee-KHEEN = soul, person)

peri (peh-REE = concerning) pantwn (PAHN-tohn = all) twn (tohn

= of the) ergwn (EHR-ghohn = deeds) asebeiaV (ah-seh-VEE-ahs =

of ung-dliness, g-dlessness, impiety) autwn (ahf-TOHN = of them)

wn (ohn = which) hsebhsan (ee-SEH-vee-sahn = they impiously

did, they acted in an ung-dly way) kai (keh = and) peri

(peh-REE = concerning) pantwn (PAHN-tohn = all) twn (tohn =

the) sklhrwn (sklee-ROHN = hard, rough, harsh, unpleasant

things) wn (ohn = which) elalhsan (eh-LAH-lee-sahn = they

spoke) kat (kaht = against) autou (ahf-too = of Him)

amartwloi (ah-mahr-toh-LEE = sinners) asebeiV (ah-seh-VEES =


Look at the very bottom of p.829 in your UBSGNT. See the

cross-reference note for verse 14 showing a reference to Enoch,

chapter 60, verse 8 and also chapter 1, verse 9.

The reference in agiaiV may be to angels (see also Matthew

25:31; II Thes. 1:7: Dan. 4:13-17), not kadoshim believers. Those who try

to create two comings for Moshiach, one with the kadoshim (the

pre-tribulation raptured Brit Chadasha kehillah--Rev. 19:11-16;

Yehuda 14-15) and one for the kadoshim (the nation of Israel

after the tribulation--Yochanan 14:3; I Thes. 4:16-18) have a

problem with the meaning of this word which may refer to either

heavenly or earthly beings.

elegxai is an infinitive of the verb elegcw (see p.57

dictionary UBSGNT). The infinitive is used to express purpose.

One purpose of the Bias Moshiach (Coming of Moshiach) is to

convict these people and bring them to judgment and proper

punishment for their sins, not the least of which are their harsh


Yehuda 16

Outoi (oo-TEE = these [men]) eisin (ee-seen = they

are) goggustai (ghohng-ee-STEH = habitual grumblers, malcontents)

memyimoiroi (mehm-PSEE-mee-ree = fault finding,

complaining) kata (kah-TAH = according to) taV (tahs = the)

epiqumiaV (eh-pee-thee-MEE-ahs = lusts, strong desires) eautwn

(eh-ahf-TOHN = of them) poreuomenoi (poh-rehv-OH-meh-nee = going),

kai (keh = and) to (toh= the) stoma (STOH-mah = mouth) autwn

(ahf-TOHN = of them) lalei (lah-LEE- it speaks) uperogka

(ee-PEH-rohng-kah = insolent, puffed up, haughty things)

qaumazonteV (thahf-MAH-zohn-tehs = admiring, do honor to)

proswpa (PROHS-oh-pah = faces p.155) wfeleiaV (oh-feh-LEE-ahs

= advantage, benefit, gain) carin (KHAH-reen = for the sake of).

The idea here is smoldering discontent which people are afraid

to speak out (I Cor. 10:10). Secrecy is the basic idea. The term

is appropriately applied to heretical leaders who had "secretly"

gained admission to the Brit Chadasha kehillah (verse 4) and then

had insidiously used Brit Chadasha kehillah membership as a

screen for their numerous deeds of ung-dliness (verse 15). These

false teachers had not been excommunicated up till now apparently

because of their adept manner of using stealth and secret

conspiracy. Perhaps they also grumbled about money and that

whatever they received from the Brit Chadasha kehillot was never

enough. See the word misqou (word #217, "reward") in verse 11.

If so, Yehuda is attacking the covetousness of the false teachers

here and in verse 11. qaumazonteV proswpa (see word #323, #324) is

an idiom meaning "flattering for the purpose of advantage." An

idiom is an expression like "kick the bucket" which cannot be

understood by taking each of its constituent parts and adding

them up.

These men are shrewd religious politicians, capable of courting

the rich or influential members of the community for the sake of

their own advantage. These boasting false teachers have the

same problem with the stoma as the little horn Anti-Moshiach in

Daniel 7:20, which says in the Septuagint stoma laloun megala

("a mouth speaking greatly"). Yochanan says, "It is the last

hour; and as you have heard that Anti-Moshiach is coming, so now

many Anti-moshiachs have come" (I Yochanan 2:18).

Yehuda 17

UmeiV (ee-MEES - you p1.) de (deh - but)

agaphtoi (ah-ghah-pee-TEE = beloved ones), mnhsqhte

(MNEES-thee-teh = keep in mind) twn (tohn = the) rhmatwn

(ree-MAH-tohn = words) twn (tohn = of the) proeirhmenwn

(proh-ee-ree-MEN-ohn = previously spoken) upo (ee-POH = by)

twn (tohn = the) apostolwn (ah-poh-STOH-lohn = Shlichim) tou

(too = of the) kuriou (kee-REE-oo = of L-rd) hmwn (ee-MOHN =

of us, our) Ihsou (ee-ee-SOO = Yehoshua/Yeshua) Cristou (khree-STOO

= of Moshiach)



mnhsqhte is in the imperative mood (review paragraph #26

and F). Watch for all the imperatives or commands that Yehuda

will soon be shouting out to the Brit Chadasha kehillah, in view

of the emergency caused by doomed, sexually immoral ministers

infiltrating the L-rd's holy people. Yehuda 21,22, and 23 all

contain commands.

rhma means "word" but it is used of Scripture. prolegw means

to foretell. Here it is a perfect participle, meaning spoken once

in the past but with on-going effects in the present. If a

participle is modified by an article (see the twn in front of

the participle proeirhmenwn) it is attributive and modifies the

words with the same gender, number and case. rhmatwn is

genitive, neutral, plural and proeirhmenwn is genitive, neutral,

plural. "Be mindful of the words which were previously spoken by

the Shlichim" or "be mindful of the previously spoken words of

the Shlichim." Remember that a participle is a verbal adjective,

and in this case is functioning like an adjective because it

modifies a noun. Yehuda is saying, "Keep in mind the predictions

spoken by the Shlichim." In other words, Yehuda is a hearer of

the Shlichim and so are the people he is writing to. This helps

us date the letter. We are still dealing with the generation that

heard the Besuras Hageulah first-hand from the eye-witnesses of

the resurrection of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua. Yehuda's letter probably

should not be dated any later than the C.E. 60's. Also Yehuda

doesn't say "the words written (Yehuda says "spoken") by the

Shlichim" so it is possible that Yehuda is referring to the

preaching of Shliach Kefa and the oral tradition which was the

equivalent to the Brit Chadasha, before it was written down prior

to the death of the Shlichim. Yehuda does not call himself a

Shliach. At minimum he was an associate of an Shliach, his

brother Ya'akov Ben Yosef Ben Dovid.

The written condensation of these predictions are in passages

like I Tim. 4:1; II Tim. 3:1-5; Acts 20:29; II Shimon Kefa 3:3.

The Shlichim warned repeatedly that in the last time there would

arise mockers led away by their own carnal lusts.

Yehuda 18

oti (OH-tee = because) elegon (EH-leh-ghon = they were

telling) umin (ee-MEEN = you p1.) [oti] (OH-tee = that) Ep (ehp = at) escatou

(ehs-KHAH-too = of last) [tou] (too = of the) cronou (KHROH-noo

= time) esontai (EH-sohn-teh = will be) empaiktai

(ehm-PEHK-teh = mockers, scoffers) kata (kah-TAH = according to)

taV (tahs = the) eautwn (eh-ahf-TOHN = of themselves)

epiqumiaV (eh-pee-thee-MEE-ahs = lusts, strong desires)

poreuomenoi (poh-rehv-OH-men-ee = going) twn (tohn = of the)

asebeiwn (ah-seh-vee-OHN = of g-dless things).

elegon is a customary imperfect, "they used to say (continuous

action in the past). esontai is in the future tense,

focussing on the future occurrence of an action, which for Yehuda

is now the present because he is seeing the fulfillment of the

Moshiach's Shlichim's predictions about mockers and scoffers.

The mocker is the arrogant and g-dless libertine with an

unteachable, proud spirit and a shameless and unbridled libertine

lifestyle. Notice the peculiar word order of



epiqumiaV asebeiwn ("the desires/lusts of ung-dliness"). This is putting

the stress on ung-dliness to show that this is what these mockers

are living for and pursuing, even while they strut around in the

Brit Chadasha kehillot trying to deceive people into thinking

that they are teachers of the religion of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua. As

the half-brother of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua, Yehuda is an emissary of

Moshiach's shlichus and he is a pioneer in a very good position,

from the point of view of history, to know that their religion is

by no means representative of Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua! We call this

kind of genitive an objective genitive, since ung-dly conduct is

the object of their desire. Or it could be a subjective

genitive, the lusts belonging to or arising from their

ung-dliness. It could also be a genitive of quality, "ung-dly

desires." Remember that the L-rd himself had predicted the rise

of impostors who would try to lead the faithful into confusion

and error and peril (see Mark 13:5f,21f Mt 7:22-23 tells what Moshiach will say to them).

Yehuda 19

Note: the page numbers given refer to the dictionary at the

back of the UBSGNT. Look them up and study the meanings.

Outoi (oo-TEE = these [men]) eisin (ee-seen = they are) oi

(ee = the [ones]) apodiorizonteV (ah-poh-dee-oh-REE-zohn-tehs =

setting up divisions), yucikoi (psee-khee-KEE = natural,

worldly [minded] p.201), pneuma (PNEHV-mah = Ruach Hakodesh)

mh (mee = not) econteV (EH-khohn-tehs = having).

Outoi is repeated in Yehuda 10, 12, and 16. Notice that their

secret immorality has a divisive effect on the community,

splitting it into rival cliques or factions. Gal. 5:20 calls

"party spirit" a work of the flesh. It's possible that they

classify themselves as super-spiritual and that they view more

"straight-laced" folk as unspiritual, but Yehuda is saying that

just the reverse is true. The immoral people lack the Ruach

Hakodesh and therefore refuse to pay the price of kedusha in the

fields of Messianic witness and attendant suffering.

Everywhere Rav Sha'ul went he faced the peril of physical

violence and danger with one purpose, to leave new ministries

behind (see I Thes. 2:19; Gal. 4:19). Furthermore, he instructed

us to imitate him (I Cor. 11:1). Giving birth to Benjamin cost

Rachel her life, but whoever tries to keep his life rather than

lose it in labor for souls is in danger of worldly-minded

unspiritual sterility like the immoral men Yehuda is opposing.



Yehuda 20

UmeiV (ee-MEES - you p1.) de (deh = but),

agaphtoi (ah-ghah-pee-TEE = beloved ones p1.), epoikodomounteV

(eh-pee-koh-doh-MOON-tehs = building up) eautouV (eh-ahf-TOOS =

yourselves) th* (*h with i subscript) (tee = in the) agiwtath* (*h with i subscript) (ah-ghee-oh-TAH-tee =


(PEE-stee = faith, the body of doctrinal emunah of the Shlichim

of Moshiach), en (en = in) pneumati (PNEHV-mah-tae = Spirit, Ruach)

agiw* (*w with i subscript) (ah-GHEE-oh = [the] Holy, Hakodesh) proseucomenoi

(proh-sehf-KHOH-men-ee = praying, davening),

Yehuda is talking to the Brit Chadasha kehillah as if it were a

building or the Beis Hamikdash, which it is (I Cor.3:16). A school

is important if it builds us up in the emunah of the doctrine of

the Moshiach's Shlichim (see p.143 in UBSGNT dictionary for this

word pistei, word #376). Why do we build ourselves up In order

to pour ourselves out witnessing and starting new ministries! In

order to sustain oneself in the ministry over the long haul, one

needs to be able to build oneself up in the Moshiach's doctrine

(a task requiring some understanding of Greek, Hebrew, Brit

Chadasha Introduction, Tanakh Introduction, Religious History and

Historical Theology and Yeshiva Studies). pistei does not mean

Here our most holy subjective trust in G-d, but G-d's most holy objective body of doctrinal faith

with which we must be able to deeply nourish ourselves in order

to do the work of the L-rd. It is this and only this which

Artists For Israel Institute is setting out to systematically

present to the student. What is this "most holy body of faith" in

the Greek In the Hebrew In the Brit Chadasha In the Tanakh

How has it been lost and rediscovered and effectively propagated

in 2,000 years of Religious History Where are traces of this

faith found in Rabbinic Literature, making a bridge to witness to

religious Jews Our objective is to help students acquire the

tools to grasp this body of faith and to hang onto it to the end

and use their talents to launch into ministry where this body of

faith can then be shared for the birthing of new ministries and the building up of


Notice it says, "Build yourselves up in your (p1.) most holy

faith." The Bible does not really belong to the world, only to

the regenerated. The Bible says that even what the world thinks

it has, it will lose (Luke 19:26). Eph. 6:18; Rom. 8:26-27; I

Cor. 14:l5 and this verse would tend to indicate that praying in

the Spirit (see Mark 16:17) is important in coming against dangerous false teachers.

It was not a coincidence that Shliach Kefa prayed in the Spirit

before he preached to Moshiach-rejecting false teachers in the

Beis Hamikdash area on Shavuos.

Yehuda 21

eautouV (eh-ahf-TOOS = yourselves) en (en = in)

agaph* (*h with i subscript) (ah-GHAH-pee ([the] love, ahavah) Qeou (theh-OO- of

G-d, THIS IS SUJECTIVE GENITIVE, the love that comes from G-d) thrhsate (tee-REE-sah-teh = keep, preserve THIS IS THE IMPERATIVE MOOD, not an option but a command) prosdecomenoi

(prohs-deh-KHOH-men-ee = awaiting, expecting) to (toh = the)

eleoV (EH-leh-ohs = mercy) tou (too = of the)

kuriou (kee-REE-oo - of L-rd) ) hmwn (ee-MOHM = of us, our)

Ihsou (ee-ee-SOO = Yehoshua/Yeshua) Cristou (khree-STOO = Moshiach)

eiV (ees = unto) zwhn (zoh-EEN = life, Chayyei) aiwnion

(eh-OH-nee-ohn = eternal, Olam).

Keep yourselves in G-d's love for you by not backsliding into

sensuality and greed with the false teachers and sexually immoral

ministers. We are to keep our conscience clear and stay

clear-headed and self-controlled. Then we can confidently await

the mercy of the L-rd, which will be multiplied to us (Yehuda

v.2). These false teachers have forfeited a priceless thing in

exchange for their sensual and materialistic and monetary

pleasures: the mercy of G-d.

Yehuda 22

kai (keh = and) ouV (oos = some) men (men = on the one

hand) eleate (eh-leh-AH-teh = have mercy)

diakrinomenouV (dee-ah-kree-noh-MEN-oos = debating with oneself,

wavering, being of two minds, those who doubt, i.e., those under the spell of the antinomian false teachers who perhaps have been rebuked but still doubt yet perhaps are salvageable ),

Those who seem to be wavering under the spell of these false

teachers need to be shown mercy so they can be seized out of the

fire. If they've grown confused or disillusioned or cynical

because of these ministers who have been unmasked, or if they've

almost bought into their false antinomian "Good News", mercy

needs to be extended to them to give them an opportunity to stop

wavering and make a firm decision to follow the true holy Besuras


Yehuda 23

ouV (oos = some) de (deh = on the other hand) swzete

(SOH-zeh-teh = save) ek (ek = out of) puroV (pee-ROHS = fire)

(arpazonteV (ahr-PAH-zohn-tehs = seizing), ouV (oos = some)

de (deh = on the other hand) eleate (eh-leh-AH-teh = have

mercy) en (en = with) fobw (FOH-boh = fear [of the true sin-judging G-d]) misounteV

(mee-SOON-tehs = hating) kai (keh = and) ton (tohn = the)

apo (ah-POH = from) thV (tees = of the) sarkoV (sahr-KOHS

=flesh, corrupt human nature) espilwmenon (ehs-pee-loh-MEN-ohn

=having been stained/defiled) citwna (khee-TOH-nah =

undergarment, inner garment next to the body).

Some can be snatched from Gehinnom-fire like a brand plucked from

the burning(see Amos 4:1; Zech.3:2). Others must be approached

with fobw (fear), lest you yourself be infected by

them. Corrupting immorality is contagious, even with fellow

believers of the opposite sex, even with those you are trying to

witness to. This is why a certain clinical, scrubbed down,

germ-free approach is needed in the warfare of outreach. Don't do

it alone, don't do it with people who tempt you or who could be

tempted by you, and avoid even the appearance of evil with the

achim b'Moshiach. Hate even the appearance of a stain on your

character or your good name, as far as the old unregenerate filth

is concerned. This is how you keep yourself in G-d's ahavah, for

without kedusha (holiness) no one will see G-d.

Yehuda 24

tw (toh = to the [one]) de (deh = but)

dunamenw (dee-nah-MEN-oh = being able) fulaxai (fee-LAHX-eh =

to guard) umaV (ee-MAHS = you p1.) aptaistouV (ahp-TEH-stoos =

withoutstumbling) kai (keh = and) sthsai (STEE-seh = to set)

katenwpion (kah-teh-NOH-pee-ahn = [you pl.] before) thV (tees =

of the) doxhV (DOHX-ees = glory, kavod) autou (ahf-TOO = of

Him) amwmouV (ah-MOH-moos = unblemished, without defect) en

(en = with) agalliasei (ah-ghahl-lee-AH-see= exultation),

G-d is able to preserve you from ruin at the Judgment. This is

the doctrine of the perseverance of the kadoshim (I Cor. 1:8; I

Thes. 5:23). Also I Yochanan 5:18 is relevant here, which should

be translated, "We know that those who are born of G-d do not sin

(customary present tense "usually or customarily do not sin"). We

can trust in G-d's keeping power. See Yehuda 1 "the ones having

been kept by Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua." G-d's glory will be

manifest at the end (Isaiah 40:5) and G-d will set us in the

presence of his glory with lev same'ach and also unblemished

(just as Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua was a lamb without blemish I Shimon

Kefa 1:19--that is, when we see him we shall be like him).

Yehuda 25

monw (MOH-noh = to [the] only) Qew (theh-OH = G-d) swthri

(soh-TEE-ree = Savior, Moshi'a, Goel Redeemer) hmwn (ee-MOHN = of us, our)

dia (dee-AH = through) Ihsou (ee-ee-SOO = Yehoshua/Yeshua)

Cristou (khree-STOO = of Moshiach) tou (too = of the) kuriou

(kee-REE-oo = of L-rd) hmwn (ee-MOHH = of us, our) doxa

(DOHX-ah = glory, effulgent radiance) megalwsuhn

(meh-ghah-loh-SEE-nee = greatness, majesty) kratoV (KRAH-tohs

=dominion, might) kai (keh = and) exousia (ehx-oo-SEE-ah

=authority, power to rule) pro (proh = before) pantoV

(pahn-TOHS = all) tou (too = of the) aiwnoV (eh-OH-nohs = age,

time) kai (keh = and) nun (neen = now [this is Modern Greek

pronunciation, upsilon gets an "ee" sound]) kai (keh = and) eiV

(ees = unto) pantaV (PAHN-tahs = all) touV (toos = the)

aiwnaV (eh-OH-nahs = ages, for ever), amhn (ah-MEEN = Amen).

No matter how religious you are, if you miss the only G-d, you

are g-dless. kratoV is the absolute power of G-d which insures

his ultimate victory. If we truly believe in this aspect of G-d,

we will be fearless, even in the face of an increasingly

apostate, immoral rabble calling itself the Brit Chadasha

kehillah and in the face of a violent, heartless, anti-Moshiach

world. exousia is the sovereign power and right that G-d enjoys

as creator. It is also what, when we received Moshiach Yehoshua/Yeshua

(Yochanan 1:12), he has given us: the power and right to become

his yeladim.



    1. The word toutoiV cannot refer to Sodom and Gomorrah because of the lack of case agreement between the words.  True or False?  Email your answers to  Hint: Document 10


    1. The word toutoiV and its oiV ending (which is a dative singular ending) are important in

determining the meaning of the letter.  True or False?  Email your answers to 

      Hint: Document 9


    1. The word for Moshiach (second occurrence) is dative of advantage and this means kept BY

      Moshiach.  True or False?  Email your answers to  See Document 16 and

      Document 22.


    1. In this letter the word pistei sometimes refers to subjective trust.  True or False.
    2. The fight that is going on here, according to the writer, can be won against the false teachers by verbal means and in terms of doctrine and does not necessarily entail a consistent moral or ethical walk or way of life on the part of the contenders.  True or False.
    3. The -oV ending on adelfoV tells us this noun is dative.  True or False.   See Document 12.
    4. The word hgiasmenoiV is eliminated by the science of textual criticism.  True or False.  See Document 13.
    5. The word klhtoiV is not a substantive.  True or False.  See Document 15.
    6. The anarthrous (without definite article) predicate noun QeoV is placed in such a way in Yochanan 1:1 to show emphasis and should make JW adherents repent because it does not show quality or nature.   True or False.  See Document 18 and Document 19.
    7. An adjective cannot be used like a noun or substantive.  True or False.  See Document 20.
    8. The word threw is repeated for emphasis as can be clearly seen in the King James Version.  True or False.  See Document 24.
    9. The last four letters of the verb plhqunqeih ending in qein tells us that the verb is in the optative tense.  True or False.   See Document 25.
    10. Agaphtoi is in the vocative tense and is used to soften the blow of the letter.  True or False.  See Document 27.
    11. The word pistei has no relevance to the doctrinal belief of the sect of Judaism called HaDerech, especially since the original inerrant autograph of this epistle was written in Aramaic or Hebrew.  True or False.  See Document 30.
    12. In Greek the letter z is pronounced like z in zero.  True or False.  See Document C.
    13. The personal pronoun umeiV is contrasted with the demonstrative pronominal adjective outoi and the author is using these two words to distinguish between congregants who are saved and false teachers who are not saved.  True or False.  See Document AA.  See Document D.
    14. If we want to obey the word of G-d, we can note the verbs that are in the indicative mood and thus see the non-optional commands in the letter that G-d wants us to obey.  True or False.
    15. The teachers under attack here are libertines.  True or False.
    16. Yehuda named here as the author is almost certain the brother of Nathanel.  True or False.
    17.  Devekut Beotiot over many years of mediatation on this Jewish epistle particularly in the original Hellenistic Synagogue language we are studying here online could possibly help to keep a rabbi in Moshiach’s Shul morally pure.  True or False. Write a two hundred word essay explaining your answer based on all you have learned in studying this Jewish letter in its original language and email it to







Yehuda VERBS

1:2 plhqunqeih, 3rd sg. aor. pass. opt. plhqunw, "to grow,

increase, multiply";

1:3 escon 1st sg. aor. act.Indic. ecw "to have" (aor.


1:4 pareisedusan  3rd p1. 2 aor. act. indic. pareisduw, "to

slip in stealthily, sneak in";

1:5 boulomai 1st sg. pres. mid. dep. indic. boulomai, "to

wish, want, desire"; apwlesen 3rd. sg. aor. act.

indic. apollumi "to ruin, destroy, lose";

1:6 tethrhken 3rd. sg. perf. act. indic. threw "to keep,


1:7 prokeintai 3rd. pl. pres. mid. dep. indic. prokeimai "to

set before, be exposed to public view";

1:8 miainousin  3rd. p1. pres. act. indic. miainw "to stain,

defile;" aqetousin 3rd. p1. pres.act. indic.

aqetew "to reject, do not recognize"; blasfhmousin

3rd. p1. pres. act. indic. blasfhmew "to blaspheme, revile,


1:9 dielegeto 3rd. sg. impf. mid. dep.indic. dialegomai "to

discuss, converse"; etolmhsen aor.act.indic.

tolmaw "to dare, presume"; eipen 3rd. sg, aor. act.

indic. legw "to say, tell"; epitimhsai aor. act. opt.

epitimaw "to rebuke, reprove, censure";

1:10 oidasin 3rd p1. perf. act. indic. oida "to know";

blasfhmousin (see 1:8); epistantai 3rd.p1. pres.

pass. dep. indic. episthmi "to know"; fqeirontai

3rd.p1. pres. pass. indic. fqeirw "to ruin, destroy";

1:11 eporeuqhsan 3rd. p1. aor. pass.dep. indic. poreuomai, "to

go, proceed"; execuqhsan 3rd p1. aor. pass. indic.

ekcew pass. to give up, abandon oneself; apwlonto

3rd. p1. aor. mid. indic. apollumi (see 1:5);

1:12 eisin 3rd. p1. pres. act. indic. eimi "I


1:13 tethrhtai 3rd. sg. perf. pass. indic. threw (see 1:6);

1:14 proefhteusen 3rd sg. aor. indic. profhteuw "to prophesy;"

hlqen sg. aor. act. indic. ercomai "to come,


1:15 hsebhsan 3rd p1. aor. act. indic. asebew "to live in an

ung-dly way" elalhsan 3rd. p1. aor. act. indic. lalew "to


1:16 eisin (see 1:12); lalei = 3rd sg. pres. act. indic. lalew

"to speak, say, tell;"

1:17 mnhsqhte 2nd p1. aor. pass. imper.  mimnhskomai "to


1:18 elegon 3rd p1. impf. act. indic. legw (see 1:9);

esontai 3rd.p1. fut. mid. dep. indic. eimi (see 1:12);

1:19 eisin (see 1:12)

1:21 thrhsate 2nd.p1. aor. act. imper. threw (see 1:6);

1:22 eleate 2nd p1. pres. act. imper. eleaw "have mercy on;"

1:23 swzete 2nd p1. pres. act. imper. swzw "to save;"

eleate (see 1:22)


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Wesley S. Perschbacher, Refresh Your Greek: Practical Helps For

Reading the NT, Moody Press, 1989.

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Greek NT, Second Edition, United Bible Societies, 1994.

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House, 1981.

Cullen Story and J. Lyle Story, Greek To Me, Harper and Row,

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and Philip W. Comfort, Tyndale House Publishers, 1990.

Max Zerwick and Mary Grosvenor, A Grammatical Analysis of the

Greek NT, Biblical Institute Press, 1981.

Gary Hill, The Discovery Bible: New American Standard NT, Moody

Press, 1977.

Kurt and Barbara Aland, The Text of the NT, Eerdmans, 1987.

Clayton Harrop, History of the NT in Plain Language, Word, 1984.

Philip W. Comfort, Early Manuscripts And Modern Translations of

the NT, Tyndale House Publishers, 1990.

W. Harold Mare, Mastering New Teatament Greek, Baker Book


Bauer, Gingrich, and Danker, A Greek-English Lexicon of the NT,

University of Chicago Press, 1979.

The Englishman's Greek Concordance of the NT, Zondervan

Publishing House, 1970.

Alfred Schmoller, Pocket Concordance to the Greek NT, GBS, 1989.

Alfred Rahlf:, editor, Septuaginta, 1979.