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(This message builds on the Genesis 3:15 Torah teaching, confirmed in Rabbinic exegesis, see
זרע זה מלך המשיח מדרש רבה כג ה
that Moshiach, through his sufferings, will win our victory over Satan.)
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Let's stop here and test your Moshiach literacy. Contents Foreword by Sid Roth Preface PART I: THE BIBLICAL BASIS FOR A MESSIANIC YESHIVA CHAPTER 1. THE BIBLICAL BASIS FOR A MESSIANIC YESHIVA, THE MISTAKES OF THE PAST The Post-Reformation Period, The Jewish "Outreach Center" Approach, The Messianic Synagogue Approach, CHAPTER 2. A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY FOR A MESSIANIC YESHIVA Is this Judaism? The Moshiach's Kehillah is a Messianic Synagogue, The Unity of Messianic Judaism, Judaism with Enough Cultural Elasticity to Disciple Both Israel and the Nations CHAPTER 3. : TOWARD A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY: THE COVENANT MEAL OF JUDAISM IN THE TANACH AND THE COVENANT MEAL OF JUDAISM IN THE BRIT CHADASHA The Meaning of the Blood, The Marriage Motif, The Peace Motif, The Eschatological Motif, CHAPTER 4. TOWARD A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY: THE BRIT CHADASHA COVENANT MEAL OF JUDAISM. The Nature of the Meal, The Requirement of Repentance, Covenant Renewal Through Remembrance, CHAPTER 5. TOWARD A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY: CELEBRATING THE BRIT CHADASHA OF JUDAISM. The Seder in the Moshiah's Kehillah, The Jewishness of the Moshiach's Seder CHAPTER 6: TOWARD A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY: CELEBRATING SHABBAT IN LIGHT OF THE BRIT CHADASHA PART II: A MESSIANIC YESHIVA -- SUBJECT MATTER, RESOURCES, AND POSSIBLE MODELS CHAPTER 7. A MESSIANIC YESHIVA By Joseph Shulam CHAPTER 8. RABBINIC WRITINGS By Rachmiel Frydland CHAPTER 9. TRAINING MESSIANIC JEWISH LEADERSHIP By Daniel Juster CHAPTER 10. PRACTICAL HELP IN CONGREGATION PLANTING AND PREACHING By Phillip Goble CHAPTER 11. PIONEERING A MESSIANIC JEWISH DAY SCHOOL By Phillip Goble CHAPTER 12. STUDYING THE MIKRAOT GEDOLOT IN A MESSIANIC YESHIVA By Phillip Goble CHAPTER 13. A VITAL AREA FOR PASTORAL COUNSEL: IF YOU WERE TO BE DEPROGRAMMED By Moishe Rosen APPENDIX -- BY-LAWS NOTES BIBLIOGRAPHY FOREWORD BY SID ROTH Years ago when I became a Jewish believer in Yehoshua, there was no such option for me as a Messianic congregation. When I started attending a congregation I remember my discomfort as the minister singled me out by saying, "You're Jewish, aren't you?" I just wanted to blend in. Why did he have to single me out? At that time there were few Messianic Jews, and the minister was excited at the novelty of a Jewish believer in his congregation. It's hard to believe now, but initially as a new believer, I tried to hide the fact that I was Jewish. At a picnic of the Messianic Jewish Alliance, several of the leaders felt the need to start a Messianic synagogue. I was negative initially. But as an experiment I announced we would try one Shabbos service. I remember stopping by my Dad's house to ask his advice. It had been years since I had been to a Friday night service. My father almost kicked me out of the house. He said he couldn't understand why all of a sudden I would be interested in Jewish things after accepting J----. The next best place to turn to was a Jewish book store, where I purchased a prayer book. Somehow we got through that evening. We had twenty brave souls attend that first service seven years ago and we haven't missed a service since. Since I was president of the Messianic Jewish Alliance Washington, D.C. chapter, that made me the logical leader of the synagogue. I was two years old in the L-rd and knew very little Scripture. It was only G-d's mercy that kept our congregation together over those early years. What about members? Could gentiles become members? Should we call our spiritual leader, rabbi? How much Hebrew should be in the service? Do we meet on Friday and Sunday or Friday and Saturday? Should we wear yamulkahs? What about funerals? Should we use a Jewish cemetery or would we be permitted? The questions were endless but G-d resolved them one at a time. Now there are Messianic synagogues throughout the world. So many in fact, we have seen the formation of the Union of Messianic Congregations. Today our congregation, Beth Messiah, located in Rockville, Maryland, has its own building, day school, and full time spiritual leader. I wish I had this book before we started pioneering ... You are very fortunate. G-d really loves you ! Sid Roth Founder and Host of the Messianic Vision PREFACE A WORD FROM DR. PHILLIP GOBLE The Kitvei Hakodesh are clear about Klal Yisrael. They will not change their G-d: they will still believe in the G-d of Avraham, Yitzchak, and Ya'akov. They will not change their religion. They will still hold dear to Judaism as their faith. Nevertheless, the Kitvei Hakodesh are clear: they will be changed by teshuva and hitkhadeshut, all the Jewish people people in the world. And they will be redeemed. One day they will look up into heaven and they will see the Kodesh HaKodashim in heaven open, and they will see not a changing of religions but a changing of Kohanim Gedolim. And in this changing of the guard of the Kohanim Gedolim in the Kodesh HaKodeshim in heaven, they will see a new Kohen Gadol (after the order of Malki-Tzedek) replacing the old Kohen Gadol. But this spiritual revelation will not cause them to discard their Siddurim or their copies of the Shas. They will not cancel Bar Mitzvahs or High Holiday Services. They will not do away with Torah Services on Shabbos. They will still be loyal to the Sinai Covenant and its mitzvot. They will change very little, almost nothing as far as their Orthodox Jewish manner of life is concerned. But they will be changed. They will see him in heaven, wearing the garments that Caiapha once wore when Caiapha unwittingly ordered the Akedah and had him bound and led away, carrying the Scapegoat's burden of the evil Olam Hazeh. They will see him--Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach Adoneinu Yehoshua, standing in the Kodesh HaKodashim in Shomayim. They will see him and they will weep. And the shul and the yeshiva will never be the same after that. And they will have far better people to produce materials such as the following, because there will be thousands and thousands of rabbis and yeshiva scholars weeping as I have wept for the Jewish people and looking up into heaven and seeing the changing of the guard of the Kohanim Gedolim in the Kodesh HaKodashim. But, until then, this meager offering is presented with a prayer and with faith in the Kitvei Hakodesh and in the Geulah Redemption of Klal Yisrael. In 1974 I began to see that many congregations were not willing to change the routine of their style of ministry in order to reach the Jewish neighborhoods where G-d had placed them. I saw that new congregations were needed, messianic synagogues, in those areas. If a congregation worshiping in the style of White Anglo-Saxon Protestants is placed in the midst of a large Orthodox Jewish community, something must be done. A new congregation -- one that will identify in hymnology, liturgy, architecture, and worshiping style -- must be born. This is not a matter of deception or underhanded pragmatism. A Jewish believer can take joy in the practice of the Torah while at the same time he can have confidence for his salvation not in legal statutes but in Moshiach (Acts 21:20-26). Sha'ul did this (Act 16:3; 18:18; 21:20-26). An ivory tower theologian or a novice may not understand that he did, but that doesn't change the fact. What has been needed for a long time is a comprehensive tool designed to further the planting and growth of messianic synagogues and yeshivas. This is why this book was written in 1980. This edition is revised, for now there are many messianic synagogues throughout the world, and there will be many more in the future. But this is not really new, for we see messianic synagogues in Acts 21:20 and Jam.2:2 (see the Orthodox Jewish Brit Chadasha downloadable at http://www.afii.org/material.htm from the Internet). So what has been the problem in the intervening years since the First Century? Choosing the wrong cultural specialist as their mentor, ministers to Jewish people have in the past typically tried to mimic Moshiach's Shliach to the Goyim (Sha'ul or Paul) and have largely ignored his highly successful (cf. Acts 21:20) cultural counterpart, Moshiach's Shliach to the Jews (James or Ya'akov). Ya'akov was concerned that no "irksome restrictions" (Acts 15:19) be imposed on Goyim. He would have also been concerned to have no "irksome restrictions" placed on him and the Jerusalem Messianic Synagogue of which he was the mashgiach ruchani (spiritual overseer). Can you imagine Ya'akov's reaction if some Goyim had told his congregation they could no longer practice the bris milah or be shomer Shabbos? You don't have to imagine. Just read Acts 21:20-21, where we find that the early Jewish talmidim (disciples) of Moshiach were shomer mitzvot, and where we see Ya'akov was quick to correct the lashon hora some were speaking against the Shaliach Sha'ul, falsely accusing Sha'ul of teaching Jewish people they had to become shmad and abandon the bris milah and the minhagim (customs) of the Jewish people in order to follow the Moshiach. Unfortunately, the dismal history of ministry to Jewish people has been the largely futile effort to impose the irksome restrictions of Goyishe culture on Jews. Instead of helping plant and lead Brit Chadasha Kehillot, authentic Messianic Synagogues and Yeshivas with integrity and relevance for the Jewish people like the Shliach Ya'akov (James) did in Jerusalem, ministers to Jewish people typically function as unwitting modern "Gentilizers," trying to persuade Jews to assimilate into Goyishe cultural life-style - a betrayal the Jewish community understandably resists as the self-destruction and spiritual genocide of Jews as a people. In a Jewish neighborhood, Messiah's people must become like Jewish people to win Jewish people (I Cor. 9:20-21), remembering that Moshiach came to bring life to Jewish people, not cultural death. Moshiach came to give them new spiritual life, not change them from Jews into Goyim. This is axiomatic and fundamental. When a congregation of Messiah's people finds herself in a Jewish community she must not shrink from wearing once again her full Jewish dress, all her old First Century synagogue attire. For local communities of Messiah's people in Jewish communities to remain inflexibly groomed for Goyim and then demand that Jews convert to Gentile ways of life and worship in order for Jewish people to accept their own Moshiach is the horrific, condemnable, ancient Judaizing heresy in reverse, and must not be tolerated. (To learn about this heresy, download Galatians from the Orthodox Jewish Brit Chadasha translation from our website at http://www.afii.org/material.htm ). The philosophy of this book centers on the concept of a people movement, something the Body of Moshiach received from the Jewish community in Acts 21:20, when the Shlichut for Yehudim was in full operation (Gal.2:8-9). A people movement occurs when whole family units (not just rebels and family misfits) from a particular cultural group flow into the Body of Adoneinu Moshiach Tzidkeinu. Acts 21:20 says, "You see, brother, how many thousands of Jewish people there are who believe (in the Messiah and the Orthodox Judaism of the Brit Chadasha); and they are all zealous for the Torah (i.e. the Orthodox Judaism of the time, which predates modern post-Second Temple Judaism)" (Acts 21:20). Luke 2:42 alludes to our Moshiach's bar mitzva equivalent (see Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol.4, page 244 for historical background documentation). Because the Shliach Ya'akov and the first Jewish believers in our Moshiach worshipped in the shul, kept Shabbos (as well as Yom Rishon), and maintained the peoplehood-sustaining minhagim of the Jewish people, they were able to effectively encourage a people movement from the Jewish community. It is true that Sha'ul won a few Jewish people into his Gentile-accommodating congregations, but as far as the Jewish people as a people were concerned, to flow into such a cultural environment was not an attractive option. But then Sha'ul had the Shlichut mission to the Goyim, he did not have the Shlichut mission to the Yehudim; it was Kefa, Ya'akov and Yochanan (Gal.2:9) who had the Shlichut to the Yehudim and could minister in such a way as to accommodate the special needs of the Jewish people as a people. Only the fully operative Messianic Synagogue community of Ya'akov the Shliach in Yerushalayim could win masses (see Acts 21:20) from whole segments of the Jewish community. Stated simply in modern terms, there are a few Jewish people, and cumulatively, many Jewish people, who can be won by ordinary local congregations. But, generally speaking, these local congregations cannot attract whole family units that flow in a people movement from the Jewish community. To put it graphically, a Jewish man is not going to bring his wife and bar mitzva-aged son and bat mitva-aged daughter and orthodox mother to the ordinary local congregation. If one insists on preaching the G-d of Israel's Good News to this family unit in a Gentile style rather than a Messianic style and in a Gentile setting rather than a Biblical Acts 21:20 synagogue setting, one may very well not win this family unit. But the Bible once again solves the problem: the first local assembly or kehillah of Messiah's people was a messianic synagogue community. In fact, Ya'akov the Shliach calls it such in the original language of his book in chapter 2, verse 2, (see Greek, Jam.2:2) and a messianic synagogue community the local kehillah must become again, whenever it finds itself in a Jewish community. (See "Moshiach's Letter Through the Shliach Ya'akov To The Brit Chadasha Kehillah" from the Orthodox Jewish Brit Chadasha translation from our website at http://www.afii.org/material.htm). What has been needed for a long time is a comprehensive tool designed to further the planting and growth of messianic yeshivas, so that leaders of messianic synagogues can be raised up. This is why this book was written. Galatians 6:15 and Colossians 3:11 clarify that for Goyim being born from heaven is what is important, not being physically born of Jewish stock. However, when Sha'ul speaks of the new birth, he speaks of becoming a spiritual ben Avraham (son of Abraham--see Gal.3:7-14; Romans 2:28,29; Philippians 3:3). Hashem has a vested interest in keeping Jewish people Jewish until the Bias haMoshiach (Coming of Messiah), or else Rebbe, Melech HaMoshiach Adoneinu will be King of the Jews in name only. Furthermore, it is not possible for Jewish people to fully obey the Brit Chadasha if they try to do so by apostatizing from the Sinai Covenant and its mitzvot. This is why cultural specialization is so crucial in the planting of new ministries (Galatians 2:9), for the Great Commission of Moshiach commands that Jewish people be not imperiled as a people, but discipled as a people. In 1974, when Everything You Need To Grow A Messianic Synagogue was first published, a wonderful breeze of the Ruach Hakodesh was blowing. It had been blowing since 1967, when the "Six Day War" made it possible for Israel to absorb East Jerusalem. This caused a revived interest in the Moshiach among the Jewish people world-wide, because Yerushalayim was no longer trodden down by Goyim (see also Luke 21:24) and the stage was being set for the Fig Tree to blossom (21:29-31) into the Bias Moshiach. A world-wide revival began among the Jewish people, remarkably also in Los Angeles, where this book was written. Now, even more is happening. What the Jewish community needs are thousands of growing synagogues with home Torah studies, yahmakahs, Jewish music, Jewish food, Jewish humor, Jewish customs, ceremonies, holidays, traditions, testimonies, special events, and everything revolving around and pointing toward a very Jewish Moshiach who is Adoneinu. Such synagogues can throw their doors open wide with the confidence that G-d will fill them with Jewish souls and also with people who are of non-Jewish descent but are nevertheless spiritually of the seed of Abraham (Gal.3:7-14) and of the calling of Ruth, called to Messianic Jewish ministry. These truly heaven-born believers in Moshiach Adoneinu, unlike many anti-semitic nominal and errant followers, will love the Jewish people in all their Jewishness. They will understand that rabbis and synagogues have to change very little, almost nothing, about their liturgy or their manner of worship or Jewish lifestyle in order to follow the Moshiach. The book of Hebrews shows that all rabbis and synagogues have to do to find redemption in Moshiach is to look up into heaven and see a changing of the guard of the Kohen Gadol, with Rebbe Melech HaMoshiach Yehoshua the Kohen l'Olam al divrati Malki-Tzedek (Ps.110:4) in the Kodesh HaKodashim in Shomayim. Once they believe in his kapparah and come into the Brit Chadasha Yom Kippur experience of hitkhadeshut through chesed rather than zechus, very little else has to be changed. Hashem is only looking for a change of heart, not a change of religion or a change of allegiance from the Sinai Covenant and its mitzvot. However, since this is true, something more than a typical seminary education is needed for the leaders of such messianic synagogues. This is why this book and this web-site on the Internet exists. It is my prayer that G-d will give you, the reader, the same privilege he gave me, and reward your toil with good ground and the fruit of a Brit Chadasha-patterned messianic yeshiva. In 1975, when I spoke at a special Fuller Seminary convocation, I felt impressed that G-d would give me several messianic synagogues in Florida. G-d wanted to prove that what he was saying in the Scriptures was possible today, that several congregations could be planted simultaneously in the same area. And that these congregations could help sustain a Jewish people movement, providing such things as a potential Jewish marriage market, so that the Jewish people would have the freedom to keep their identity as Jews and not assimilate. This is important, because if the Jewish people totally assimilate and become non-Jews, so that there are no Jews, then how can Moshiach still return as King of the Jews? Dr. Donald McGavran, my teacher, said we should work to see five hundred of these congregations in the United States, and an equal number overseas. He told me to get some of the key leaders to help me put together this book, so that many training centers can merge, and with them many more congregations. By 1976, Jewish men from all over the country were calling me in Florida, telling me they felt led to get into the ministry because of their faith in Yehoshua, explaining they had somehow heard about my ministry, asking me if I needed help in Florida. We began a little Yeshiva class in conjunction with an agape feast which occurred later the some day, when new believers took the Moshiach's tevilah. In the Yeshiva class, the Jewish messianic rabbis brushed up their Hebrew and learned how to turn Jewish home Torah classes into messianic congregations. I was reliving Sha'ul's experience in Acts 19:9. When the first messianic synagogue formed, I was free to turn that congregation over to a Jewish minister, so that I could go with another Jewish minister to start another one. In less than three years, three congregations were formed and growing. What my critics said couldn't be done, G-d did, using even a person like me, of non-Jewish background, to show that anyone could do it, with the help of Hashem. By simply ordering my time in a disciplined way, one night of visitation ministry, one night of bus ministry, one day of Yeshiva classes, one night of home Torah classes, one night of erev Shabbat services, G-d did the rest. This book shows that there is a way revealed in the Brit Chadasha Scriptures to be loyal to the law without being unspiritual, to become like Rabbinic Judaism without syncretism, to become indigenous without Scriptural compromise. The purpose of the book is to provide a tool to help accelerate the ingathering of G-d's ancient people in these last days. It is my prayer that G-d will use it to wake up the Moshiach's World-wide Kehillah to the Great Commission and to the fact that the Good News is to Israel first and last ! A barukhah on you! Dr. Phillip E. Goble New York City September 24, 1996 PART I?HE BIBLICAL BASIS FOR A MESSIANIC YESHIVA CHAPTER ONE: THE MISTAKES OF THE PAST The centuries between the First Century C.E. and the "Reformation" (Martin the "Reformer" was no reformer as far as Jewish ministry was concerned; like others using the name of Messiah, he managed to set the cause of Jewish ministry back a few centuries) were indeed dismal ones for Jewish believers. After the Adriatic war, Jerusalem became a pagan city from which Jewish believers were barred, just as they were practically excluded from both the papist houses of worship and the synagogue. From 135 A.D. until the conquest of Israel by Mohammad's followers in the 7th century, we hear very little of Jewish believers, other than a few passing remarks on certain Ebionites or Nazarenes from such sources as Jerome or Origen or a certain Jewish bishop of Constantia named Epiphanius. Unfortunately, Eusebius, Constantine, and others were not guiltless of the charge of fostering an anti-Jewish prejudice which grew and had tragic consequences. The story of Messianic Jewish faith from the 7th century to the Reformation is one of confused religious strategy that ranged all the way from the enticement of studied polemics in compulsory audience to the intimidation of forced immersion by threat of death. Thus we move through the crusades and the inquisitions roughly to the time of the "Reformation." The historian Hugh Schonfield speaks of the Jewish believers and how their attempts at ministry might have been more successful if they had been left alone to present their case in their own way, but instead often their ministry "was turned into a massacre by ecclesiastical interference or popular malice, to the great sorrow of those who were unwittingly responsible. In the instances of definite fanaticism which have to be recorded, the harsh polemics and burnings of the Talmud, one must remember that blasphemy was a much more grievous sin in those days, that the torment of the damned in hell was a reality that made any present suffering worthwhile if it could secure immunity, and that cruelty in word and act was less tampered by social custom.(l) It is a matter of record that many Jewish people became disciples of Yehoshua during this pre-Reformation period. However, whom to credit with taking the Scriptures to them is another matter. For example, we have no way of knowing how instrumental the Dominican preachers were, since many of their efforts backfired. The overzealous Dominicans were instrumental in petitioning inquisitorial interference with the Jews in Ferdinand and Isabella's Spain. Also they were responsible for engaging Pfefferkorn who in turn initiated Emperor Maximilian's book confiscation order which brought on untold burnings of the Talmud and other Jewish writings. Like the Dominican preachers, the medieval religious world was not the blessing to the Jewish people it could have been. THE POST-REFORMATION PERIOD Then, with the "Reformation" there came to the Jewish people two forward-thinking defenders, John Reuchlin and Martin Luther (at least Luther started out as a defender). Reuchlin, a non-Jewish Hebrew scholar, exhorted against the confiscation of Jewish writings, and for that plea he was rewarded with a charge of heresy and branded as an instrument of the devil. Later, in 1523, Martin Luther wrote a treatise showing that Yehoshua was born a Jew: "Those fools the papists, bishops, sophists, monks, have formerly so dealt with the Jews, that every good Christian would rather have been a Jew. And if I had been a Jew, and seen such stupidity and such blockheads reign in the Christian Church, I would rather be a pig than a Christian. They have treated the Jews as if they were dogs, not men, and as if they were fit for nothing but to be reviled. They are blood relations of our L-rd; therefore if we respect flesh and blood, the Jews belong to Messiah more than we. I beg, therefore, my dear Papists, if you become tired of abusing me as a heretic, that you begin to revile me as a Jew. Therefore, it is my advice that we should treat them kindly; but now we drive them by force, treating them deceitfully or ignominiously, saying they must have Christian blood to wash away the Jewish stain, and I know not what nonsense. Also we prohibit them from working amongst us, from living and having social intercourse with us, forcing them, if they would remain with us to be usurers."(2) However, finding that the Jews made little response to his overtures, Luther turned on them with the most vicious and scathing anti-Semitism. Here is a quote from another book entitled Of the Jews and their Lies: "Burn their synagogues and schools; what will not burn, bury with earth, that neither stone nor rubbish remain. In like mannner break into and destroy their houses. Take away all their prayer books and Talmud, in which are nothing but g-dlessness, lies, cursing and swearing. Forbid their rabbis to teach on pain of life and limb." (3) Therefore, for more than two centuries after the Reformation, scarcely a Protestant voice was heard in behalf of the salvation of the Jews. A major exception was Phillip Jacob Spener, who was the first to work out a detailed outreach plan for the Jewish people. Another bright light was Johann Henrich Callenberg, founder of the Callenberg Institute and sometimes called the father of modern outreach ministry to the Jews. However, of the surprisingly high number of Jewish believers in this period we have testimony in DaCosta's book, Israel and the Gentiles, where he speaks of some five thousand Jewish believers (4). The increased number of Jewish believers in 18th century Europe was the result of a new era in inter-faith relations. In the early Reformation faith there arose a new consciousness for the need to proclaim the Good News to the Jewish people. A symptom of the new era was to regard the methods employed by the medieval religious world as not at all in keeping with the spirit of Moshiach. Therefore, there was a gradual relaxation on synagogue building restrictions, circumcision prohibitions, and mandatory attendance at sermons in congregations. Here Spener went further. He was an advocate of complete freedom for the Jews in the exercise of their own religion, an entirely novel idea even for the pietistic world of that time. In the Netherlands as early as the Synods of Delft and Leiden, 1677 and 1678, there was action taken on behalf of the Jews. Not only were ministers to use Hebrew in winning Jewish people through preaching Moses and the prophets, but also the professors of seminaries were to emphasize the study of Hebrew by requiring examinations of their students. Two extremely important Messianic Jewish believers who emerged from a later "Jewish Awakening" in the Netherlands were Abraham Capadose and Isaac DaCosta. Capadose founded the association of "Friends of Israel in the Hague" in 1846. In 1861 Capadose and DaCosta founded the "Netherland Society for Israel." These societies were important in promoting prayer services for the salvation of the Jews in Holland's cities and towns and also in promoting interest in Jewish outreach. THE JEWISH "OUTREACH CENTER" APPROACH In London in 1808 another society was founded, the "London Society." This became the oldest and most extensive Jewish outreach organization in the world as well as the mother of many other societies. With it we see the development of the so-called "Jewish outreach center" which was developed in its most grandiose style in London in 1813 on a five acre plot of ground. When completed, this facility comprised a house of worship building, a minister's residence, a boys' school and a girls' school, a college and several residences. This facility lasted for a period of 70 years during which there were some 1,765 immersions. It was staffed with specially trained ministers and departmental workers and sought to meet every exigency which might arise in bringing the Jewish people to their Messiah. We are surprised, therefore, to find that the property was disposed of in 1895. A letter from Abraham Capadose provides insight that may help in a postmortem appraisal: "For I speak from my own experience: the Jewish person has a natural pre-possession against a man who advertises his desire to make him change his religion; but he respects a minister of a congregation. Now...if he could, without being noticed,...would eagerly hear a sermon ... without that prejudice because the preaching ... would not have for its express design the conversion of Israel. Oh, if the houses of worship of Scotland, of England, of Holland would unite in this, to engage mutually to announce once a week that there would be a sermon, not for the Jews, but for the believers, on the prophecies concerning Messiah, from this or that part of the Hebrew Bible, I am heartily convinced that we would see quietly coming into the assembly a number of Jews...(5) Here we see one of the first criticisms of the so-called "Jewish outreach center approach" in favor of what has come to be called the "parish approach." However, in spite of much criticism of outreach centers unrelated to parishes, non-ecciesiabtically constituted mission societies have set the pattern even for today. Four of the best known and largest which have operated on a national or international scale are the American Messianic Fellowship, Chosen People Ministries, The Friends of Israel Society, and Hineni Ministries. Lest this be taken as criticism, the absence of congregations in Jewish ghetto areas in large cities explains what has often made the outreach station approach appear to be the only feasible alternative. Rev. J. S. Conning, Department of Jewish Evangelism, Presby. U.S., has summarized Jewish outreach methods in the immigrant ghettos of American cities: "An outreach hall in the crowded Jewish neighborhood, meetings in Yiddish for adults, street preaching, visitation in homes, the circulation of Yiddish literature, and the distribution of relief to the needy (6). Until the disappearance of the first, second and third settlement communities in the Jewish ghettos of American cities, the apparent need for traditional Jewish outreach stations did not lessen. THE MESSIANIC SYNAGOGUE APPROACH A critique of the outreach station, however, is that typically it lacks the body of Jewish believers whose faith is the proper atmosphere to encourage faith in other Jewish people. It is naive to say that any one organization or method offers the best approach. However, a long-neglected and yet highly promising approach is that of the Messianic synagogue, because it is Scripturally tested and sanctioned. Unlike the typical outreach station, the Messianic synagogue does have a body of believing Jewish talmidim. That their faith is a fertile environment for Jewish people to come to believe is shown in the large-scale additions in the early Messianic synagogue community of Acts (Acts 2:41-47; 5:11, 14; 9:31). The first important modern Jewish Messianic synagogue was founded in 1882 by Joseph Rabinowitz. Rabinowitz was born at Resina in 1837 and grew up in Chasidic circles. At 13, he was betrothed but did not marry until six years later. His future brother-in-law Jehiel Hershensohn (Lichtenstein) introduced him to the Brit Chadasha by lending him a Hebrew copy and remarking that perhaps Yehoshua of Nazareth was the true Moshiach. Rabinowitz took the Hebrew Brit Chadasha to Jerusalem with him, and, sitting on the Mount of Olives viewing the Mosque of Omar where formerly the Temple stood, his mind went back over the tragic history of his people. Why was Israel suffering? The answer came to him: "The key to the Holy Land is in the hands of our brother Yehoshua." Filled with the glory of a great vision, Rabinowitz returned to his homeland and was immersed in 1885. Rather than joining an existing congregation, however, he built a hall which became a Jewish Messianic synagogue. His sermons became available in Hebrew, Russian and Yiddish and numbered in the thousands of copies reaching the masses of the Jews in eastern Europe. Thus we see in the Jewish Messianic synagogue not an imposing of the faith on Jews from without, but a reclamation of true Messianic faith from within. The Messianic synagogue which both Lichtenstein and Rabinowitz were instrumental in reviving perhaps for the first time since the First Century C.E. was a forerunner of similar modern synagogues rapidly mushrooming today throughout the Jewish world-wide community. For centuries Messianic Judaism was not possible as a coherent, lasting tradition. This was so not because of any so-called "de-nationalizing" tendency of the faith, but because of social ostracism on the part of both the Gentile Houses of Worship and the Synagogue. Then, too, the policy of the medieval religious world had really been one of anti-Semitic gentilizing which claimed that the Jewish community must collectively and individually make a complete break with its whole way of life in order to accept salvation. However, there is a new understanding among theologians today, the Scriptural concept that people do not have to commit ethnic suicide by throwing over their culture or assimilating into another culture in order to become believers in Yehoshua. The gentilizing of past Jewish outreach efforts is recognized today for what it is. Also, from the Jewish side, the Messianic Jew receives more toleration in the eyes of the Synagogue in our modern day. In fact, Messianic Faith is not ruled out as a fatal error in itself, and if it has been conceded that it is all right for gentiles to come to know the G-d of Israel through Messiah, the next logical step is that it is also right for Jews to come to this knowledge through Him. Although many Jewish religious authorities are not willing to go this far, there are many Jewish people today who are tolerant of Messianic Jews and more open than ever before to the claims of Yehoshua. Modern outreach thinking concedes that there is no one "Bible-endorsed culture" but that all cultures must be Messianized (brought under the Messiah's influence) by culturally relevant Messianic congregations. We have black congregations to minister to the black community, we have Spanish congregations to minister to the Spanish community. In the same way we must have Jewish Messianic Synagogues to minister to the Jewish community and these should surface as such wherever there are bodies of Jewish believers in Yehoshua. They should be staffed with Messianic believers, and they should have a non-discriminatory but culturally sensitive and focused outreach to their own Jewish communities. Albert Huisjen has some extremely insightful recommendations for Moshiah's World-wide Kehillah: It "has lost sight of the fact that concern for the salvation of the Jews rightfully belongs among its primary consideration. It does not belong at the perimeter of her outreach programing, where it is now generally found, but at its very center. Our salvation is not only of the Jews but, also for the sake of the Jews. Salvation is come to the Gentiles to provoke the Jews to jealousy. To the Jew first is a Biblical concept that was first projected in prophecy by Moses, first practiced by Yehoshua, and first promulgated by Sha'ul. So we repeat what we have said before, namely: To the Jew first has a unique continuance so long as the Jews remain in unbelief and the people of Messiah have temporal existence. If her outreach to the Jews is to come into its own it must be given its rightful place in the outreach programming of the people of G-d. How this might be brought about should be of real concern in the believer's circles ... For a congregation rightfully to answer to her calling respecting the Jews, concern for their salvation should be placed at the center of her interests and outreach programming. Then in accordance with her organizational structure an Exhortation should go out from her world leadership that this be observed alike by all her congregations, her ministers, her office-bearers, and members throughout the world. In turn the ministers should pass this pronouncement on to their respective congregations and exhort them with the goal in mind of conditioning them to take in the Jewish person whenever contact with him is made, whether within parish bounds, as a fellow resident, or in the common ways of life.(7) In modern times, the best example of just such a topdown world-wide zeal for the Jews as Huisjen advocates was a body of believers in Scotland in 1838. That body began by overtures to several presbyteries and then by following up with an enactment of the General Assembly. A commission studied Jewish outreach ministries and a mandate was given to the congregations by official pronouncement that there should be an education of the entire world-wide fellowship in things Jewish by means, among other things, of an official correspondence course. Needless to say, the response was a great response of Jewish people coming to faith. Nuisjens advocates that something of this nature is needed in all fellowships throughout the world. We hope what will turn out to be a great modern breakthrough occurred November 8, 1974, when a major Protestant denomination's National Home Outreach department agreed that Jewish people could form "fully operative" Messianic Synagogues within the Assemblies of G-d fellowship. Time will tell whether this pledge will be fulfilled or betrayed. Nevertheless, this historic decision meant that perhaps for one of the first times since the period when the Brit Chadasha was written, a World-wide community of believers was organizationally making room for the kinds of synagogues that can sustain the Jews both spiritually and culturally and as a people from generation to generation. Such a long-awaited rapprochement between Messiah's people and the Synagogue in the one Body of our Moshiach is the hope of believers everywhere and is also the all-pervading goal of this study. It is hoped that all evangelicals will soon find messianic synagogues among their congregations world-wide, and that there will be non-denominational or independent messianic synagogues, as well. This is not to say that the messianic synagogue method of ministry is the only way to win Jewish people to their Messiah. Any local Bible-believing congregation will soon find Jewish people in attendance, because a great end-time ingathering is presently underway, and has been since the 1967 Six Day War when Jerusalem was no longer trodden down by the Gentiles (Luke 21:24) and the Fig Tree began to blossom (Luke 21:29-31), and Jewish people are being won anywhere and everywhere. However, just as in the past maybe only four or five Jewish people might be won in a given geographical area, now four or five congregations of Jewish people can quickly be planted in the same location. This is what G-d proved in my ministry in Florida in 1975-1976. This is a sign of the lateness of the times (Luke 21:24-31; Matthew 23:39). The purpose of my first book, Everything You Need to Grow a Messianic Synagogue, has been misunderstood in some circles. I wasn't writing a book to tell Jewish ministers the one and only way they should run their ministry. I wasn't writing a book to tell Jewish people how Jewish they may or may not be, according to the Brit Chadasha. My book was just a primer to begin to move in the direction of an indigenous Jewish congregation and should be helpful to Jewish people in the initial stages, while they're feeling their way along. This book can be downloaded from our website at http://www.afii.org/material.htm on the Internet. My book does not tell Jewish people they must do anything (except face the eternal consequences of rejecting the Good News). There is no legalism in my book, just the strategy of Sha'ul's admonition in I Cor. 9:19-23. Does this mean my book puts Jewish people back under the law? Absolutely not. A Jewish believer in Messiah is in essence a new creation. He is in the Olam Hazeh but not of the Olam Hazeh. He is trusting Moshiach to redeem him, not a legal statute. His heart and life, allegiance and authority, mind and spirit, are hidden in heaven with the risen Moshiach. He has died to all but the Olam HaBa, and he has experienced a new birth into a new eschatological existence. He has received the Ruach HaKodesh of the Olam HaBa. He comes to the Torah with joy as someone whom the Moshiach has redeemed. Since he is in essence a heavenly citizen, an enlightened new creation (even already in this dying, evil age), a believer is now free (according to the constraints of holiness and love) to become like any unenlightened people. The believer is not lawless (II Peter 3:17), he is under the law of the Moshiach (I Cor. 9:21). His life is not controlled by mere rules, but by a Holy person, the indwelling Word of G-d, the Moshiach, whose Spiritual and Scriptural control leads him in a holy life (Jeremiah 31:31-34; see Colossians 2:20-23). When an actor becomes like someone else in order to persuade an audience, it is not a sham. When a believer in the Moshiach becomes like a Jew to win a Jew to the Moshiach, it is not a hoax. If it is an act done in sincere love, it is an act of truth, particularly since a believer in Moshiach really is a Ben Avraham, spiritually speaking (Gal.3:7-14). An actor knows when he is "doing the truth" on stage. He does not literally become the part (that would be insanity or reincarnation); he becomes like the part. When a messianic Jew becomes like an orthodox Jew (under the law), the messianic Jew is not under the law but like one under the law. A Jewish believer can take joy in the practice of the Torah while at the same time he can have confidence for his salvation not in legal statutes but in Moshiach (Acts 21:20-26). Sha'ul was not under the Law (I Cor. 9:20-21, NIV). Therefore, no one can interpret Matthew 5:17-20 and 23:2-3 as meaning that Yehoshua bound the messianic Jews in Jerusalem under the law, meaning their salvation was through their own legal efforts rather than through faith in him. Not at all. Those passages preach against Jewish people assimilating. Moshiach forbade it. To show one's loyalty to traditions while keeping the ethical demands of the law is not the same as legalistic bondage without knowledge of Moshiach and salvation. Neither Moshiach Yehoshua nor Sha'ul advocated the latter. To be literally under the law means to be outside the Moshiach (unsaved) and depending on legalistic works and self-attained righteousness. To be like someone under the law is to lead a similar life style, but for different reasons. If I legalistically avoid eating pork, or driving on Saturday, because I feel I'm thereby a superior ethical and religious specimen, I am under the law. If I avoid pork and Sabbath driving to be able to have a more credible witness for the Jewish Moshiach to my unsaved orthodox Jewish neighbors, I'm under Moshiach's Torah and not under legalistic and self-righteous illusions. An actor sees the truth and integrity of this kind of "acting" because he sees the sincere motive and not the artifice. An orthodox Jew who becomes a believer is not going to offend his Orthodox Jewish neighbors by breaking the law. However, his motivation is now based on Moshiach's love, and now not eating pork and not driving on Shabbos has an even deeper significance to him in Moshiach. Also, and again I repeat, a Jewish believer can take joy in the practice of the Torah while at the same time he can have confidence for his salvation not in legal statutes but in Moshiach (Acts 21:20-26). Now in Moshiach an Orthodox Jew finds joy in preaching the Besuras haGeulah in an orthodox way. Proof is offered that the substance of the Good News can be preached in a rabbinic style by my play, The Rabbi from Tarsus, where Sha'ul preaches the height and depth of the Good News in a thoroughly rabbinic style, so that even a chasidic rabbi hearing it might be spiritually stirred positively or negatively, but not culture-shocked. Messianic indigenous synagogues that are thoroughly Biblical, that do not compromise the Good News or its manner of acceptance (repentance-immersion) that are open to all and led by men who endeavor not to "culture shock" anyone, Gentile or Jew, reformed or orthodox, are desperately needed today in the Jewish communities of the world. These congregations can be multiplied as quickly as Messianic yeshivas can be organized to equip and train their leadership. As Jewish leaders are trained, they will learn through the Messianic yeshivas how to plant a new congregation, how to preach in a Jewish style with Brit Chadasha substance, how to counsel and minister to the needs of Jewish people, and how to become a rabbi surrogate able to perform Jewish weddings, funerals and bar mitzvahs (8). It is hoped that this book will be of perhaps a little use in multiplying these yeshivas wherever there are Jewish population centers in the world. CHAPTER TWO: A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY FOR A MESSIANIC YESHIVA IS THIS JUDAISM? One of the first things that a messianic Jewish student or teacher in a messianic yeshiva must do is to arrive at a thoroughly Jewish contextual theology that does not compromise the Word of G-d. Judging from Acts 24:10-21, there can be little doubt that one of Luke's objects in writing Acts is to show that the religion which has since been given a post-Biblical label is in fact the true Jewish "way," the true Jewish religion -- true Judaism, and is therefore rightfully the religion licita. Luke emphasizes that even the shliach to the Gentiles knows his religion is most relevant to Jews. Sha'ul is depicted by Luke as a rabbi who always goes to his own people first, and does not normally turn to the Gentiles until he has first been rejected by the Jews. Sha'ul is pointedly shown to be a practicing Jew who takes vows (Acts 18:18), and is eager to celebrate the Jewish feasts in Jerusalem (Acts 18:21; 20:6, 16), even willing to purify himself in the Beis Hamikdash (Acts 21:17-27). Furthermore, Acts 23:6-10 indicates that the Judaism of Sha'ul has more in common with the Judaism of the Pharisees than even the Pharisees and Sadducees have with one another. Acts 2:46 asserts that from the very beginning this Derech Hashem, Derech Tzaddikim, this true Judaism, was loyal to the Beis Hamikdash, where, significantly, the Gentile outreach commission was given (Acts 22:17-21). Luke notes that it is only Sha'ul's enemies that refer to his religion as a Jewish "sect," while Sha'ul himself argues in Acts 24:14 that he worships the G-d of their fathers and believes the Torah and the prophets. Thus Luke demonstrates that Sha'ul's Biblical Judaism is without taint. Then Sha'ul himself zeroes in on a basic tenant of Judaism, the doctrine of the hope of the Techiyas Hamesim (resurrection of the dead) upon which Sha'ul bases his claim to Jewish orthodoxy. Those Jews who believe the Jewish doctrine of the resurrection of the dead and will listen to Sha'ul's testimony regarding the resurrected Moshiach Yehoshua will accept his authoritative teaching as true Judaism. Those who refuse to believe the doctrine of the resurrection historically fulfilled in Yehoshua will deny Sha'ul's teaching. But Luke makes it clear that if Jews reject the interpretation of Judaism of Moshiach's Shluchim and personal knowledge of Hashem through the Moshiach, they reject true Judaism (Luke 10:22). Luke records Kefa saying as much in Acts 3:22-24 where Kefa quotes from Deu. 18:15-16 that Moses declared that anyone who would not listen to the Prophet that G-d would raise up would be extirpated from Israel. This warning is sounded by Kefa immediately after his argument that G-d has raised Yehoshua from the dead. Arguing somewhat similarly, Sha'ul defends his life in Acts 24:14-15 by defending the orthodoxy of his religion based an the generally accepted doctrine of the resurrection of the dead. Just as Kefa claimed that David spoke as a prophet predicting the resurrection of the Moshiach (Acts 2:30-32), so Sha'ul says to King Agrippa (Acts 26:2-8), in arguing that the Moshiach is the first to rise from the dead, "Do you believe the prophets?" Because Luke is the only one of the four authors of the Besuras haGeulah who both begins and ends his Good News in the Beis Hamikdash, it is clear that Luke is asserting that in a real sense Biblical Faith is but a further extension of the national religion of the Jewish people. For Luke's history tells the story of how the spiritual sheerit (remnant) from the Jews finds added to itself a spiritual remnant from the nations to form a nation not of the Olam HaBah, the people of the Jerusalem above. This does not mean that national Israel is replaced. No, G-d is dealing with her as well, giving her her land in 1948, and bringing her to salvation as well (see Romans chps 9-11). That Luke is arguing that Biblical Faith is true Judaism is shown by Luke's describing the Shliach to the Gentiles as a Beis Hamikdash-loyal rabbi who "asserts nothing beyond what was foretold by the prophets and by Moses, that the Moshiach must suffer and that he, the first to rise from the dead would announce the dawn to Israel and to the Gentiles (Acts 26:23)." Here Sha'ul, as a Bible-believing rabbi, is asserting the truth of Isaiah 42:6; 49:6; 53. Luke draws out the irony in Acts 26:6-8 that it is for the hope of the resurrection, the hope for which Jewish people are worshiping G-d with intense devotion day and night, for this very hope that Sha'ul is impeached (and impeached by Jews, of all people). Thus Luke drives home the point that this religion is Judaism in the truest sense of the word, and the People who should be the first to recognize it are somehow blind to the fact. For Luke the true "remnant" Jews are not those who are uncircumcised in heart (Acts 7:5, 13), because they reject the teaching of Moshiach's Shluchim. Rather, the true "remnant" Jews are those who accept this teaching and submit to Moshiach's tevilah, meet consistantly to hear the teaching, and to share in the common life, to break bread, and to daven (Acts 2:42). Especially significant is the "breaking of bread" when one remembers that for Luke the L-rd's Supper emerges from a Pesach seder and has the same central covenantal significance (Luke 22:7-8, 20). Also, it should be carefully noted that for Luke the Moshiach's tevilah is the initiation rite of faith whereby the nations must be discipled and whereby all men, Jews and Gentiles alike, must receive through faith the all important gift of the Ruach Hakodesh without which there is no membership in the true eschatological people of Redemption (Acts 2:38, 39; Luke 3:7-9; 24:47). According to Luke (Acts 2:1), on Yom Rishon morning, Shavuos (Pentecost), 30 C.E., the proclamation went forth that if Jews were to remain committed to the true faith of Judaism, they must personally commit themselves to the Moshiach of Judaism. Since the key ritual for making proselytes to Judaism had been a tevilah mikveh immersion, the risen Moshiach Yehoshua commanded his followers to go into all the world, making proselytes to messianic Judaism by means of a tevilah in the name of the G-d of Israel.(l) Today there is a great deal of confusion in the Jewish community as to who is a true Jew, since there is no unanimity discernible among Jews along even racial, religious, political, or national lines. Some Jews want to believe that there is some sense in which the Jewish people are a race, yet there are Japanese Jews. Many Jews would like to define themselves along religious lines, and yet there are Jewish atheists. Of course, many want to believe that the Jewish people are united as a nation, and yet an American Jew knows he's not an Israeli. Therefore, many Jewish people do not really knew who the real Jews are. However, the Brit Chadasha does knew who the Jews are. Sha'ul asserts quite clearly that the true Jew is the one whose praise (a play on words since Yehudah and Hodah are a play on words between "Judah" and "praise") is of G-d (Romans 2.-29), who has been circumcised of his "flesh," his unregenerate nature, by the miracle of hitkhadeshut (regeneration) (Col.2:11-13), thus becoming a spiritual child of Abraham by faith (Gal. 3:7), and therefore a true Jew (Phil. 3:3). Such are "sons of the covenant," the Brit Chadasha covenant where the Torah is written on the heart (Jer. 31:31-34). The Bible holds out the hope in Romans chp. 11 that this miracle will happen en masse to Israel in the last days, thereby giving a cautionary warning to Gentiles when they try to abrogate to themselves the promises and privileges extended in Scripture to the genealogical seed of Abraham, although Gentile followers of Moshiach are also spiritual Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14). But, being able to trace your genealogy to Abraham is not enough. Ishmael could do this. So could Esau. For, as both the Torah and the Tenach show, G-d intended to "mark off" as his own not merely people who were circumcised physically but "in their hearts" (Deu. 10:16). So strong is this teaching that G-d threatens to destroy any Jew who is not spiritually circumcised (Jer. 4:4). Such a one will be shut out of Jerusalem (Isa. 52:1), as well as the L-rd's sanctuary (Ezek. 44:7, 9) and salvation (Deu. 30:6). For not all G-d's physical people are his spiritual children (Rom. 9:6). In Gen. 17, circumcision (bris milah) is the covenant sign of G-d's choosing out and marking men for his own. But in the Brit Chadasha the gift of the Ruach Hakodesh, without which a man does not belong to the Moshiach (Rom. 6:9), is offered in connection with faith and Moshiach's tevilah (Acts 2:38), which is identified (when it is an act of faith witnessing to regeneration's spiritual surgery of the "flesh") with Moshiach's way of circumcision (Col. 2:11-12). Many people do not know that Judaism used to be a outreach religion, and that the official leaders of Judaism were both zealous and apparently somewhat successful at making proselytes at the time of Yehoshua. (2) Therefore the outreach of Yehoshua did not arise in a vacuum. It received the legacy of the zealous Jewish proselytizing movement, to which it added the world-shaking power of the Ruach Hakodesh in order to make more proselytes to Messianic Judaism than anyone ever dreamed possible. According to ancient tradition, (3) the first proselytes to the Jewish faith were gentiles, Abraham and Sarah, and through their descendants, G-d intended to proselytize the nations (Gen. 12:3). Thus it was that Judaism was carried to all peoples, Jews and Gentiles alike, by the followers of Yehoshua. For Yehoshua immersed Judaism with the Ruach Hakodesh and brought G-d's people the Good News of the Kingdom which Judaism had for so long been waiting to take to the world (Matt. 28:19). Therefore the Good News of Messianic Judaism is that the hope of Israel has been fulfilled, the Moshiach has come, the resurrection has already begun through him -- Yehoshua Ha Mashiach, who has already begun to pour out the Ruach Hakodesh on his followers; consequently, the people from every nation may receive the Ruach Hakodesh and be assured of their own personal coming resurrection by obeying the Moshiach of Israel as their L-rd and King. Just how Jewish our Biblical Faith is is made obvious by the startling fact that, judging from the epistles of Sha'ul, people who had been heathen just a short time before were expected to be able to understand the complex rabbinic style argumentation of their author (e.g. Gal. 4:21). These people can no longer be considered heathen (I Cor 12:2. Theologically they must be able to think like Jews. Therefore, it is no mere spiritualization to say that Sha'ul's proselytes were in some sense grafted in like Ruth and given a Jewish heart.(4) For how could one fully understand the Besuras haGeulah without entering into a full understanding of the soul of Israel? If one rejects this conclusion, one is left with the absurd idea that only the false teachers (judaizers of Galatia) could make true proselytes out of the Gentiles. That Luke is aware of the gentile follower of Moshiach and his privileged status as a proselyte is obvious in the fact that for him the L-rd's Supper emerges from a Pesach seder. Whereas uncircumcised men could not sit at table with Jews (Acts 11:1-3), circumcised men who were uncircumcised at heart (Acts 7:51) excluded themselves from the privilege of sitting at the Brit Chadasha Pesach seder" (Acts 13:46). Those of the natural Jews who rejected the privilege of entering into a Brit Chadasha with the G-d of Israel condemned themselves as unworthy of Chayyei Olam and forfeited their privileged status to the Gentiles, the wild olive branches grafted into the Chosen People of G-d. Turning from Luke to the broader theological perspective of our Biblical Faith as true Judaism, it is hardly necessary to belabor the point that the Judaism taught in the Brit Chadasha preserves the essentials of the faith of Israel that other kinds of Judaism have largely lost. For example, Messianic Judaism teaches Biblical monotheism, that the L-rd our G-d is echad (Deu. 6:4). The English translation of the Zohar by Soncino Press (2nd Edition, 1984) conveniently leaves out a controversial passage about the "threeness" of Hashem. When we look at the original language in Zohar Vol.3 Ha'azinu page 288b, we see the omitted text, which, comments on Daniel 7:13, where the Son of Man Moshiach comes to the Ancient of Days. The Zohar says, "The Ancient One is described as being two (TAV-RESH-YUD-FINAL NOON, Aramaic for "two")." G-d and the Moshiach, called by Daniel "the Ancient of Days" and "the Son of Man" are obviously a picture of G-d as "two" in the Bible, and the Zohar owns up to this fact, calling G-d "two." Two sentences prior to that on the same page, the original language of the text of the Zohar says, "The Ancient Holy One [i.e. G-d, Daniel 7:13] is found with three (TAV-LAMMED-TAV, Aramaic for "three") heads or chiefs (RESH-YUD-SHIN-YUD-FINAL NOON Aramaic for "heads"), which are united in One (CHET-DALET Aramaic for "one")." Here we have a picture in the Zohar of the raz (mystery) of G-d's unity, the distinct havayot (subsistences, modes of being) in Adonoy Echad. It says somewhere that Moshiach, even though his was the form of the mode of being of Elohim, nevertheless, he humbled himself and took the form of the mode of being of a servant, the "Tzaddik Avdi" of YESHAYAH (ISAIAH) 53:11. Here the Zohar helps us understand the Tanakh, because the Ruach Hakodesh is with Hashem at creation, says BERESHIS (GENESIS) 1:1-2, but so is the Dvar Hashem, according to Tehillim (Psalm) 33:6. Now the Dvar Hashem (Word of G-d) is worshiped, according to Tehillim 56:11 (10), which would be idolatry if the Dvar Hashem did not partake of Hashem's quality of "G-dness," which can also be said of the Moshiach, who, unlike the idols in Daniel 3:18, is worshiped by all peoples in Daniel 7:14 (cf. the Aramaic word PAY-LAMMED-CHET is in both passages, which means "to pay reverence to deity, worship"). The fact that Tehillim 56:11(10) and Daniel 7:14 speak of both the Dvar Hashem and the Moshiach as worthy of reverence as deity is more understandable if it is remembered that G-d's Chochmah (Wisdom) is his instrument in creation, according to Tehillim (Psalm) 104:24 and Mishle (Proverbs) 3:19. But G-d's Chochmah, like the Moshiach, is referred to as the Ben haElohim (Mishle 30:4; cf. Tehillim 2:7), leading us to conclude that they are one and the same. In Moshiach, Hashem's eternal Chochmah comes down from heaven and walks on this earth and confronts mankind in person. In the beginning the Dvar Hashem, the Moshiach, was with Hashem, and the Dvar Hashem, the Moshiach, had the form of the mode of being of G-d! And the Dvar hashem came on the scene of the Olam Hazeh as a man! So Hashem is Echad, but in his unity there are distinct havayot (subsistences, modes of being) so that Elohim Avinu distinquished from Moshiach and is not Moshiach, and Moshiach is not the Ruach Hakodesh. Yet, at the same time, there is an interpersonal fellowship in G-d's personhood, such that, when He creates Man in his image, G-d does not create a solitary monad alone on an island, because G-d is not a monad alone in the cosmos. On the contrary, G-d creates male-and-female capable of conceiving offspring, and thus the threeness of this interpersonal fellowhip of male-and-female-capable-of-conceiving-offspring on earth (see BERESHIS or GENESIS 2:24; 4:1) reflects a threeness in the interpersonal fellowship of the One G-d of Israel. This is not Tritheism. Messianic Jews who believe the Biblical data in the Tanakh are sometimes accused by their detractors of tritheism. People who are making up religions have a simple doctrine and are proud of its simplicity. But G-d is not simple, and this is His Biblical revelation of Himself, from literally the first three verses of the Bible, as Gen. 1:1-3 are explained by Tehillim (Psalm) 33:6. G-d from the beginning explains himself as the Creator who is God and Dvar Hashem and Ruach Hakodesh, and we are left to either take it or leave it. Since an infinite G-d cannot be fully comprehended by finite human beings, we are advised to take it by faith. In G-d's revelation of Himself to Abraham Avinu, it says in Bereshis 18:1 that Hashem "appeared" to Abraham at Mamre. Then Bereshis 18:2 says that Abraham lifted his eyes to see this appearance of Hashem, and "Hinei! sh'lo-SHAH ah-nah-SHEM (three men)!" is what Abraham saw! But three? Who can love without a beloved? And the love that proceeds from the One who loves to the One who is loved is One that is not strictly identical with either the One who loves or the One who is loved. But can One plus One plus One equal not three but One? But does Messianic Judaism actually teach monotheism, that the L-rd our G-d is one L-rd? Of course! How could it be Judaism if it didn't? However, the Jewish Scriptures themselves teach that G-d has a complexity in His unity. The Hebrew word signifying G-d's complex unity is "echad," not the word "yachid." The Torah does not say, "Shema, Yisroel, Adonoi Eloheinu, Adonoi, Yachid." The Shema, which utters G-d's name three different times in the Shema, says that the L-rd is "echad." In Bereshis (Genesis) 2:24, G-d says that when a man marries a woman the two become "echad," one. It says, V'HAYU L'VASAR ECHAD ("And they will be as echad flesh, one flesh." Two can be as one! It does not say that a man by himself, a man "yachid," is one flesh. It does not say that a woman by herself, a woman "yachid," is one flesh. No, it says that a man and woman in marriage is echad, one flesh. Two can be one! Does this defy arithmetic? One plus one equals not two, but one? The point is that this is a complex one, not a simple one. Yechezkel (Ezekiel) says that two sticks can become ets echad (one stick)--see Yechezkel 37:17 In the case of a male and a female, a simple one would mean something else other than a complex unity. But a marriage is echad, because it is a complex unity of not one but two human beings joined into a complex unity of one. This is a complex and not a simple unity, for if it were simple, the two would become absolutely only one, one human being! On the other hand, in Shofetim (Judges) 11:34, Jephthah's only daughter is simply, absolutely one, the only child, the sum of his children totaling one human being, so the Bible refers to her with the Hebrew word "yachid." The truth is, G-d has always had a complexity in his unity, because G-d has always had his Ruach Hakodesh (Holy Spirit) and his powerful, creative, personal Dvar Hashem, His Word, his Chochmah, his Wisdom, his agent in creation and redemption (Tehillim 104:24; 8:32-36), the Oman (Craftsman), the Ben haElohim at his side (Mishle 30:4; 8:30) appointed from eternity (Mishle 8:23). The figure of a son toiling by the side of his father was a familiar one (Mishle 8:30; 30:4), and is an arresting metaphor for God's primordial Wisdom toiling creatively in the beginning with G-d (Mishle 8:30; 30:4). Likewise, Tehillim 2:7, 89:27-28, Yeshayah 9:(5)6 are passages where the Moshiach is pictured as G-d's Son, his Bekhor, his Heir. And in Daniel 7:13-14 the Moshiach is seen coming in the clouds of Divine Glory. The other term is zero'a (arm), shown to be used in creation in Yirmeyah 32:17 and identified with Moshiach in Isaiah 53:1. On page 577 in Ha'azinu of the Zohar, the text speaks about the Ruach of Hashem. The Ruach Hakodesh, whom G-d's people grieved (Yeshayah 63:10), is the same Ruach Hakodesh resting upon Moshiach (Yeshayah 11:2). In the same way that the lowest of the three types of Battei Din must have three judges and yet a Bet Din with three judges is only one Bet Din, not three Battei Din, so also G-d, though complex in His personhood, is one G-d, not three G-ds. And we must all stand before the Bet Din of Elohim Avinu and Moshiach Ben HaElohim and the Ruach Hakodesh, who are pictured together in Yeshayah 63:10-16. In this passage we hear about Elohim Avinu (Yeshayah 63:16), and Hashem's zero'a (Arm, identified with Moshiach ten chapters previously in Yeshayah 53:1), and the Ruach Hakodesh (Yeshayah 63:10-11). For in the same way that a triangle can have three angles and still be only one triangle, not three triangles, or in the same way that a human being can have his self and his self-seeing spirit and his self-expressing mind and yet can be only one man and not three men, so Hashem Elohim Avinu can have his Dvar Hashem Moshiach and his Ruach Hakodesh and still be only one G-d, not three G-ds. One plus one plus one equals not three, but one, a complex unity of one--not a simple one but a complex one. In the Kedusha (Yeshayah 6:3) we acknowledge this complexity in unity everytime we read "Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh" in the Prayerbook. The One G-d of Israel sent his one and only Personal Dvar Hashem among us as the Moshiach, in order to make an eternal kapparah (blood covering) for our sin so that from G-d's Ruach Hakodesh we might receive Chayyei Olam (Eternal Life) from Elohim Avinu and become adopted as a Bri'a Chadasha, a New Creation in Moshiach. This was G-d's gift of ahavah (love) to us, so that he could with mercy and justice forgive us and bring us into a new order of life. However, G-d's gracious provision through his Dvar Hashem the Moshiach Adoneinu has forced the whole world into a crisis of decision. When we look into the Jewish face of Moshiach Adoneinu, we are confronted eye to eye by the Dvar Hashem himself. We cannot obey the G-d of Israel nor can we receive his Ruach Hakodesh unless we obey G-d's Word-become-Man, Moshiach Adoneinu. Therefore, the task of Moshiach's Judaism is to lead people to follow the Jewish Messiah in order that they may receive the Ruach Hakodesh and Chayyei Olam. The sacriligious Arians did not follow the Moshiach Adoneinu. They taught the anti-Biblical notion that Moshiach is a created being. However, our Redeemer cannot be a mere creature. J.W.'s and other modern Arians refuse to confess and believe Yeshayah (Isaiah) 48:16, which says, "The Sovereign L-rd has sent me with his Spirit." The "me" here is the Avdi Tzaddik, the Servant of the L-rd (Isaiah 53:11), the Moshiach; see Isaiah 42:1-7, 49:1-7; 50:4-9; and 52:13-53:12. Here you have G-d, Moshiach, and the Ruach Hakodesh. This is not a trivial doctrine. Isaiah 50:10 says that whoever "does not obey the word of His servant" will "lie down in torment" (Isaiah 50:11), which is a phrase shown clearly to refer to Gehinnom in Isaiah 66:24 and Daniel 12:2. So all modern Arians, regardless of what proud names they give to their religious creeds, need to realize that their rebellion against the Word of G-d will be punished by the torments of Gehinnom. Those who really do follow Moshiach Adoneinu, and are not errant or ignorant hypocrites (as some of his so-called followers have been), confess this doctrine in the Brit Chadasha found in Mt.28:19-20; Joh.14:26; 15:26; II Cor.13:13; I Pet.1:2 and elsewhere. The Name of Elohim Avinu (Isaiah 63:16; 64:8) is conjoined with that of the Ben haElohim Moshiach and the Ruach Hakodesh in Holy Scripture. For references to the Moshiach, whose supernatural entrance and exit from the Olam Hazeh points to his nature, see the following: Gen.3:15; 12:2-3; 28:14; 49:10; Ex.12:46; Num 21:8-9; 24:17-19; Deut.18:15-19; 21:23; II Sam.7:12-28; I Chr.17:23-27; Job 19:25; Psa.2:1-12; 16:8-10; 22:1,7-8,18; 27:12; 31:5; 34:20; 35:11; 38:11; 40:6-8; 41:9; 45:2,6-7; 49:15; 68:18; 69:4,9; 72:1-19; 78:2; 89:3-4,18-37; 102:24-27; 110:1-7; 118:22,23,26; 132:11; Prov.30:4; Isa.6:9-10; 7:14; 8:14-15; 8:18; 9:1-9; 11:1-10; 16:4-5; 22:21-24; 25:8; 28:16; 29:18; 35:4-10; 40:3-11; 49:1-6; 50:6; 60:1-3; 61:1-3; 63:1-6; 65:17-25; Jer.23:5-6; 30:9; 31:15; 31:31-34; 33:15-17; Ezek 17:22-24; 34:23-24: Dan.2:44-45; 7:13-14; 9:24-27; Hos.11:1; Jonah 1:17; Mic.4:1-8; 5:1-5; Zec.9:9-10; 11:12-13; 12:10; 13:6-7; Mal.3:1; 4:1-6. For references to the Ruach Hakodesh, see the following: Gen. 1:1-2; Job 33:1-4; Isa. 11:1-2; 32; 14-18; 42:1-2; 44:1-4; 59:21; 61:1-3; Ezek.37:12-14; 39:29; Joel 2:28-32 (Heb.Bible Joel 3:1-5); Num.11:25-29; I Sam. 10:5-13; II Sam.23:1-4; I Chr.12:18; II Chr.15:1-2; 24:20; Neh.9:20;,30; Ezek 8:3; Dan.4:9; Micah 3:8; Zech 7:12; Hag.2:4-5; Zech 4:6; Gen.41:38-39; Num 11:16-17; 24:2; 27:15-21; Deut. 34:9; Jdg.3:9-10; 6:34-35; 11:29; 13:24-25; 14:6,19; 15:14; I Sam.11:6-7; II Ki.2:1-18; I Chr.28:11-19; Ezek 2:1-2; Ps.51:10-12; Ezek.36:24-30; I Sam.19:18-24; Exo.31:1-11; I Sam.16:13-14; Ps.106:32-33; Isa.63:10-14; Psa.139:7 Those who take G-d at his Word become true spiritual Bnei Avraham and love our Jewish people just as they love our Jewish Messiah. They also confess the Shema, that Adonoi, Eloheynoo, Adonoi Echad. Kadosh, Kadosh, Kadosh is He (Isaiah 6:3). Maimonides makes the unbiblical assertion in the second article of his "Thirteen principles of the faith" (5) that G-d is yachid (a simple unity), but no such assertion is ever made in the Bible, where G-d is always referred to as echad (complex unity). (6) G-d is not yachid. G-d is unique but not univalent, a complex unity. If G-d's unity were as simple as Maimonides would have us believe, it would not be possible for G-d to say of Himself both "me...and him" when referring to His being pierced, showing a personal complexity in Himself as the Adonoi Echad in Zechariah 12:10, so that both the first person and the third person are distinct in the Echad, and the third person is One and Only, unique, Yachid. Moreover, if true Judaism is to be judged by Biblical standards, what is often called "pure monotheism" (7) is in reality impure and unbiblical and even "unjewish." Besides Biblical monotheism, the other essentials of the faith of Israel are not lost in Messianic Judaism although they have been largely lost or neglected in other kinds of Judaism. For example Messianic Judaism maintains in the death of Yehoshua the Torah's demand for blood sacrifice: "It is the blood that maketh an atonement for the soul" (Lev. 17:11). Moreover, the Beis Hamikdash of Moshiach's body, housing his spirit -- though torn down by men -- has been raised by G-d. Messianic Judaism also preserves the true significance of such Jewish institutions as the kehuna (priesthood), the chacham (sage), and the navi (prophet) and such Jewish doctrines as those concerning the Messianic King (Melech haMoshiach), the Ruach Hakodesh (Holy Spirit), and Yeshu'at Eloheynu (Salvation). Through the resurrection from the dead of the great priest (Heb. 7:24), sage (Matt. 12:42), prophet (John 7:40), and Messianic King (John 7:41) Yehoshua, and through the coming of the Ruach Hakodesh on Shavuos A.D. 30, all these essentials of Judaism are imperishably maintained. THE MOSHIACH'S BRIT CHADASHA KEHILLAH IS A MESSIANIC SYNAGOGUE Modern scholars such as Bousset, Oesterley, Baumstark and Werner have shown that the early Messianic community functioned liturgically very much like a synagogue. In fact, the Moshiach's kehillah is referred to as a synagogue by both Ya'akov (Jas. 2:2) and also frequently by such fathers as Ignatius and Theophilus of Antioch. In Luke 4:16f the synagogue is the birthplace of the proclamation of the Besuras haGeulah, for it is here that Yehoshua first begins to preach. As we have seen, Luke is not giving the history of a new religion which he juxtaposes over against the old religion. Rather he is telling the story of the true religion and how Judaism opened beyond the Beis Hamikdash and Jerusalem to the ends of the earth so that Gentiles could be received into the true faith of Judaism and be saved. In fact, one could say that the story of Luke-Acts is the story of how the synagogue opened its doors to the world. For Acts tells the story of the world-wide Messianic Synagogue of Yehoshua, at first composed exclusively of physical Jews and then, as the Ruach Hakodesh overflowed Jerusalem and spilled out onto the world, comprising bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) from every race on earth. That the congregations Sha'ul founded are Messianic synagogues is clear from Luke's narrative. In fact, the unreceptive synagogues (which prove to be non-messianic synagogues as far as Yehoshua is concerned) force Sha'ul to find new meeting places for his authoritative teaching, and therefore it is the fault of an influential minority of Jews that the true way within Judaism becomes separate from the already established synagogue buildings in the diaspora. Although these newly established Messianic synagogues of Sha'ul are populated mostly by Gentiles, the fact that they are headed up by a rabbi and that they were, despite their heavy Gentile constituency, nevertheless clearly competitive with non-Messianic synagogues, explains the persecution (Acts 17:5; 1 Thes. 1:6) which they endured at the hands of representatives from other synagogues. All of this goes to show that even the congregations of Sha'ul, despite their cultural elasticity to Gentiles, were identifiable, even to hostile Jews, as synagogues. How much more like a synagogue must have been the primitive Jerusalem Kehillah of Moshiach! For these Jewish believers in Yehoshua are described in Acts as not only loyal to but also zealous for the Beis Hamikdash and the Torah (Acts 21:20). It's important to keep in mind that if the majority of Jews in a particular synagogue accepted the teaching of Moshiach's shluchim, they did not thereby cease being a synagogue, any more than the Jews of Beroea in Acts 17:11 would have ceased to be synagogue members had they in fact determined that "these things were so." The earliest Messianic communities continued the "traditional mode of worship to which they had been accustomed in the synagogue."(8) The "prayers" of Acts 2: 42 would not exclude the Shema and the Amidah which all Jews prayed daily. Therefore, it's important to remember that the first Jerusalem believers were worshiping like Orthodox or Chassidic Jews, in shul, and in the Beis Hamikdash, and on Shabbes. They were worshiping in fully operative synagogues and Jewish house shtiblekh, which should be fairly clear from the fact that there were among them not only many kohanim (Acts 6:7) but also many believers who were zealous for the Torah (Acts 21:20). Because she has so completely lost the Jewish flavor of her early worship life, the Moshiach's Kehillah today does not recognize herself as a Messianic synagogue; therefore, she does not see the obvious priority and relevance that the Besuras haGeulah should have to the Jews. For if the Moshiach's Kehillah really understood herself to be a Messianic synagogue, then, of all peoples, she would be directing her Besuras haGeulah to the Jew first. THE UNITY OF MESSIANIC JUDAISM When Sha'ul was expelled from a synagogue in the diaspora he invariably planted another synagogue in the same town, a Messianic synagogue which acknowledged Yehoshua as the Moshiach Adoneinu. These synagogues did not make cultural conversion to Judaism a qualification for salvation, but these gentile-dominated Messianic synagogues, even though they did not live the life-style the Torah made possible, kept their theological unity with the law-zealous Jewish Messianic synagogue community in Jerusalem. They maintained a relationship of brotherhood with the kadoshim at Jerusalem in order to witness to their unity in the one Ani Ma'amin of Israel. The Brit Chadasha depicts Messianic Judaism as sustaining its unity despite its cultural diversity through the fact that the shluchim were cooperating cultural specialists (Gal. 2:9). That is, Sha'ul and Barnabas and Ya'akov and Kefa remained in contact and affirmed their theological accord despite the varied cultural expression that theological truth found among their constituencies.(9) The Brit Chadasha Pesach meal of the Moshiach's Seudah comprised the center of the common worship life of both the gentile-accommodating Messianic synagogues of Sha'ul and the Jewish-accommodating Messianic synagogues of Ya'akov and Kefa. The "collection" is one piece of evidence we have for the contact that the Jewish believers in Jerusalem maintained with the Gentile believers of Sha'ul's outreach in the diaspora. Furthermore, in Gal. 2:2 we see Sha'ul submitting his Besuras haGeulah to the shluchim to the Jews "that he might not run in vain," and we see Sha'ul keeping amicable relations with Ya'akov, even to the point of acquiescing to his request (Acts 21:23f) that Sha'ul should go to the Beis Hamikdash and make take part in a service to maintain his (and their) credibility with the local Jewish community. They were not only orthodox Jews, that wanted to be perceived as such, no matter how many Gentiles were coming to faith throughout the world. The basic unity among the shluchim has been undermined by those who attempt to see a theological disagreement about the law between Sha'ul on the one hand, and Ya'akov and Kefa on the other. This basic difference begins in the minds of many scholars with Stephen (Stephanos) whom Schmithals, Haenchen, Brandon and others attempt to make into an Shabbos desecrating, pork-eating, Torah-liberated antinomian. (10) Schmithals asserts that it is "incredible in view of the variety of Messianic expectations in orthodox Judaism, that the Messianic hope of the believers in Yehoshua -- which was moreover politically harmless -- could have been the cause of bloody persecution."(11) Therefore, for Schmithals, if Stephen wasn't stoned to death because he advocated a Messianic faith free from the law then the violent reaction he stimulated is wholly inexplicable. Haenchen also believes this and says as much in his commentary on Acts. (12) However, the difficulty is that nowhere in Acts does Stephen attack the law. Furthermore, the question of the validity of an expression of Judaism which did not impose the ceremonial law on Gentiles would appear to be a later issue that could be theologically developed only in the diaspora and in a field of intense outreach to Gentiles. To overcome this difficulty some scholars have postulated quite gratuitously a Hellenistic Messianic outreach preceding Stephen and developing outside Jerusalem which influenced Stephen and gave him his anti-Torah antinomian philosophy. However, there is plenty in Stephen's speech to make the Sanhedrin murderously angry without postulating any such extraneous irritation. What was so enraging about Stephen was not his undermining of the Torah. Nowhere does the Brit Chadasha record any Jew advocating that his fellow countrymen repudiate the Holy Torah. This would have meant ethnic and ethical suicide for the Jewish people and cultural treachery of the highest order. Furthermore, it is unpatriotic to speak lashon hora against one's national religion and the Book of the Covenant that bound the Holy People to their Holy G-d. Stephen was undermining not the Holy Torah but the entire contemporary religious attitude of his people, for Stephen asserted that since Yehoshua is the Moshiach of Judaism and many of these Jews with their religion rejected the Moshiach of Judaism, then their religion was not true Judaism and in fact they were resisting the Ruach Hakodesh and were heathen at Heart (Acts 7:51-53). Such a stabbingly blunt confrontation with the religious leaders on his nation could do nothing else but force the Jewish people in the Sanhedrin to either accept what he was saying as true or to violently reject it as blasphemy and heresy for which he deserved death. Kefa had preached something of the same thing when he warned in Acts 3:23 that all Jews who rejected the Prophet that Moses talked about would be cut off from Israel. However, "Hebrew" Jewish believers appear to have been considerably less abrasive than the "Hellenist" Jewish believers in their presentation of the Besuras haGeulah and the fact that the former were Aramaic-speaking Jewish natives rather than Greek speaking Jewish immigrants may have worked somewhat to their favor as well. With Stephen, then, the jarring fact begins to be asserted in Jerusalem that where there is no true teaching of Moshiach's shluchim there is no true Judaism. Or, to put it another way, a Judaism which is unreceptive to the Ruach Hakodesh and the Moshiach is not Judaism at all, for where there is no commitment to the Moshiach, there is no commitment to true Judaism, for the Moshiach is the covenant of Judaism (Isa. 42:6). Stephen is not being "anti-Judaic,"(13) but is voicing the warning of He. 2:28,29 and Ro. 9:6 in Acts 7:51 when Stephen calls the Sanhedrin "heathen still at heart" (NEB), because they are resisting the Ruach Hakodesh by rejecting the Moshiach Yehoshua (Acts 7:52) in favor of the Beis Hamikdash and the Torah, which they in their blindness have subverted (Acts 7:49, 52). See Rev. 3:9. Therefore, if it can be shown that Stephen was not a Shabbos desecrating, pork-eating, Torah-rejecting antinomian, and if it can be shown that the religion of Ya'akov, which involved Torah-zealous Jews (Acts 21:20), was as validly "Messianic" as the religion of Sha'ul, then it can be shown that early Messianic Faith was not an antinomian reaction to Judaism. Unfortunately Ya'akov, the half-brother of Moshiach, has been given very unsympathetic treatments by several modern scholars. He is seen to be the one who "ousted Kefa from his original primacy," the one who plotted to lead Sha'ul into a trap in Acts 21 to get him out of the way, and the one who was manipulating the judaizers from Jerusalem but who was so clever and so powerful that Sha'ul was supposedly afraid to take him to task by name. (14) However, it is interesting that every commentator who wants to present Ya'akov unsympathetically has to undermine the credibility of Luke. Luke makes it clear (Acts 15:24) that Ya'akov would repudiate any interpretation of the men "from Ya'akov" (Gal.2:12) which would imply that he himself sent the judaizers. Moreover, Gal. 2:1-4 shows that at a very early period the Moshiach's shluchim in Jerusalem did not argue with Sha'ul's Besuras haGeulah to the Gentiles, even though that Besuras haGeulah disregarded the law as a means to salvation. They understood that the Gentiles waited for the Moshiach's torah or teaching (Isa. 42:4), the Good News, which would supersede Moses' law (Deu. 18:19). However, "false brethren" among them disagreed and some of these men may have publicly urged against Sha'ul because they feared persecution against the Jewish outreach in Jerusalem at the hands of their own people (Gal. 5:11). Since a "Jew" at that time was by definition loyal to the Torah, it may well be that Sha'ul does not criticize Ya'akov in any of the epistles of Sha'ul, because Sha'ul realized that Ya'akov would and could not publicly condemn anyone who was loyal and zealous with regard to the Holy Torah, and to have fellowship with uncircumcised Gentiles would seem to be a compromise. It is a testimony to the wisdom and the courage of Ya'akov that he, the head of the law-zealous Messianic Jewish community in Jerusalem, despite all the pressure that must have been on him to the contrary, advocated that there be no "irksome restrictions" placed on Gentiles (Acts 15:19), which meant that Gentiles would not have to submit to circumcision nor depend on keeping the Law as the condition for their covenant loyalty leading to their salvation (Gal. 5:3). If Luke's report (Acts 15:19-24) is correct, then, Sha'ul must have been impressed that Ya'akov and he were preaching the very same Besuras haGeulah. If we may assume that the epistle of Ya'akov was written by Ya'akov, then we see that he had anything but a heterodox doctrine of the person of Moshiach. The Moshiach Yehoshua of Ya'akov is both Adoneinu and reigns in glory to come again (Jas. 5:8) as Judge (Jas. 5:9). There can be no doubt that Ya'akov preaches the same Besuras haGeulah as Sha'ul, for in Jas. 1:21 he speaks of the implanted word that is able to save your soul, a reference to the implanted law of the Brit Chadasha (Jer. 31:33). Ya'akov' allusion to the law of Lev. 19:18 as the "kingly law" (Jas. 2:8) must include a reference to the King of Israel, which for Ya'akov is Yehoshua (Jas. 1:1). A law-loyal Jew of the synagogue, whose teaching is grounded in the authority of Yehoshua, Adoneinu and Moshiach, Ya'akov saw that the event of Moshiach's coming had made all the more pernicious exclusivistic snobbery (Jas. 2:1-9) and that the wall between Jews and non-Jews had been broken down. Therefore, Ya'akov did not impose circumcision on the Gentile Titus (Gal. 2:3), but instead resolved to impose "no irksome restrictions" on non-Jews (Acts 15:19). Ya'akov must have prayed for and received much wisdom (Jas. 1:5) to be a faultless and devout conformist to Judaism, daily frequenting the Beis Hamikdash courts for the observances of Judaism, and yet at the same time to understand that these were Messianic privileges, not burdens to be thrust upon Gentile proselytes as the precondition for their salvation. Not only was Ya'akov an extremely wise man, he was above reproach, both according to his personal religion and even ceremonial criteria. Yet the Besuras haGeulah Ya'akov preaches in his epistle does not make its appeal on ceremonial criteria, but on the ethical demand of his Torah. Here Ya'akov follows Moshiach Yehoshua, whose appeal was always ethical and for whom the perfect law of liberty, the kingly law of love both for G-d and for one's fellow man, was the goal of Judaism. Therefore, in Ya'akov we see modeled the power of Yehoshua to make a man an even better orthodox Jew, from anyone's estimate, one whose love for G-d is manifest by his devotion to both the Torah and the Spirit of the law, which is the Good News of G-d's Chesed in the Moshiach. Moreover, like Sha'ul, Ya'akov knows that saving emunah is not empty lip service but is active in ahavah (agape). (15) Both men gain a hearing from unbelievers by displaying the fruit of the Ruach Hakodesh, (16) though Ya'akov and Sha'ul used different cultural strategies, Sha'ul putting himself outside the law though not outside the law of the Moshiach to win non-Jews, Ya'akov putting himself as if he were under the law to win law-abiding Jews (I Cor. 9:19-23), though in fact he is under the kingly law of ahavah (agape) (Jas. 2:8). Sha'ul would not dispute Ya'akov that we are justified by works and not by emunah alone (17) unless it can be shown that Ya'akov means by "works" not "emunah active in ahavah (agape)" (Gal. 5:6), but the works of the law. For the latter to be true, Acts 15:19 would have to be judged a Lucan fiction since here Ya'akov is represented as acceding to Gentile liberation from the Covenant observances of the Holy Torah of His Holy People. However, it is crucially important that this liberation from the law not be termed antinomianism, for neither Sha'ul nor Ya'akov is an antinomian. Unfortunately, Sha'ul's views concerning the law were susceptible to misunderstanding and abuse. (18) And just as Sha'ul's view of the law has been misunderstood, so has Ya'akov's. Neither Sha'ul nor Ya'akov offers the law in itself as a means to salvation (Jas. 2:10; Gal. 3:10). Both men speak of the "torah of freedom" (Jas. 1:25; 2:12; 1 Cor. 9:21) in a way that implies Moshiach (Jas. 2:1; Ro. 8:2), and Ya'akov, no less than Sha'ul, emphasizes the need for emunah (Jas. 1:3, 6; 5:15), for ahavah (agape) toward G-d (Jas. 1:1), and being reborn from above (Jas. 1:21). The epistle of Ya'akov constitutes a re-evaluation of Judaism, but not in terms of its ceremonial dimension, for both Ya'akov, Yehoshua, and Sha'ul kept the ceremonial law and proved thereby that the Messianic life is not antithetical with a life lived in loyalty to the Torah. This question is settled for once and for all in Acts chapter 21 (Act 21:24; cf. 21:26). However, since the Judaism of Ya'akov is controlled by the authority of Moshiach and by the Ruach Hakodesh, he brings to his Judaism a new depth and power of ethics and ahavah (agape) which reveal a fulfillment of all that Judaism intended to bring. The great ethical heart of Ya'akov reminds one of an Amos or a Micah and especially of Yehoshua. But the epistle of Ya'akov reveals more than courageous preaching against evil in high places. We see also in Ya'akov the possibility for a new Am Berit brotherhood within Judaism, one that is held together not merely by a common allegiance to various cultural traditions and legal demands, but one that is held together by the ahavah (agape) of the Moshiach. Ya'akov practiced the law as he worked to create this brotherhood among his people, even as he cooperated with Sha'ul's outreach to create brotherhood between Jews and non-Jews. The deep Jewish chassidus of Ya'akov earned him respect from every sector of the Jewish community of first century Israel. Apparently only the wealthy Sadducean Beis Hamikdash party, whose calloused neglect of the poor brought them under the severe censure of Ya'akov, were against him. Nevertheless, Ya'akov became known as "Ya'akov the Just," and was given a status of pre-eminent respect not only among Jewish believers in Yehoshua but also among other Jews, so that the new movement with Judaism was left in peace to build itself up by increasing in numbers. Therefore, while Sha'ul provoked the Jews to jealousy by winning some Jews and many G-d-fearing non-Jews away from the unbelieving synagogues, the Messianic synagogue community of Ya'akov provoked Jews to jealousy by winning large numbers of kohanim (Acts 6:7) and Perushim (Acts 21:20) into the synagogues that were permeated by the authoritative teaching of Yehoshua even though they were fully operative in loyalty to the Torah. Moshiach Yehoshua was the center of the worship life of this community because the mikveh tevilah and the Moshiach's "Seder" were the primary Jewish rituals that incorporated unbelievers coming to teshuvah into Ya'akov's Messianic synagogue kahal. Yet at the same time, those who entered the Messianic community via the mikveh and the "Seder" also remained credible members of the Jewish community by their loyal attendance at Beis Hamikdash and synagogue. Therefore, there was no cultural "irksome restriction" that would stop a Jewish people movement and would keep kohanim and Perushim from joining the Moshiach's Kehillah, since the Jerusalem Moshiach's Kehillah was a Messianic synagogue community. Furthermore, since Ya'akov's equally valid form of Biblical Judaism was loyal to the Torah, we cannot then say that Sha'ul was an antinomian. For in the Brit Chadasha, Sha'ul is seen hurrying back to Jerusalem to have chavurah fellowship with these law-zealous kadoshim, to even demonstrate his loyalty to the law with them (Acts 20:16), since the Jewish festivals were prescribed by the Torah (Lev.23:4-8). Furthermore, Sha'ul could hardly have begun persecuting the Moshiach's Kehillah because of a misapprehension that the Jerusalem Moshiach's Kehillah was antinomian, since there is no evidence that the religion of that community in Jerusalem was non-frum in any way (see Acts 21:20). Rather, Sha'ul's initial persecution finds adequate motivation is his desire to suppress the assertion that a cursed dead man is the Moshiach, the Holy One of Judaism, the goal and continuing center of the religion of his people. That this "Yehoshua" Judaism was gaining a large following sparked the zeal and fervor of Sha'ul's attack, for he knew that such a growing movement of heretics could not be allowed to spread to other cities. Later, when Sha'ul became the Shliach to the non-Jews, his quarrel was not with Torah-loyal Jews. His controversy was with certain soteriologically heretical Jewish preachers who were apparently undermining the Besuras haGeulah and putting a stumbling block in the path of non-Jews by asserting that salvation was not in believing in Moshiach alone, but in getting circumcised and keeping the entire law. Whether these men believed this because they feared persecution by their own people in Jerusalem or because they genuinely believed that man, by keeping the law, can please G-d and thus save himself does not matter. What does matter is that Sha'ul has no quarrel with Kefa and Ya'akov, and that he is not preaching a different Besuras haGeulah. Sha'ul himself was loyal to the law and remained a practicing Jew (19) who did not gentilize Jewish people, but rather even performed rabbinic ministry for them (Acts 16:3). Yet, he refused to be a separatist, both in regard to table fellowship between Jewish and non-Jewish believers in the same congregation (Gal. 2:14), and also in regard to the world-wide Moshiach's Kehillah and its relations with the law-zealous Jerusalem Messianic synagogue community (Ro. 15:31). In Gal. 2:3 we see that a similar desire on the part of Ya'akov also meant that in the Moshiach's Kehillah at Jerusalem there was no exclusivistic separation between non-Jewish and Jewish believers. Undoubtedly Titus, when he stayed in Jerusalem with Sha'ul, was allowed to have communion with the Jewish believers even though he was not circumcised. We see also in Acts 15 that Ya'akov is so concerned that Jews and non-Jews be able to continue to have table fellowship with one another in the Body of Yehoshua that he lays down just a few minimal rules that will make table fellowship between non-Jews and kosher Jews possible. Sha'ul's equal concern is shown in Gal. 2:11-14 where Sha'ul asserts that the unity in the Moshiach must not be compromised by Jews withdrawing from table fellowship with non-Jews. Sha'ul's great reverence for the Torah meant that even though he loved the Torah he did not depend on his own legal rectitude for salvation. He was eager to show by both actions and speech that he was a zealous and orthodox Jew. (20) However, under the tension of the heretical soteriology of the judaizers, Sha'ul had to hammer out a theology for Judaism wherein the yoke of the Torah was not confusingly and unscripturally imposed on Sha'ul's heathen proselytes to Judaism. The Tanach itself did not demand that Gentiles be yoked to the Torah, but should wait for Moshiach's teaching (Isaiah 42:4). Ya'akov agreed with Sha'ul's theology in principle (Acts 15:10-20, 24), since it was understood that when the Moshiach came, the world would receive his law, his torah or teaching. No one -- Jewish person or non-Jewish person -- could find salvation if the yoke of the Moshiach's law were not taken (Deu. 18:19; 1 Cor. 9:20-21; Matt, 11:29). Moreover, because the messianic congregations of Sha'ul were stripped down to quickly accommodate people of non-Jewish culture and because the few Jewish believers in such an environment may have relaxed their Jewish scruples, Sha'ul would be open to attack by Jews as encouraging Torah-desecrating antinomianism (Acts 21:21), despite the fact that there is no hint in any of his epistles written to his non-Jewish outreach congregations that he ever taught Jewish people to repudiate their sacred traditions. Anyone who quotes Gal. 4:8-10, Col. 2:16-17, or Romans 14:5-6 to prove that the Jewish festivals are forbidden to Jewish believers in Yehoshua is reading the Bible entirely out of context. Sha'ul is not addressing these epistles to Jewish believers who are celebrating these days in the name of the Yehoshua; therefore, his words cannot be taken as criticism of believers who are celebrating these days in the name of Yehoshua. Against Brandon, (21) Ya'akov does not question Sha'ul's Jewish orthodoxy in Acts 21:20-22. Rather, Ya'akov warns Sha'ul that thousands of law-zealous yet born-again Jewish believers in Yeshua have been led to question Sha'ul's Jewish loyalty, that he has been teaching Jews in the diaspora to betray their religion. It can well be imagined that there was tremendous pressure on Ya'akov to repudiate Sha'ul, and that he certainly might have thought that not to repudiate Sha'ul would completely destroy his credibility with the local Jewish community. However, there is no hint in Luke or in the epistles that Ya'akov ever repudiated Sha'ul. Rather, according to Luke, Ya'akov was zealous to see Sha'ul reestablish confidence in the "Derekh Hashem" (the "Way") among both the law-zealous Messianic Jewish believers and unbelievers in Jerusalem. Many modern scholars distort Ya'akov' position, Brandon thinks he detects in Ya'akov a suspicion of Sha'ul because for Brandon the logic of Sha'ul's theology made the "peculiar religious status claimed by Judaism of absolutely no effect," (22) However, in Romans 11:25-26 Sha'ul asserts the truth of a "mystery," that the hardening of Israel has always been partial, until the full number of Gentiles would come in, and then the whole of Israel would be saved. So the "peculiar religious status" of the Jew is relevant to Sha'ul's view of the plan of salvation, Furthermore, Ya'akov was concerned that true Judaism, the Judaism of Yehoshua conveyed to the world through the teaching of Moshiach's Shluchim, should be seen in the right kind of light by the Jewish community, that this Judaism should be seen to allow Jews to remain loyal to the Torah even as it allowed Gentiles to become engrafted into Judaism without becoming culturally Jewish. Both men understood that the Great Commission (Matt. 28:19) was to disciple the nations, not transculturate them, For Sha'ul and his Gentile mission to be repudiated because Sha'ul was considered to be a heretical Jew would have been just as destructive to the Judaism of Ya'akov which included the Gentile mission as it would be to Sha'ul. Sha'ul understood just as clearly as Ya'akov that a man must live like a Torah-loyal Jew in order to win Torah-loyal Jews (I Cor. 9:20). Therefore, Sha'ul's life was directed not only by the Torah (he was a Jew and at that time to be a Jew meant to be loyal to Torah and to live a lifestyle whereby one practiced the Torah), but also Sha'ul was led by the Ruach Hakodesh in the interests of the Besuras Hageulah. Had Sha'ul been the antinomian Jew he is often made out to be, (23) he would never have circumcised Timothy. Sha'ul would say that followers of Moshiach are free from the letter of the law (Gal. 3:10-13), but are not free to shirk their responsibility to put themselves "as if" under that law to win those Jews (I Cor. 9:20) who are under the letter of the law. This putting oneself "as if" under the law to win those who are under the law is something that followers of Moshiach have largely refused to do for the past 2,000 years, and this is why Messianic synagogue communities have almost entirely disappeared with Ya'akov. JUDAISM WITH ENOUGH CULTURAL ELASTICITY TO DISCIPLE BOTH ISRAEL AND THE NATIONS As we have seen, Sha'ul's religion is not a Biblical faith "free from law. "(24) It is Judaism accommodating Gentile culture. In fact, Sha'ul's Judaism has plenty of room for the law. Sha'ul is even willing to sacrifice his life if necessary in order to keep in fellowship with law-zealous Messianic Jews to whom he returns at the end of the book of Acts (Acts 21:13; Rom.15:30, 31). For Sha'ul, Ya'akov and the shluchim are a kind of spiritual substitute for an apostate Sanhedrin which does not accept the authority of their teaching that Yehoshua is L-rd and Messiah. Sha'ul never forgets that his Besuras Hageulah is not only his but also that of the Jewish shluchim in Jerusalem. Therefore, in spite of all of his assertions of his independent authority as Moshiach's shliach, he nevertheless freely submits to Ya'akov and to the shluchim at Jerusalem "that his Besuras Hageulah might not be preached in vain" (Gal.2:2). What we see in Acts 15 is the legitimization of two cultural streams within the one body of Yehoshua, for there Ya'akov lays down the Holiness Code of the Tanach as the groundrules making possible table fellowship between Jews and Non-Jews. (25) The picture of Judaism we have here is of two non-exclusivistic, mutually-fellowshipping, yet culturally different streams within the one body of Yehoshua. The guidelines laid down in Acts 15:19-20 can be summarized in what Sha'ul said, "It is good neither to eat flesh, nor to drink wine, nor to do anything that makes your brother stumble" (Rom 14:21). In a Gentile situation, Jews should not offend Gentiles by withdrawing from them (Gal. 2:11-12), and in a Jewish situation, Gentiles should be willing to eat only what will not offend Jews. In this way every man does what is pleasing to his brother and not to himself to promote the unity in the Messiah (Rom 14:13-15). However, because the ceremonial law is culturally foreign to Gentiles, it is often naively assumed to be burdensome to all and antithetical to the freedom of a Biblical Faith which can be valid only if it is ceremonially antinomian. To Gentiles a more or less Torah-loyal form of Biblical Faith (call it Messianic Judaism) is either unimaginable or inferior. However, the Jewish-accommodating Judaism of Ya'akov is just as "Biblical" as the Gentile-accommodating Judaism of Sha'ul. Neither relied upon the law for justification or communion. Simply there were Messianic bodies within Judaism who, because their congregants were Jews, lived a lifestyle loyal to the Torah, whereas also within the one Body of our L-rd there were synagogues that, because their congregants were Gentiles, did not observe the ceremonial law. Since Acts presents the Moshiach's Brit Chadasha Kehillah essentially as a unity with its center in what could only be described as a fully operative Jerusalem Messianic synagogue community (Acts 21:20), then there is every reason that Gentile followers of Moshiach should understand that their religion is Judaism, Judaism which has accommodated itself to Non-Jews and must not be constrained from accommodating itself fully to Jews. The ironic situation of modern times is that, although initially Torah-loyal Jews allowed Non-Jews to enter Judaism without being ceremonially bound to the entire ceremonial law of the Torah, now there are those who would attempt to redefine the faith so that it has no room for Torah-loyal Jews, only ceremonially "antinomian Jews and Gentiles." So zealous is one Gentile scholar to assert the irreconciliation of "Torah Judaism" with "Antinomian Christianity" that he depicts Hellenistic Christianity as antinomian from the beginning, even though this requires postulating a Hellenistic "Christianity" which preceded Stephen and originated outside Jerusalem. (26) In this way Gentile followers of Moshiach forget that it is not they who sustain the root, but it is the root (rooted in both the ethical and the ceremonial law) that sustains them (Rom. 11:18). To Sha'ul, the Jew was the true and original object of G-d's concern, and Gentiles were grafted on to become spiritual Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) and true -- though non-transculturated --proselytes to the Messianic faith of Israel. This is why spiritual Bnei Avraham must never make themselves superior to the natural branches (Rom. 11:18), for G-d has not rejected the Jewish people he foreknew (Rom. 11:2). The plan of salvation that Sha'ul sketches in Romans chps. 9-11 is that Non-Jews temporarily supplant the non-remnant of Israel (Rom.9:24-29) like Jacob did Esau (Rom. 9:10-l3). But the Jewish remnant is not supplanted (Rom. 11:1-5), and when the full number of Non-Jews has come in and the partial hardening of Israel is over, the Jewish remnant will expand so that it can be said in fact that all Israel will be saved (Rom.11:25-32). Therefore, for Sha'ul the success of the Gentile mission is never seen as an end in itself but as a means to provoke the Jews to jealousy that they too might be saved (Rom.11:11). In fact, for Sha'ul as for other Biblical writers(27) the hope of the spiritual revival and salvation of the Jews is fraught with the very eschatological excitement of the Messiah's final coming, and this must be kept in mind lest Acts 13:46 and 28:29 be interpreted to mean that Sha'ul believed G-d was finished with the Jews. Rather, for Sha'ul the true faith of Judaism is proliferated throughout the world as congregations are called out of the old synagogues to form new synagogues thriving on the teaching of Moshiach's shluchim and on the charisma of the Ruach Hakodesh. However, the men who direct the planting of those new synagogues are not insensitive to cultural diversity and therefore recognize the need and in fact the necessity of cultural specialization in their work along ethnogeographic lines. Ya'akov assumed the Jewish outreach work in Jerusalem while Kefa and Yochanan went to the Jews in the diaspora. (28) Likewise, although he was the Shliach to the Non-Jews, Sha'ul always went to the synagogue first. He realized that even though he was the Shliach to the Gentiles, he was still planting synagogues. Yet, because he was a specialist in Gentile missions, the synagogues he planted were specifically designed to accommodate Gentiles. For example, these synagogues would probably not celebrate all the Jewish festivals, and they would certainly not circumcise Gentile babies, avoiding the practices the Jewish-accommodating synagogues of Ya'akov and Kefa would allow. Since Jews and Gentiles don't live similar lifestyles and since the one religion of both Ya'akov and Sha'ul permeated all of life, the synagogues that were planted by Ya'akov, Kefa and Sha'ul had to accommodate these cultural differences. This was so, even though Ya'akov and Sha'ul were concerned that the synagogues remain in fellowship with one another and that neither place any "irksome restrictions" on the other. Within the Body of Yehoshua, then, there is only one Besuras Hageulah, but it has different cultural expressions. Since the office of Moshiach's shliach implied cultural specialization (Gal. 2:7-lO), a mashgiach ruchani under Ya'akov must surely have functioned more like a rabbi than, for example, one under Sha'ul. Therefore, in Acts 21:20 we see the possibility of a "Biblical" ministry by Jews among their own people which allows for all the scripturally compatible observances of the Jewish religion, including the practice of the Bris Milah, as well as the bar mitzvah, (29) and the observance of all the Jewish holidays. The Messianic synagogues planted by Sha'ul were stripped down to put no greater burden on the Non-Jews than that they celebrate their Messianic faith through the Jewish rituals of the mikveh and the Moshiach's "Seder," and that they adopt the Jewish scriptures as the ethical guideline for their life. The First Century men in the office of Moshiach's shliach took culture seriously, recognizing that theology can never ignore culture though culture must always bow to theology. Therefore, the picture of the religion of Ya'akov and Sha'ul given us by the Brit Chadasha is not a Jewish religion "designed to serve the essentiality of Judaism while admitting a qualified possibility of Gentile participation in the new faith."(3O) Rather, the religion of the Brit Chadasha is one in which the law of love allows both a radical accommodation to Jewish culture and a radical accommodation to Non-Jewish culture, where the Torah may be both adhered to by Besuras Hageulah-believing Jews and where the Torah is not ceremonially imposed on Besuras Hageulah-believing Non-Jews. However, because the congregations of Sha'ul were designed to accommodate Gentiles and avoided imposing Jewish distinctives on them, these same congregations were destined to have extremely limited cultural appeal to the Jewish community. For these Non-Jewish synagogues were stripped of the vital culture-sustaining traditions (the bar mitzvah, the shabbat and festival services, etc.) that, generation after generation, a normal Jewish synagogue offers the Jewish community for her cultural sustenance as a people. For Gentiles, the law means one thing: a heretical and futile effort to win salvation. However, for Jewish people the law has a different purpose than is often supposed. Jews are not in the business of spending all their time trying to figure out a nice heretical way to get salvation. Jews are in the business of sustaining themselves culturally as a people, a people that does not become extinct through assimilation, and the law helps them to do that. When the Jewish mother does the things that the law says she should do, she is helping to sustain her ethnic consciousness as a Jew and passing this on to her children. Does anyone think that the Jews could have sustained themselves ethnically as a people all these millennia without the law? Could the Jews have remained Jews if, instead of bar mitzvahing and Sabbathing and koshering all this time, they spent their days intermarrying, eating pork chops and playing hillbilly guitars? Strumming hillbilly guitars (or even singing Lutheran hymns) would not have kept the Jewish people Jewish. Besides the Jewish home, the religious institution for promoting the cultural identity of the Jewish people has for thousands of years been the synagogue. Unlike the modern Gentile house of worship, the synagogue does not force Jewish people to find their cultural identity outside her sacred walls. For this reason, the synagogue, together with the Jewish home, is the great reservoir for the religious and cultural survival of the Jewish people. This was also true of that messianic synagogue community which was the early kehillah of Moshiach, for we read in Acts 21:20 that the first believers in Yehoshua were "zealous for the law." They worshipped in the synagogue as Jews and their faith in Yehoshua did not lead them to reject the law and the Jewish lifestyle that the law insured them: rather, their faith in Yehoshua made them even more zealous to be loyal Jews who raised their children to be Jews. Thus the early Kehillah of Moshiach accommodated great people movements from the Jewish community (Acts 2:41; 5:14; 6:7; 21:20); there was no lack of cultural commitment to frighten unsaved Jews away. Indeed, her zeal for the law encouraged unsaved Jews to have zeal for the L-rd Yehoshua. Anyone attending a synagogue today is likely to see the bar mitzvah candidates sitting up front on the platform with the rabbi. This eloquent picture intends to say to the Jewish congregation that if Jewish people will come to the synagogue every week, the synagogue will keep them Jewish and their children will be culturally incorporated into the Jewish community when they reach the age bf their religious majority. The bar mitzvah ceremony is very old and functionally it has had its equivalent from the very earliest times. When Yehoshua was blessed by the sages upon the occasion of his twelfth birthday, we can assume that the ceremony was the functional equivalent of a bar mitzvah at that time, because it was the custom during the period of the Second Temple for the sages to bless a Jewish child who had reached his first fast day at age twelve or thirteen. (31) This would surely mean that it was very much a part of the life of the first Kehillah of Moshiach in Jerusalem to have the children of the law-zealous messianic Jewish believers in Yehoshua go into the Beis Hamikdash and have this bar mitzvah-equivalent ceremony. Therefore, faith in Yehoshua was not for the Jew in the First Century a road to cultural assimilation because the first Kehillah of Moshiach had room in her life for Jewish culture and even for the bar mitzvah! Of course, when a Gentile reads this, he may have a tendency to think that these First Century Acts 21:20 Jews in Jerusalem who had their children bar mitzvahed even as they taught them that Yehoshua was the Moshiach must have been leading schizophrenic lives where they did some things entirely as Jews and other things entirely as Bible believers, with the former being entirely dispensible. One can readily see why Gentiles would feel this way. Gentiles may not want to see their own children bar mitzvahed because they may not have a "Ruth" consciousness of what it means to be culturally incorporated into the Jewish community. However, Jewish people are not Gentiles, and since G-d has a vested interest in keeping Jewish people Jewish until Moshiach, the King of the Jews, returns, it must have been very important to G-d that there be a messianic synagogue community in Jerusalem for Jewish people to become incorporated into once they discovered that Yehoshua is the Moshiach. The Gentile-accommodating congregations of Sha'ul could not sustain Jewish people culturally because the congregations of Sha'ul were stripped of the very culture-sustaining traditions that are vital to the survival of the Jewish people but a stumbling block to the salvation of the Gentiles. Therefore, how tragic it is that the centuries have not seen men after the tradition of Ya'akov, the Shliach to the Jews, pioneering messianic synagogue communities among the Jewish people. Somehow the Jewish cultural specialization nearly died with Ya'akov and with him nearly died the messianic synagogue movement which has only recently found new life all over the world. One can only lament that both rabbis and ministers have not read Acts 21:20-21 more carefully: "You see how many thousands there are among the Jews of those who have believed: they are all zealous for the law, and they have been told about you that you teach all the Jews who are among the Gentiles to forsake Moses telling them not to circumcise their children nor observe their customs. What then is to be done?" In Acts 28:17, Sha'ul gives his position to a Jewish audience in Rome: "Brethren, though I had done nothing against the people or the minhagim (customs) of Avoteinu (our fathers), yet I was delivered prisoner from Jerusalem into the hands of the Romans." And elsewhere Sha'ul affirms "to the Jew I became like the Jew to win Jews; to those under the law I became like one under the law -- though not being myself under the law -- that I might win those under the law" (I Corinthians 9:20). If only rabbis and ministers had read those verses with discernment, there may have been many, many more Jewish children that would have been bar mitzvahed in the body of Moshiach and might have come to know the Supreme Living Rabbi as their Moshiach. Both the rabbis and the ministers will stand G-d's judgment for this, because the Scripture says "Let not many of you become teachers, my brethren, for you know that we who teach shall be judged with greater strictness" (Ya'akov 3:1). Unscriptural teaching both within the community of Moshiach's people and within the rabbinic community have militated against large-scale people movements from the Jewish community into the body of Moshiach. Even Sha'ul, the head of the Gentile mission, knew how to circumcise the Jewish boy Timothy in order to put Timothy "as if" he were under the law that he might win those who are under the letter of the law. Note that the operation of circumclslon that Sha'ul performed is part of his "Bible-believing" ministry since Sha'ul does it in order that Timothy might win the Jews in that area to the Moshiach of the Bible! (Acts 16:3). Tragically, there will be no large-scale people movement from the Jewish community until there are thousands of messianic synagogues led by messianic teachers who know not only how to preach the Besuras Hageulah and how to administer Moshiach's tevilah, but also how to supervise the circumcision of Jewish babies as well as how to perform the ceremony of cultural incorporation found in the bar and bat mitzvah. A Friday evening service, even a Shabbos Torah service, is critically important not only because many Jewish people take Exodus 20:8-11 seriously and want to keep the sabbath, but also because the Hebrew prayers of the synagogue liturgy provide an appropriate setting for the bar and bat mitzvah services as well as the other vital culture-sustaining traditions of the synagogue. Thus, when the Moshiach's Kehillah finds herself in a Jewish neighborhood she must take cultural specialization as seriously as the shluchim did (Galatians 2:9), and become a fully operative messianic synagogue with Shabbos services. Only in this way will she give opportunity for large-scale Jewish people movements into the Body of Yehoshua as whole Jewish families and webs of relatives and friends join messianic synagogues where they can celebrate their faith in Yehoshua as Jews and sustain their cultural identity from generation to generation even as they are sustained in their spiritual life as believers. There are those who would concede that messianic synagogues are not guilty of "judaizing" when they allow Jewish believers to celebrate their faith in Yehoshua through Jewish customs and traditions and raise their children as Jews. Granted, messianic synagogue planters are not judaizers, since judaizing is requiring someone to keep the ceremonial law in order to be saved. Using the ceremonial law to sustain one's culture is not the same as using the ceremonial law to win salvation, and there are many critics who would have to concede this. Nevertheless, these same people might quote verses like Galatians 3:28 ("There is neither Jew nor Greek ... male nor female") or Galatians 6:15 ("For neither circumcision counts for anything, nor uncircumcision, but a new creation") and use these to try to dismiss the entire case for a messianic synagogue or for Jewish people being committed to their own culture. But to use a text which shows that being spiritually reborn is the only thing that ultimately matters for an individual soul to argue against the cultural specialization of the Shluchim (Galatians 2:9) is hazardous in the extreme. Why did G-d have men set aside to be shluchim to the Jews and other men set aside to be shluchim to the Gentiles if there is no difference between the Jew or Gentile? Obviously, there is a difference just as there is a difference between men and women. Moreover, Acts 21:19-21 warns against anyone teaching Jewish people not to circumcise their children or not to celebrate their customs or not to keep the law of Moses. And nowhere in the epistles of Sha'ul can it be found that Sha'ul taught Jewish people to repudiate their Jewish heritage. On the contrary, the book of Acts presents Sha'ul as a temple-loyal rabbi who performs circumcision and and worships in the temple and keeps the Jewish holidays with his Jewish brethren in the L-rd in Jerusalem. The Sha'ul of the Brit Chadasha is a Gentile-rescuing rabbi, not a Torah-free libertine! It would be a misinterpretation of the book of Hebrews to see its author's intent as a call for cultic reform. There are those who would so interpret Hebrews 8:13: "In speaking of a new covenant he treats the first as obsolete. And what is becoming obsolete and growing old is ready to vanish away." It would be reading into the book more than is there to draw from the author's typological comparisons a call for Jewish believers in Moshiach to divorce themselves from the observances of the Torah's ceremonial law. The author's message is theologically-ethically oriented, aimed at persuading his readers to keep their Brit Chadasha faith and messianic zeal and the author has no discernable interest in purifying or reforming the observances of Judaism or in taking his readers to task for their involvement in taboo Jewish rituals. The question of a strategy of using Torah observances to lead Jewish people to a Brit Chadasha faith, a method plainly recommended in I Corinthians 9:19-20 ("to those under the law I became like one under the law, though not being myself under the law, that I might win those under the law") is not addressed by the author of Hebrews and therefore his words cannot be taken as criticism of such a strategy. The rejection of Jewish culture in Moshiach's Kehillah has confounded and confused many Jewish minds. When the ordinary Jewish person attends a Gentile-style congregation and hears the minister speak of how the Jews killed Messiah, he reads into the situation a rejection not only of himself, his people, and his heritage, but of his culture as well. He hears, in effect, something like this: "We don't like you Jews; and we don't like your Jewish customs or your Jewish ways of doing things." It's as though someone is saying to him, "Not only did you kill Messiah, but your whole religion is wrong in every way, as is your culture and heritage." It is easy to see how this type of confusion would put a Jewish person into a defensive posture. We see this phenomenon of confusion in the Book of Acts where certain Jewish people in Jerusalem were extremely puzzled by the strange Gentile style that the congregations of Sha'ul were beginning to take on. These Jews began to confuse the guilt applied to Israel in the proclamation of the Besuras Hageulah and the Gentile cultural style of the congregations of Sha'ul as a combined threat to their peoplehood. This is why in Acts 21:21 and 28:17 we see Sha'ul on the defensive himself as he denies Jewish accusations that the congregations he is planting are trying to destroy the ethnicity of the Jewish people by outlawing circumcision. The Jews rightly perceived (and Sha'ul did not deny) that their whole culture as a people would be threatened by the teaching and practice of a world-wide Kehillah of Moshiach which would not allow Jewish people to circumcise their children. Sha'ul did not outlaw circumcision. He did not preach it (Gal. 5:11), but he did allow it for Jews (Acts 28:17). On the other hand, Sha'ul did not allow Gentiles to be circumcised as a conversion ritual, any more than Sha'ul himself would remove the mark of his own circumcision as a conversion ritual. Perhaps the Hellenized Jewish atheletes of his time could do this to identify with their Greek competitors in the Olympic games, but the race Sha'ul was runninq was of a different sort. For Sha'ul the human medium could never obscure or compromise the divine message, which for him was that the true Jew is never the result of mere human activity, whether in birth or in physical circumcision; the true Jew is always the result of a spiritual rebirth and heart circumcision done to the descendents of Abraham in which G-d creates an eschatological new man. Otherwise however, Sha'ul's martyrdom was really his life's sacrifice to prove that no Jewish custom (even a temple vow) was per so at issue in the Besuras Hageulah. For Sha'ul, the decision to follow the Moshiach was always a spiritual issue, never a mere matter of externals (Romans 2:28, 29; 14:5, 6; Philippians 3:2). Rav Sha'ul gave the Moshiach's Kehillah a strategy in the Brit Chadasha. First, in his message in Galatians 3:12 Sha'ul made it clear that Moshiach is essentially a curse for everyone, not a curse against anyone (unless rejected). Sha'ul would surely make that message clear today. He would emphasize that Moshiach is a curse for the Jewish people and for Judaism, not a curse against the Jewish people or against Judaism. Judging by Sha'ul's radical willingness to go into the Beis Hamikdash to make a vow and to be present at a sacrifice -- despite the anachronistic implications that such a sacrifice must have had as far as Sha'ul's theology of the death of Moshiach is concerned -- we can see that Sha'ul was willing to make a radical identification with his people if he could by any means save some (I Corinthians 9:22). How would Sha'ul identify with his people if he were trying to reach them in our world today? He would do more than attend Temple services! Would he not shock the Gentile congregations we see so timidly involved with Jewish culture today? From Sha'ul's ministry to Timothy we know he would be willing to help his Jewish associates enculturate in any way necessary for them to identify radically with Jewish people to win them to Moshiach. Of course, what and when and how they would do these things would depend, for one thing, on which Jews they were dealing with, whether they would he Chassidic, Orthodox, or Reformed. In any case, Sha'ul would identify with the person where he was to lead him to the Moshiach (I Con 7:17-20). Sha'ul would not put Jews under the law who were not under the law in order to free then from the law's curse. He would use wisdom. Sha'ul took a very small representative delegation of his Gentile converts with him into Jerusalem and took no Gentile with him into the Beis Hamikdash. We can imagine that in the Twentieth Century he would take few Gentiles with him into a Brooklyn Chassidic ghetto in order to become like the Chassidic Jews to win the Chassidic Jews in Brooklyn. It's a tragic shame that the Moshiach's Kehillah has been guilty of not really following Sha'ul's admonition in Philippians 4:9 (Revised) : "What you have learned and received and heard and seen in me, do; and the G-d of peace will be with you." Sha'ul made it clear in Acts 28:17 he had nothing against the Jewish customs and that the issue in dealing with his Jewish people was a question of faith in the Jewish Moshiach and not faith in cultural taboos. In Romans 14 he shows that understanding culture is an individual matter, a matter of the conscience, and the rule of love would dictate that each man should allow his brother this freedom and not destroy a work of G-d by abusing another man's cultural freedom (Romans 14:20). In fact, Romans 14 goes even further to suggest that a Bible believer should give up his own freedom out of love rather than create a stumbling block for others. So there is a sense in which it is a sin not to become like a Jew to win a Jew -- if by exercise of his Gentile cultural freedom one puts a stumbling block in the path of a man of another culture and thereby keeps him from experiencing the love of G-d. Sha'ul climaxed his ministry as the leader of the Gentile mission of the Moshiach's Kehillah by a love offering for Israel. In effect he was saying then that the Gentile congregations must not detach themselves from Israel, nor could they give a mere lip service type of loyalty pledge. Sha'ul declared a message of critical importance when he carried a love offering to Israel at the risk (and finally at the loss) of his own life. Sha'ul declared by his death that the ultimate fate of Israel and the ultimate fate of all believers in Yehoshua are intertwined. It is a shame that the Moshiach's Kehillah has erred so far in this respect. Many congregations have not seen the need for their world outreach budget to reflect the priority of Jewish ministry, even in the face of the words of Romans 15:27. Therefore, the Moshiach's Kehillah must correct her own guilt. In the same way that the Jewish community shares a collective guilt with all men for the death of Moshiach, so the Moshiach's Kehillah has a collective guilt for confusing and obscuring the clear Besuras Hageulah of the Brit Chadasha in proclaiming it to the Jewish people and to the nation of Israel. Every scriptural Jewish ceremony may be acknowledged and pleasing in G-d's sight if done in the name of the one in whom all scripturally compatible Jewish ceremonies are fulfilled. The Scripture teaches that these are matters on which everyone should reach conviction in his own mind (Ro. 14:5). There is nothing in the Bible to prevent Jewish believers in Yehoshua from remaining kosher (Acts 21:20; Ro. 14:3). The scriptural principles here are "whatever you are doing, whether you speak or act, do everything in the name of the L-rd Yehoshua, giving thanks to G-d the Father through him" (Col. 3:17), and "to the Jew I became like a Jew to win Jews" (I Cor. 9:20). Of course only the Bible is authoritative for the faith and practice of a Messianic synagogue, Genesis through Revelation. However, where the Talmud agrees with the Bible, the Talmud may serve as useful illustrative teaching for Biblical truth, though its assertions must always stand the test of G-d's Word, which is true of any other book. Choosing the wrong cultural specialist as their mentor, ministers to Jewish people have typically tried to mimic the Shliach to the Gentiles (Sha'ul) and have largely ignored his highly successful (Acts 21:20) cultural counterpart, the Shliach to the Jews (Ya'akov). Ya'akov was concerned that no "irksome restriction" (Acts 15:19) be imposed on Gentiles. He would have also been concerned to have no "irksome restriction" placed on him and the Jerusalem Messianic synagogue of which he was the spiritual leader. Can you imagine Ya'akov's reaction if some Gentiles had told his Jewish congregations they could no longer practice circumcision or keep kosher or celebrate their new faith through the traditions of their people (Acts 21:20-21)? Unfortunately, the dismal history of Jewish missions has been the largely futile effort to impose the irksome restrictions of Gentile culture on Jews, instead of planting and leading Brit Chadasha-patterned Messianic synagogues with cultural integrity in Jewish neighborhoods like Ya'akov did in Jerusalem, Jewish ministers typically function as unwitting twentieth century "gentilizers," trying to persuade Jews to transculturate -- a cultural betrayal the Jewish community understandably resists as ethnic suicide. The Moshiach's Kehillah in a Jewish neighborhood must not forget where she is (I Cor. 9:20-21), nor should she confuse spiritual and cultural conversion. When the Moshiach's Kehillah finds herself in a Jewish neighborhood she should be used by G-d to form a fully operative Messianic synagogue. Otherwise, she may betray the example given to her by Ya'akov and Kefa and thus lose sight of the cultural specialization involved in the Shliach's office and in the planting of congregations. In the Twentieth Century we see that the table has turned completely from what it was in the First Century. The Jewishness of our Biblical Faith was once so pronounced that it was possible to have a debate as to whether Gentiles as Gentiles could have membership in the synagogue of Yehoshua. Now the gentileness of the Moshiach's Kehillah is so pervasive that it is a debatable point as to whether the Jews as Jews can become members of the Gentile Congregation of Messiah. The first believers in Yehoshua who were Jewish kept their credentials with the Jewish community and we see as a result that they had great effectiveness in their witness. (32) Even Sha'ul's ministry, though he was specializing in Gentile-mission synagogue growth rather than Jewish-mission synagogue growth, carried the authority in learning of a rabbi and therefore his Besuras Hageulah was keenly heard by Jews everywhere he went because of the fact that he preached like a rabbi. We need ministers in the Moshiach's Kehillah today to have more Jewish training and understanding so that they will not be gentilizers but rather will be able to sustain the Jewish people culturally as well as spiritually from one generation to another. Only then will they be able to make an impact on the Jewish community and to compete with the rabbinic ministry for the winning of the Jewish community to the Moshiach. Indeed, a Gentile spiritual leader who knows nothing about the bar mitzvah ceremony shares some of the incompetence in Jewish ministry of a rabbi who knows nothing about the Brit Chadasha. This ignorance was not always present in the Body of our Moshiach. Because of the cultural specialization of the Shluchim, the Moshiach's Shluchim gave the Moshiach's Kehillah flexibility in her cultural expression, and consequently the Brit Chadasha emunah in the First Century was just as viable an option for an Orthodox Jew of that time as it was for a Roman centurion. Because the Jewish specialization of the Moshiach's Shluchim nearly died with Ya'akov, there has been not much of a real cultural option available to the Orthodox Jew ever since. Since Ya'akov undoubtedly functioned as a rabbi (how could he be the spiritual leader of men who were zealous for the law, if he didn't?), what is needed today is a new army of spiritual leaders like Ya'akov who will come on the scene and give the rabbis of the Jewish community stiff competition so that fully operative, culture-sustaining Messianic synagogues begin to compete with non-messianic synagogues for the religious allegiance of the Jewish community. In Jerusalem the local Moshiach's Kehillah could culturally compete with the local synagogue because the local Moshiach's Kehillah was a Messianic synagogue. This must become true today, and where the Moshiach's Kehillah finds herself in a mixed community where the proportion of Jewish people is not large enough to warrant her becoming a fully operative Messianic synagogue she must at least be so aware of her Jewishness and the Jewish origin and significance of the Moshiach's tevilah and the Moshiach "Seder" and of her indebtedness to Israel that she can make herself once again the most relevant of places for the Jew, so that the Jew will feel at home in the Moshiach's Kehillah and will understand that of all people the Besuras Hageulah is most relevant to him and is to him first. For the minister to Jewish people, Ya'akov will continue to be the Shliach to the Jews par excellence. The only differentia between his Judaism and first century Judaism was the authority of Moshiach Adoneinu in the center of the worship life of Judaism. There was no cultural differentia between his Judaism and first century Judaism. Ya'akov did not endeavor to purify or reform Judaism. He simply allowed a new center of authority to direct his Judaism and that was the acknowledgment of Yehoshua as Moshiach. Ya'akov proved by his life that the law of love can be fulfilled within the pale of ceremonial law just as surely as it can without. Both Sha'ul and Ya'akov had a theological quarrel with the judaizers. But Ya'akov had to show a "more excellent way" within the context of the ceremonial law under which he lived out his Messianic witness to Yehoshua. Even though the term "rabbinic Judaism" is actually a post-Biblical term describing a post-Biblical religion, nevertheless what the Brit Chadasha does in effect is to slam the door shut on rabbinic Judaism and open it wide to a Messianic Judaism which in many cultural manifestations would be similar to rabbinic Judaism, but in terms of its authoritative center would have the Messiah. Because for the Jew the synagogue is a vehicle of his cultural identity and longevity as a people, it is the task ahead to messianize the synagogue and to even messianize rabbinic Judaism to the extent that any scripturally compatible Jewish custom my be immersed into the service of preaching the Besuras Hageulah and leading men to the One in whom every Jewish custom is fulfilled. Since even Sha'ul the Shliach to the Gentiles could practice the requirements of the law, if thereby he was enabled to clear an obstacle out of the path of the Besuras Hageulah (I Cor.9:20), it is all the more important for Jewish ministers to become like the Jews and put themselves "as if" under the law to win orthodox Jews who are under the law. All these men need do is to keep the issue clear. The crucial issue between Messianic Judaism and any other sort of Judaism centers on the hope of the resurrection from the dead. The only question is whether there is such a hope and whether that hope has been realized in the historical resurrection of Yehoshua the Moshiach. Is Yehoshua the king of Israel or not? is he alive today to rule the hearts of men, even as in the age to come, he will rule the world, or not? There is no other issue. Just as in the year A.D. 49 at the Jerusalem council, a Messianic synagogue formally made room for Gentile congregations, so today the Gentile Moshiach's Kehillah must make room for Messianic synagogues. Messianic synagogues such as have been outlined in this chapter will give the world-wide body of Yehoshua an enriching, fresh look at her origins. For the leaders of these Messianic synagogues will not be able to content themselves with blindly imitating Reformed, Orthodox, and Conservative congregations or rabbis down the street, but will have to continually re-examine the Scriptures to steer Messianic Judaism on its own distinctive course within the world-wide body of Messiah's people. A good place to begin is with Pesach, which is the subject of the next chapter. CHAPTER THREE: TOWARD A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY: THE COVENANT MEAL OF JUDAISM IN THE TANACH AND THE COVENANT MEAL OF JUDAISM IN THE BRIT CHADASHA The ritual observance of Pesach has changed somewhat over the centuries. The rites of the "Pesah of Egypt" have sometimes been abandoned in the "Pesach of (later) generations," as the Mishnah admits. (1) But is is not the purpose of this tudy to discuss the various forms which the feast has taken in Biblical and post-Biblical Judaism (which is the subject of the Mishnaic treatise entitled Pesachim). Nor is this study interested in speculating on the origins of Pesach, such as the speculation that its beginnings can be traced to a fertility sacrifice, (2) or to a Semitic nomad's springtime feast, (3) or on such questions as whether the Pesach and the Matzot festival was originally two separate festivals. Rather, the interest of this investigation is to draw together the motifs in the Tanach references to Pesach, especially as these shed light upon the covenantal nature of the religion of Judaism as it was practiced before the time of Moshiach Yehoshua. If we restrict ourselves to the Tanach, we see that we have two kinds of Passover texts; liturgical texts and historical texts.(4) In the category of liturgical texts, we have the ritual of Pesach in the story of the Exodus from Egypt (Exod. 12), the religious calendars in Exod. 23:15; 34:18, 25; Deut. 16:1-8; Lev. 23:5-8, the rituals in Num. 28:16-25 and Ezek.45:21-42, and the story in Num. 9:1-14. In the historical texts, we have descriptions or mentions of particular Passovers: the first Pesach, at the Exodus (Exod.12); the first Pesach in Canaan (Josh. 5:10-12); the Pesach of Josiah (II Kgs. 23:21-23; II Chr. 35:1-18); finally, there is the Pesach described in II Chr. 30. The Hebrew word for the Passover which appears in these passages is Pesach. This verb means to "pass over" or "to leave out" or "jump over" in the sense of "to spare the life." The G-d of Israel spared the lives of those in the blood-sprinkled Israelite houses, while he did not pass over the Egyptians. THE MEANING OF THE BLOOD The immediate question to be answered is, what was it precisely about the blood smeared on the Israelite thresholds that prompted this divine "passing over"? Was there an expiatory cause -- that is, is the theology of blood atonement at the center of the matter? Or was an apotropaic cause involved -- that is, was the blood functioning as a repellant of evil? Gray asserts the latter,(5) completely ruling out any cathartic value in the blood-smearing ritual. Other scholars, though they would disagree with Gray and assert that the death of the paschal lamb at the time of the Exodus was redemptive, at the same time would agree with Gray that this expiatory value was later entirely absent.(6) These scholars would lead us to assume that the Pesach Korban, the paschal victim, either never had, or, at the very least, entirely lost its function as a sacrificial offering for the expiation or removal of sins.(7) Yet no one, not even Gray, denies that the passover victim was a sacrifice, (8) and that the paschal meal was a sacrificial meal. (9) Therefore, the critical question is, what kind of sacrifice was the Pesach? We are greatly helped in our attempt to categorize it by Exod. 34:25 where the Pesach sacrifice is labeled a zevach. This was a communion sacrifice, what Vaux defines as, "the tribute offered to G-d to maintain or to re-establish good relations between him and his worshiper."(10) Although the Pesah sacrifice cannot be strictly categorized as a sin offering because it is eaten by the worshiper, nevertheless, because it is a sacrificial meal, expiation is very much in view. Vos is right in showing the error involved in thinking that expiation was offered only in the sin offerings: "Wherever there is slaying and manipulation of blood there is expiation and both of these were present in the Pesach."(11) In Jewish thought there can be no notion of communion with G-d without an implicit notion of antecedent expiation, for the G-d of the Jews is a holy, sin-hating G-d and therefore the communion he has with sinful men is always an act of reconciliation requiring expiation. In a word, then, the Pesah offering was a sacrifice of redemption.(12) Whether the Pesah offering was ever a firstlings sacrifice is debatable,(13) but that the redemption of the firstborn of Israel is an important Passover theme has attestation by a divine oracle dated on the very day of the Exodus.(14) The motif of the redemption of the firstborn has covenantal significance and serves to point the Mosaic covenant back to the Abrahamic covenant, as we shall see. But one does not even have to read very far in a Pesach Haggadah to see the rich covenantal significance that this Jewish festival has invested in it. A glance at the Hallel Psalms,(15) or at the haftorah portion read during Passover week (see Josh. 3:5-7) reveals the preeminence of the covenant in the liturgy of Passover. The covenantal relationship between the G-d of Israel and the Jewish people is assumed at every turn during Passover. For example, the sacramental scrupulosity regarding cleanliness in the preparation of the Passover meal presupposes a special relationship between Israel and her holy G-d. Pesah was in fact a solemn sacrament.(16) Everyone who participated in the meal was required to observe strict rules of ritual cleanness. It was a long established practice that those who had ceremonially defiled themselves should take a sacramental bath.(17) In the same category would be such symbolically potent acts as gathering up and throwing out the old leaven-- the annual cleaning out of old impurities at harvest time is a sacrament of repentance -- and it has been persuasively argued that the reason the Pesach victim was eaten in one place and its remains burned was to avoid ritual pollution.(18) This strong ethical-sacramental strain is built into the Pesach meal because throughout the Tanach the covenant idea is "one which demands from the people a strenuous morality."(19) That excommunication is threatened in connection with Pesach (Exod. 12:19) underscores the covenantal character of the meal quite clearly. It has been said that there is no univocal concept of "covenant" in Scripture.(20) Both human and divine covenants, it is true, take various forms in the Bible. However, through all the Bible's divinely imposed covenants, one covenant promise in particular is unfolding: "By myself I have sworn, says the L-rd; because you have done this and have not withheld your son, your only son, I will indeed bless you and I will multiply your descendants as the stars of heaven, as the sand which is on the seashore, and your descendants shall possess the gate of their enemies, and by your descendants shall all the nations of the earth bless themselves, because you have obeyed my voice." (Gen. 22:16-18) It is possible to view all the covenants of Scripture as means of supplementing, implementing, or fulfilling this basic Abrahamic covenant. Throughout the Bible, blood, the precious receptacle of life and also a symbol of death, is used by G-d to make an awesome and sacred seal upon his covenants with men. The importance of blood in covenant-making is underlined in the experience of Abraham by both circumcision and animal sacrifice.(21) Without the memory of Abraham, the "remembrance" of the Exodus in the Passover festival would be quite incomprehensible. As Trumbull has aptly stated, the Passover feast was "the feast observed by the Jews in commemoration of that blood-covenanting occasion in Egypt when G-d evidenced anew his fidelity to his promise to the seed of Abraham, his blood-covenanted friend."(22) The covenantal character of the Passover is evidenced by Exod. 12:48 where the Abrahamic covenant sign of circumcision is the requirement for participation in the ritual meal. This requirement shows that the Mosaic Covenant, in view in the Passover festival, is grounded in the Abrahamic Covenant. In the latter, G-d required both Abraham's blood in his circumcision as well as substitute blood in animal sacrifice for the redemption of Abraham's firstborn, Isaac. Thus the Passover festival uses both circumcision and the theme of redemption to keep not only the Mosaic Covenant but also the Abrahamic Covenant in remembrance at Pesach. Further covenantal emphasis is given to Pesach by the fact that at a very early period it was customary and in fact obligatory "for every individual male adult to offer a sacrifice on visiting the Beis Hashem as at every hag."(23) Furthermore, the primitive Pesach was a New Year festival and involved an assembling of all males of the age of twenty and over who had undergone the initiation rite of circumcision. (24) This note of emphasis on the Abrahamic Covenant underscores again the covenantal significance of the Passover. To determine the precise covenantal meaning of the Exodus Pesach sacrifice, it is necessary to decide the exact meaning of the blood on the threshold. Gray sees the blood used to keep some power out of the house.(25) Trumbull says that the blood is used to welcome some power into the house.(26) The latter's evidence is more convincing.(27) He states, "Hashem did not merely spare his people when he visited judgment on the Egyptians. He covenanted anew with them by passing over or crossing over the blood-stained threshold into their homes."(28) Trumbull argues that G-d did not invent a new ritual or ceremony at every stage of revelation but he took a ritual with which the people were already familiar and he used it to make his message heard. The ancient threshold covenant with which the Semites were familiar was made when the head of the household offered a blood sacrifice at his door in order to signal the welcoming love that he had for a visitor. In fact, the welcoming love was measured by the preciousness of the sacrifice. (29) It makes perfect sense that, since it was a covenant-making G-d who passed over the Israelites and since the Pesach blood met the terms of his covenant, then the blood on the thresholds constituted a welcome to such a G-d. This welcome would be a deterrent to the judgment of this G-d but not to his saving presence. The rich Semitic symbolism of Trumbull's threshold covenant fits well with the New Year's festival motif of Passover, when the Jewish people stood at the threshold of a new harvest and a new year. Trumbull says that G-d did not pass over the houses of the Israelites but only the blood of the victim on the threshold as he entered the houses.(30) The fact of the story is that he crosses everyone's threshold in Egypt. For those who have the blood sacrifice, he crosses their threshold to save. For those who do not have the blood sacrifice, he crosses their threshold to judge. And the blood sacrifice itself distinguishes the L-rd's people from his enemies; that is, it is the mark to distinguish those who are in a covenant relationship with him and those who are not. The blood mark on the threshold functions for the household as the blood mark of circumcision functions for the individual: both mark people as the covenant property of G-d. THE MARRIAGE MOTIF Without Trumbull's researched conclusions on the threshold covenant it is very difficult to explain the origins of the idea that Hashem married Israel and carried her out of Egypt over the threshold of the Exodus (see Jer. 31:32), or to explain the ancient customs of the mezuzah with its covenantal scripture nailed to the threshold, (31) or the primitive threshold blood welcome to the bridegroom. (32) In describing the Exodus, Trumbull states: "Obviously the figure here employed is of a sovereign accompanied by his executioner, a familiar figure in the ancient East. When he comes to a house marked by tokens of the covenanting welcome, the sovereign will covenant-cross that threshold, and enter the house as a guest, or as a member of the family; but where no such preparation has been made for him, his executioner will enter on his mission of judgment. (33) The figure of G-d being made welcome as a bridegroom and family member at the national threshold is very significant. Because the bridegroom rescues his bride, the figure is very close to the go'el, the next-of-kin redeemer who comes to ransom his relatives that they might be freed. When G-d is pictured as a go'el-like bridegroom, we see how the theology of atonement and the theology of covenant come together in a vivid scriptural image. In Israel the solem declaration of a covenant was formally confirmed by a meal (34) and there are numerous examples of this in the Tanach. (35) In fact, the word berit (bris) has been found possibly related to the root BET RESH YUD HAY (II Sam.13:5) which indicates food and eating. Kohler believes that the original idea of covenant came from a covenant meal and that the characteristic phrase "cut the covenant" came from cutting up food for the meal.(36) In Exod.24:3, after the people make their solemn covenantal pledge to obey the L-rd's law, we are told that Moses took the blood and sprinkled it on the people, saying to them, "Here is the blood of the covenant which G-d has made (literally 'cut') with you, on these terms." Then in verse 9 we are told that Moses, Aaron and the Elders went up and beheld the G-d of Israel, and "they looked at G-d and ate and drank" (Exod. 24:11). Here we see that the covenant does not go into effect until it is cut. This, of course, necessitates the death of the sacrificial victim. The victim itself, then, becomes a communal meal called a zevach shlamim, which is a "sacrifice which produces a union between G-d and the people."(37) So in Exod. 24 the same kind of sacrifice as we see identified with the korban pesach victim in Exod. 34:25 is eaten in a sacrificial meal climaxed by a theophany. With the sprinkling of the blood, the covenant was made operative so that communion was possible. The communal meal that followed was of great importance because from this point forward Israel would share a unique relationship with her G-d, and both covenant and communion could be annually reaffirmed and re-experienced in the covenant meal of the Pesach. Therefore, the bitter herbs, the wine, the matzot and the korban pesah victim were all covenant pledges. As such they were offered by the sovereign to his subjects to reaffirm the covenant relationship. Jer. 31:32 throws a great deal of light on the nature of this covenant renewal. In this passage G-d refers to himself as the husband of Israel who brought her out of Egypt and gave her a covenant. Also, elsewhere in Scripture we see Israel referred to as either a virgin or an adulteress/ prostitute, depending on the covenant loyalty she keeps to her sovereign. The Passover, then, if not in the particular system of religious worship, at least in the motifs drawn from Tanach references, is a kind of yearly wedding anniversary dinner in which the G-d of Israel and his covenant bride commune together as they remember the glorious day on which they were married. On this day, the people of Israel feasted on the very one whose blood sacrifice sealed their national and individual relationship with the G-d of Israel. This marital imagery stands out all the more clearly in light of Trumbull's research on the threshold covenant. (38) Trumbull states: (The remembered Egyptian Passover) sacrifice was on the threshold of the homes of the Hebrews on the threshold of a new year, and on the threshold of a new nationality. Then Israel began anew in all things. Moreover, it was recognized as the rite of marriage between Hashem and Israel; as the very threshold covenant had its origin in the rite of primitive marriage.(39) Trumbull (40) has shown that the stamp of a red hand of a bridegroom was the certification of covenant union on the doorway of the family. However, in the Egyptian Passover, it was the virgin of Israel the bride who certified the marriage covenant by the bloody hand stamp on the doorway and the stamp was made with the very feminine symbol of hyssop which symbolized the holy purity of the stamping. Mowinckel has shown the importance of covenantal renewal in the Feast of Succot.(41) Yet it is important to note that all of the three annual feasts had covenant renewal as their primary theme and of these the concept of covenant shines out most clearly in the Passover. THE PEACE MOTIF From the very outset of Scripture, communion with G-d is seen as the purpose of man, and all covenant-making is the means to that end. But of all the sacrifices in the Tanach the one sacrifice most clearly covenantal in significance and communal in design is the korban Pesach victim. The Pesach sacrifice was specifically designed to create communion. Notice that it could be sacrificed by the head of the household, but the whole victim had to be shared by the same household. Furthermore, the members of each household could not leave the house all night, but had to stay together to eat the lamb in its entirety at night. Thus one can see that everything was ordered to require the people to have a common meal from which to share common benefit. Moreover, the victim was designed to turn their minds backward to a great covenant-making, communion-creating, national sacrifice. Segal is right in saying that the Pesach was "a communion ceremony in a class by itself in Israelite ritual."(42) The korban Pesach victim was a peace offering, but a peculiar kind of peace offering, one that could not be enjoyed individually, but only corporately, one victim per household. It was a corporate peace offering. As we have said, there was an element of the expiatory sacrifice in the Pesach offering, because wherever there is manipulation of blood there is the thought of expiation. But paramount in this Pesach offering was the idea that G-d was mediating through this sacrifice not only reconciliation and peace but covenant union with his people so that they might experience the presence of G-d even as Moses and the Elders did in Exod. 24. Therefore, the strong commemorative aspect of Passover was for the purpose of re-experiencing covenant renewal and personal communion with G-d. Proof of this is that the rabbis stressed the importance of the first person singular in the text of Exod. 13:8, "what G-d has done for me when I came out of Egypt."(43) Because the people of G-d had been manumitted into freedom, they were to personally re-experience the shalom and the simcha of the freedom which G-d had personally given to their nation through his saving presence and mighty action at the Exodus. Therefore, the Pesach meal is an annual celebration of a peace treaty signed in blood on the thresholds of the homes of Hebrew slaves. Each person sitting at the Seder peace table is to remember both the former unrest of slavery and that great national experience of God's covenant peace experienced at the Exodus. In order that the experience may be reappropriated by each succeeding generation, the Mishnah says "in every generation a man must so regard himself as if he came forth himself out of Egypt, for it is written, `and thou shall tell thy son in that day saying it is because of that which the L-rd did for me when I came forth out of Egypt'"(Exod.13:8).(44) THE ESCHATOLOGICAL MOTIF This covenant renewal ceremony is a ritual-recalling of the total experience of the covenant that G-d made. As the elements are explained the story unfolds in a wonderful visible parable where each edible detail adds a sensual note of re-experience. The pledges of the "cut" covenant provide the communion meal, the consumption of which seals the covenantal relationship and confirms the covenant promises. As the meal directs the attention of its participants backward to the action of G-d, it also remembers the promises that G-d made in the past, and these promises point the eyes of the participants toward the future. Therefore, the eschatological emphases that the Passover had at the time of Yehoshua the Moshiach were very much in keeping with the message that the Passover had always proclaimed: namely, that the same faithful covenant-keeping G-d who rescued his people from Egypt will continue to rescue them, and ultimately send the Moshiach to bring them their final deliverance. Even the post-Biblical ritual of the seat for Eliyahu (Elijah) and his cup have definite Messianic symbolism which, in theology at least is a very old and long-standing feature of the covenant-deliverance motif of the Pesach celebration. As we have seen, the prerequisite for communion with the G-d of Israel is always covenant relationship, and this would include an expiatory sacrifice since a holy G-d can not commune with sinners without expiation. Therefore expiation, covenant, and communion are all values which are present in the Pesach victim's offering. But that the Pesach victim was also a meal shows that it was a peace offering as well, and this again underlies its importance in creating communion. The motif of the firstborn, both in terms of the Egyptians and the Israelites can be seen in chapter 12 and 13 in the Exodus account. G-d struck the firstborn of Egypt and saved the houses marked with the blood of the Passover victim, sparing the first born of Israel as well as the whole nation. A sacrifice which sealed the covenant and which spared Israel her firstborn looks back to the Abrahamic covenant and to the sacrifice that Abraham made in place of his son whom G-d spared. For, as a result of the Exodus, part of the covenant promise made to Abraham came true at Sinai: there G-d formally constituted Abraham a great nation and, through this nation, prepared to bless all the nations of the world. Therefore, both the Abrahamic and the Mosaic sacrifices look forward to the nation's Seh haElohim (Lamb of G-d) that would be slain to free men from sin and death in order to lead all the nations on a New Exodus toward a New Promised Land as spiritual Bnei Avraham and members of the common-wealth of Israel. CHAPTER FOUR: TOWARD A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY; THE BRIT CHADASHA COVENANT MEAL OF JUDAISM Many scholars agree that the Last Supper occurred in an atmosphere permeated with the Pesach, possibly even as an actual Passover seder. (l) However, as far as strict historical detail is concerned, there are those who find the narrative in the Besuras Hageulah According to Yochanan more persuasive than the synoptic account. But even Yochanan makes it clear that for him the Last Supper is at least a proleptic Pesach, for he emphasizes that Moshiach Yehoshua was executed at the exact time the Pesach lambs were being slaughtered in the Beis Hamikdash (see Yochanan 19:36-37). Moreover, it seems clear from our Moshiach's words of institution that Moshiach Yehoshua wanted the Last Supper to be thought of as a Passover, for he identifies the elements in the same way the pater familias identifies the various foods in the Passover Haggadah. THE NATURE OF THE MEAL Even if the meal that Moshiach Yehoshua had with his talmidim was not, according to strict calendar date, a formal Passover Seder, nevertheless it seems clear that Moshiach Yehoshua considered himself to be the Lamb of G-d. He saw his death in clear paschal terms, and he saw that his meal, this memorial meal of him, would be completely understandable only if linked to the salvation history of the Jewish people beginning at the Exodus, which the Passover proclaimed. Therefore, in the various Brit Chadasha accounts of the Good News, Moshiach Yehoshua uses the Passover Seder not as the strict, formal vehicle for the Last Supper, because he completely ignores any mention of the Passover lamb which would have been on the table. Rather, he uses the Passover Seder as the theological vehicle to explain the significance of his death. When he states "this is my body" and "this is my blood of the Brit Chadasha," in those few words he is able to say libraries of meaning, because those few words he can direct toward the institution of the Pesach and all of its meaning in salvation history. This seems to be very clearly part of G-d's plan. Obviously, when the Moshiach came, he could, as only one man during a short lifetime, say a very few words. How could he on this his last night with his talmidim explain in just a few words the meaning of his death and the significance that it had for the whole of salvation history? He couldn't, without the institution of the Passover and all of its intended theological significance which he could invest with an even richer meaning by stepping into the center of the Passover and saying, "I am the Lamb of G-d. The whole meaning of Passover revolves around me. This enormous institution has been prepared in order that you might understand what I will tell you this night about the meaning of my death." An illustration that comes to mind is of a sixteen decker cake with all kinds of decoration on the icing, and yet the whole structure is somehow ill-defined until the groom and the bride are placed on the top. Then, what the whole thing means becomes clear with just the addition of those two elements. Suddenly, what was not entirely identifiable and meaningful becomes unmistakable. Something similar happened when Moshiach Yehoshua and his talmidim moved into the upper room. Moshiach Yehoshua picked up the matzoh and the wine at a meal which, if not an actual Seder, was at least permeated with anticipation of the Seder. Moshiach Yehoshua explained just two elements, the matzoh and wine, as himself, the Pesach korban seh (lamb, Gen.22:8; Exod.12:5-13; Isaiah 53:7). But with those brief revelations, the whole of salvation history becomes clear and the true meaning of the Pesach bursts forth. It is truly amazing, therefore, that so many modern scholars have totally overlooked the paschal character of the Last Supper. The Last Supper has been seen as a mere prophetic or symbolic act, as an ordinary table fellowship meal, as an Essene-type communal meal, as a mystery-cult meal, as a sabbath kiddish, as a chavurah, even as a mere eschatological meal. Of all of these, the chavurah hypothesis is most appealing because Moshiach Yehoshua apparently expected his talmidim to be taking meals together frequently, and these meals would be the occasions whereby they could remember him. However, the chavurah hypothesis worked out in such elegant detail by Dix seems somewhat too formal for these Galilean Jewish men. At any rate, whatever chavurah atmosphere the evening of the Last Supper may have had must have been overshadowed by the paschal tone which Moshiach Yehoshua set when he identified the elements of the meal. Of the two, the chavurah meal is unquestionably a less imposing theological vehicle than the Seder, which Moshiach Yehoshua could well use to carry more of the freight of his message to his talmidim. Furthermore, the question of the dating of the meal is not all-important. As long as the meal was close enough to Passover to be imbued with paschal overtones, then the theology of Passover is relevant to the Moshiach's Seudah (Supper) wherever Moshiach Yehoshua chose to make it relevant, as we will see when we look at the words of institution. Unfortunately, many scholars, when they decide that the account of Yochanan is more convincing historically, dismiss the paschal meaning of the Last Supper entirely, because they say it could not be an actual Seder since it does not fall on the proper evening. Others dismiss the paschal content of the Last Supper because they say there is no lamb. However, if Moshiach Yehoshua was the Lamb of G-d and if in this case the Lamb of G-d himself was conducting the Seder, then we would have to say that this particular Passover did not lack a lamb. Also, if it were the L-rd's will to die with the lambs at the same hour they were being slaughtered, then it would be necessary for him to conduct his Seder at least one day in advance. Consequently, it would be the L-rd's prerogative for a Seder of this special order to occur one day early, and still be no less a Seder, regardless of its unconventionality. Those rabbis who argue that the Moshiach cannot die like a animal should re-read Isaiah 53:7 which says "like a seh (lamb) he was led to the tevach (place of animal slaughtering)." As we have seen, what is exegetically decisive for identifying the paschal character of the meal is the fact that Moshiach Yehoshua explains the elements just as the narrator of the Passover Haggadah explains the elements of that covenant meal. Against Martin, (3) who says that by his words of institution Moshiach Yehoshua transcends the Passover, he does not transcend it in the sense that he exceeds its true meaning. Rather, he plumbs the depth of it, using the Passover to infinitely reverberate his message. Thus every motif in the Pesach can be enlisted to proclaim the significance of Moshiach Yehoshua's death in all its covenantal, communal, and eschatological depth of meaning. We should not be surprised that Moshiach Yehoshua's mind was dominated by the Pesach during the night of his arrest, for the Brit Chadasha itself is dominated by paschal imagery. As in the Tanach so in the Brit Chadasha, the Passover is mentioned more frequently than other festival.(4) Also when we look at I Corinthians we see that paschal ideas dominate Sha'ul's view of the Moshiach's Seudah.(5) Like the Jewish Passover, Sha'ul's understanding of Moshiach's Seudah emphasizes the new community and does this even to the minimization though not the complete neglect of the expiatory value in the L-rd's death,just as in Judaism the expiatory value of the lamb was often neglected. Thus Sha'ul sees the death of Yehoshua as the sacrifice making operative the Brit Chadasha and bringing into existence a new community which is the people of Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14). Sha'ul thinks of the death of Yehoshua primarily in covenantal terms.(6)Therefore,to the extent that one dismisses the paschal overtones of the Moshiach's Seudah, one also loses its Scriptural significance. By referring to himself as the Lamb of G-d, by explaining the elements of matzoh and the Kiddush cup of wine as his body and his blood, Moshiach Yehoshua was saying that he was going to die the death of G-d's Korban Pesach lamb, and that if one looks at the Passover lamb and the meaning of its death, then one will see the meaning of his death. We know that the Passover lamb had the value of an expiatory sacrifice because all sacrifice involved expiation. However, its primary use was as a communal peace offering which brought men together as a family to commune with the head of their family, the L-rd himself. Thus the Pesach offering gave Israel the knowledge that she had indeed been "passed over," reconciled and renewed in her covenanted relationship with the G-d of Israel in order that she might experience the inexhaustible shalom of G-d (Exod.12:13). The words of institution given to us in Matt. 26:28 assuredly refer to the "many" of Isa. 53:11-12. The Servant's "sickness" was regarded as having "a redemptive significance, since the agony of his soul was likened to the sin offering (asham) of a sacrificial victim (Isa. 53:7,10). If the "Servant of Hashem" bore the sins of his people, and worked out their salvation in the travail of his own soul, vicarious suffering is given an expiatory value."(7) Notice the Moshiach's soul is mentioned twice in Isaiah 53. When Hashem looks at the suffering of Moshiach's soul, he is satisfied, his wrath against sin is propitiated (Isaiah 53:11). Since Hashem makes his soul an asham guilt offering (Isaiah 53:10), "peace" with Hashem is what is received when the people look at Moshiach's suffering nefesh (Isaiah 53:5). In Isa. 53:5 we see that the wounds of the Servant are for transgression and iniquities. Moreover, there is something of a peace offering involved because "the chastisement of our peace was upon him and by his stripes we are healed." The paschal victim was also a peace offering. The purpose of its sacrifice was to offer divinely instituted reconciliation and communion through a meal wherein the sacrificial victim was divided up among the worshipers. Following Jeremias, it is likely that Moshiach Yehoshua had in mind Exod. 24:8 when he spoke of the covenant blood being poured out, though it is possible that Zech.9:11 is also in view.(8) With Moshiach Yehoshua' command to "take and eat," he implies that all men need to be "passed over" or spared the wrath of G-d's punishment (Exod.12:13), and that it is only through his death that men can find reconciliation with a holy sin-hating G-d. When Moshiach Yehoshua says, "This is my blood," he is saying that his blood on the threshold will be a welcome for G-d to come in and commune with his people and to take them as his covenant bride on an Exodus out of the bondage of their former ways. By offering his death through the breaking of the matzoh and the outpouring of the wine, Moshiach Yehoshua is proffering the only covenant pledges through which men can come into true covenantal relationship with the G-d of Israel. when he asks his disciples to remember his death in the Last Supper, he is asking them to remember a great historical event where an Exodus was occurring and was prophetically celebrated, even before it occurred. In the L-rd's Seder, matzoh broken and fruit of the vine outpoured symbolize death. But the death symbolized is one that brings communion and devekut (attachment) between G-d and men. All of G-d's people experience oneness with G-d and each other as they feed on the one matzoh even as all the Israelites in each house fed on the one lamb. The fruit of the vine symbolizes the simcha that the community experiences united in shalom, the shalom that can only come through the expiation of a sin-atoning death. Just as matzoh and fruit of the vine were symbols of the divine shalom that the kohen of G-d Melchizedek mediated to Abraham (Gen. 14:18), so the Moshiach Kohen (Ps.110:4) Yehoshua offers himself through the matzoh and fruit of the vine as G-d's shalom offering to men. His broken body and outpoured blood are the only acceptable shalom terms to bring reconciliation between a just, holy G-d and sinful men, for without the infinite injury which the Elohim HaAv inflicted on the Ben haElohim, G-d in all justice would have had to declare an eternal war in Gehinnom upon all rebellious men. G-d's shalom offering, the blood of the Lamb of G-d, is his only acceptable restitution for the sins of guilty, G-d-alienated men, and the L-rd's Seder is the only real shalom table in this world. The task of Messianic Judaism is to persuade men everywhere to submit to a mikveh of teshuvah so that they may gather around the Prince of Shalom and be assured at his Seder table that they have been "passed over" and given the eternal shalom of G-d. This means that all men must be persuaded to accept the Messiah of Israel, who is the Lamb of G-d, as their Moshiach Adoneinu. At his tish (table), the chavurah of the people of Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) is gathered as the people of the Brit Chadasha (Jer.31:31-34) and brought to zikaron (remembrance) of the great Exodus that occurred when she was taken out of Egypt's judgment through the zevach of the Lamb of G-d and given a special relationship to G-d. Cullmann can explain the simcha of the primitive Messianic chavurah meals only by rooting the remembrance of the L-rd's Supper in meal-related resurrection appearances rather than in the Last Supper, which for Cullmann holds no simcha. However, he overlooks that the communion simcha comes not only in reexperiencing the risen life of the Moshiach through his presence, but also in re-appropriating the benefits of his atoning death, which is the whole significance of the Last Supper. It is both the atoning death and risen life of Moshiach Yehoshua remembered in the Moshiach's Seudah that bring the its simcha, for it is through the blood of Moshiach's Pesach that G-d has made shalom (Col. 1:20), and with the death of the Ben haElohim Moshiach, the "great obstacle to communion with G-d has been removed."(9) However what is most thrilling about the Moshiach's Seudah is the nature of the devekut that is available. The communion of the Moshiach's Seudah is with a G-d who is a covenant-keeping G-d. In the Moshiach's Seudah, it is this G-d who himself comes and himself offers his own death as an asham guilt offering and as the seal of the covenant which he personally extends to all men who will take and eat. Because of Moshiach's death, a covenant has been made bringing into existence a new Am Berit (People of the Covenant). The word for covenant in the Brit Chadasha is diatheke. It means either "covenant" or "will." But when it means "will" it always has the same basic meaning as "covenant," because there can be no benefits until the death of the benefactor, whereupon his will goes into effect as an operative covenant. So where there is no death there is no inheritance for the heir. This means that had Moshiach Yehoshua not died there would have been no Brit Chadasha (Jer.31:31-34).(10) In the Besuras Hageulah of Yochanan (Jn.6), Moshiach Yehoshua proleptically offers himself as a Pesach covenant meal and is rejected. The people do not understand what he means when he asks them to feed on him. When he feeds the hungry as a mofet that the true paschal lamb has come (Yochanan 1:29,36) "who is to die that he may become for them the bread of eternal life," (11) the people don't understand the gift that Moshiach Yehoshua is trying to give them, because they don't understand that he must die a sacrificial death as a paschal lamb in order to bring them to G-d (Yochanan 6:41f). They don't understand that their personal, covenant-making G-d has come himself to unite with and renew spiritually the inner being of men. He comes as the matzoh of life that can provide nourishment enough for Chayyei Olam since he offers men the eternal, Ruach Hakodesh of G-d. Trumbull states that since Moshiach has in his own blood the life of G-d and the life of man, he could make men sharers of his own nature; "and this was the truth of truths which he declared to those he instructed."(12) This is the devekut (attachment to G-d) the Chassidim are seeking. Moshiach Yehoshua comes to men able to give them the Ruach Hakodesh, mind of Moshiach, His simcha, His love, His example, His mitzvoh, and His body, for He promises to give them a body like His in the Olam Habah. With such a one to come and commune with men, with such a King to bring men G-d's covenant, it is no wonder that the Moshiach's Seder is the covenant meal and the focal point of Messianic Judaism. (13) Yochanan and Sha'ul each speak of the importance of relying on Moshiach Yehoshua as one's true Pesach covenant meal and feeding on him as the true lechem from Shomayim. In Yochanan 6:31-49 we see that Moshiach Yehoshua is likened to manna or bread from heaven. In both I Cor. 10 and Yochanan 6 the people make the same mistake: they fail to recognize and rely upon Moshiach Yehoshua as their true bread, since in both cases they rely on something else instead. In Yochanan 6:53-58 Moshiach Yehoshua commands that men must depend on him, nourish themselves in him, rely completely on him, or they will not receive the Chayyei Olam of the Elohim HaAv which he himself is. There is no eternal bread for the spiritually unregenerated and uncircumcised who have not yet become reborn Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14). THE REQUIREMENT OF TESHUVAH Exodus 12:43-49 excludes the uncircumcised from participation in the Pesach Seder. Likewise, the Moshiach's Seder, the Passover meal of the Jewish Brit Chadasha, excludes the spiritually unregenerated and uncircumcised. To sit at the Moshiach's tish (table), one must be a Ben Avraham (Gal.3:7-14), circumcised of the will and the spirit, having undergone through faith the Moshiach circumcision of burial and rebirth and Moshiach's tevilah. (14) Teshuvah is the ordeal demanded of all men before they can approach the Moshiach's Tish. To be admitted to the L-rd's Supper in the first place, one must be in a covenantal relationship to the G-d of Israel. But the sign of the Brit Chadasha is no longer circumcision, the sign of the Abrahamic covenant. Now the token of one's status as in a right relationship with the G-d of Israel is His teshuvah-tevilah, which is a sign of his repentant turning toward G-d and faith in the Moshiach. As I Cor.10 shows, a man who is still living in idolatry may partake of spiritual food and drink, but he is going to die in the wilderness nonetheless because he has not yet repented of his idolatry. Everyone in the world is guilty of the body and blood of Moshiach until he repents (Jn.3:18). If a man's lifestyle shows that he has not at all repented, then he is again guilty of not discerning the imperative of teshuvah in view of the Moshiach's death. He doe snot understand the nature of the covenant meal that G-d is offering to men in the body and blood of this Korban Pesach Moshiach. Therefore Sha'ul urges believers to make a new beginning, to turn in teshuvah with anew hope toward G-d, setting aside their old ways (I Cor.5:7-8). He therefore asks that all believers approach the Moshiach's Tish in an attitude of teshuvah. In the Covenant of Sinai, Moses sprinkled blood on the people, the blood of the covenant, and this blood brought into effect a covenant curse. People identified with the victim whose fate would be theirs if they betrayed the covenant loyalty. (15) Similarly Moshiach's fate, the curse he innocently and freely and in love took for us on the Aitz haKelalat Hashem (Tree of the Curse of G-d, Devarim 21:23) will be ours if we reject him. A curse will overtake us. The proclamation of the Brit Chadasha is that the Ben haElohim has taken the curse of Gehinnom for men. If unrepentant men reject him, they will take the curse of Gehinnom for themselves. I Corinthians 10:16 states that the benefit received from the Moshiach's Tish is communion in the kapparah of Moshiach and communion in the Body of Moshiach. By devekut with G-d in the kapparah of Moshiach we share in the benefits that come from his atoning death.(16) Sharing in the Body of Moshiach means to share with other believers in a corporate life of chavurah in and through his resurrection power. The Kehillah of the Am Berit consists of everyone who has entered into a solemn oath-bound relationship of loyalty to the Moshiach and to one another by their repentant devekut (attachment to G-d) in the reality of the work of the Moshiach for the salvation of the world. This is accomplished through an oath-bound water rite, Moshiach's tevilah, and an oath-bound Pesach meal, Moshiach's Seder. In his tevilah, Moshiach summed up and signified in a symbolic action what He would do to save the world: he would bring in the Brit Chadasha of the Malchut Hashem by his mavet (Isaiah 53:8), kevurah (Isaiah 53:9), and Techiyas haMesim (Isaiah 53:11 Dead Sea Scrolls); and he would lead all who would follow him to a similar experience of death and new life: death to the old life of the Olam Hazeh and rebirth to a new life for the Olam Habah through the gift of the Ruach Hakodesh. Therefore the Moshiach's Tevilah is burial and resurrection in water as a act of teshuvah and oath-bound devekut with the Moshiach. Similarly, participation in the one Matzoh and the one Kiddush cup as an oath-bound meal (signifying Moshiach Yehoshua's death as the ground for G-d's devekut with men) manifests covenant achdut (unity) not only with the Moshiach but also with other followers of Moshiach. The Mishnah says that "so long as a Gentile has not been immersed, he is still a Gentile."(17) Likewise, if a Jewish person, even if he has been physically circumcised, has not yet in faith taken Moshiach's tevilah, he lacks the covenant seal of faith and spiritual circumcision (Col.2:11-12), the seal of the Brit Chadasha, which is the mikveh tevilah of Messianic Judaism. For in the same way that a non-Jew coming up out of the water of his tevilah was considered at that moment to be a Jew, ceremonially, when a person comes up from the mikveh of Yehoshua he becomes a Ben Avraham (Gal.3:7-14; Col.2:11-12), one who is in a Brit Chadasha relationship of emunah to the G-d of Israel. The rabbis said that a proselyte was like one who had touched a corpse. Touching a corpse was like contracting seven days of uncleanness (Num. 19:16). Therefore, a proselyte, like a spiritually unclean Israelite, needed to take an immersion in water as he approached G-d, particularly if he were to share in the Pesach (see Babylonian Talmud, Mishnah Pesachim chapter 8, p 92a "If a proselyte was converted on the eve of Passover,--Beth Shammai maintain: he performs tevilah and eats his Passover-offering in the evening"). Likewise Rabbi Sha'ul warned that those who eat and drink the Passover covenant meal of the L-rd's Supper unworthily eat and drink judgment on themselves (I Cor.11:27-30). Verse 28 says that a man must examine himself; that is, he must approach the elements in an attitude of moral self-scrutiny. In verse 29 the meaning of the word "body" must refer to the body of the L-rd. Not only does this fit the context of how the word is used throughout the chapter, but it makes sense in terms of what Sha'ul had just said in verse 28. To discern the body of the L-rd is to see that it is his body which is broken for our sins and therefore if we have devekut with his body we must not continue to partake of our sins but must approach the L-rd's Supper in an attitude of moral self-examination and reverence, knowledgeable of the awesome fact that the Ben haElohim had to be killed to make restitution for what we have done. Here we see the ethical dynamic of the Moshiach's Seder. Just as an Israelite had to take a ritual bath (tevilah) for uncleanness in order to partake of the Passover, those who would renew their covenant with the L-rd in this Brit Chadasha Passover meal must approach the L-rd in the same repentant attitude. They must recall the attitude they had when they first covenanted themselves to the L-rd through the mikveh, which even in pre First Century Judaism had a built-in value of teshuvah. Of course, anyone who partook of the L-rd's Supper without having previously repented through the mikveh would be eating and drinking judgment on himself, for he would be approaching the covenant meal in an unworthy manner, not having previously covenanted himself to the L-rd as the Scriptures require (Matthew 28:19-20). Though this is not Sha'ul's primary thought in the passage, it is implicit in everything that he is saying in the passage, for coming to the L-rd's table in a truly repentant attitude also necessarily implies that one has taken a mikveh of teshuvah in the name of the G-d of Israel. Jewish proselyte water immersion has its roots in the Levitical immersions of the Torah (Num. chp. 19). These purification baths were for ritually unclean Israelites who had defiled themselves by touching a corpse or other taboo object. Both pagans and ritually unclean Israelites were excluded from the Passover, because both were ritually unclean: one, because he was not circumcised and immersed into a covenant relationship; the other because he had not taken a mikveh bath to remove his ceremonial uncleanness; and neither, of course, had the sacrifice commanded by the Torah (see Lev. 15:13-25). A sacrifice was required of both pagans becoming Jews and unclean Israelites, and was offered by both after they took their water immersions. Therefore, in order to gain entrance to the covenant meal of the Pesach Seder the same three conditions were required of proselytes as natural-born, yet ceremonially unclean Jews. These three conditions were circumcision (required on the eighth day of the life of a natural born Jewish male), water immersion (see Lev. 15:13; Num. 8:7-8,Lev. 14:1-32), and sacrifice. In the Brit Chadasha Scriptures none of these three aspects of covenantal incorporation into the people of G-d is omitted. For where there is faith, water immersion into Messianic Judaism in the name of the G-d of Israel includes an eternal (spiritual) circumcision (Col.2:11-13), an eternal (spiritual) purification bath (Tit. 3:5),and a perfect, eternal blood sacrifice kapparah for sin (Heb. 9:12). Only those Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) who have covenanted themselves to the Moshiach Yehoshua in the mikveh may sit at the table of the people of the Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) and partake of the Passover Covenant meal of the Moshiach. Therefore, the precondition for covenantal admittance to the Moshiach's Seder is teshuvah, always and every time in attitude, and once for all time in the mikveh of teshuvah. COVENANT RENEWAL THROUGH ZIKARON (REMEMBRANCE) Now we come to the anamnesis (remembrance) to see what it is exactly that we are to remember when we partake of the Moshiach's Seder. Jeremias claims (18) that in First Century Judaism in Israel, Moshiach Yehoshua's call for remembrance is best understood as divine remembrance, that G-d would remember him. However, J. J. Tetuchowski has argued against Jeremias' theory by the use of the word "ZAYIN KAF RESH" ("remember") in the Passover Haggadah. (19) Tetuchowski argues that it is the talmidim of Moshiach who are to remember. This means Moshiach Yehoshua's covenant subjects are to remember the work that he has done and also the work that he is about to do. Following Millard, "at all times the covenant-subjects are to be prepared against a visit from their L-rd (GK. "parousia" as in Hellenistic Egypt) or a summons to his presence, and their readiness is shown in the regular recollection of their promises and of his in a solemn repetition linking past, present and future."(20) Concerning the question of what the Moshiach's talmidim are to remember, it should be noted that Biblical covenants are always concerned with the conduct of the covenant subjects. In the Tanach this can be verified by looking no further than the Ten Commandments. In I Cor., the Shliach Sha'ul also feels the need to teach the covenantal significance of the Moshiach's Seder in terms of the personal responsibility of the Corinthians who are the L-rd's covenant subjects. From the outset of the epistle the covenant unity of the Corinthians is shown to be in jeopardy (I Cor.1:10). For there are found to be divisions among the Corinthians. Furthermore, we see that the ground of their unity has been misplaced, since some are rallying around Apollos, others around Kefa, and others around Sha'ul. In I Cor.1:13, Sha'ul has to remind the Corinthians of the ground of their unity, that they were immersed in the name of not Sha'ul but Moshiach, and that covenant loyalty must be grounded in the Moshiach. Indeed one of the objectives of the epistle of I Cor. is to bring these "babes" (I Cor. 3:1) into a more mature grasp of their covenant responsibility (see I Cor.3:1-4). The first four charters of I Cor. are used by Sha'ul to break down jealous rivalries and carnal notions of chokhmah (wisdom) which the Corinthians had used to take sides against one another. But in chapter 5 Sha'ul begins to deal with another area of ethical conduct: that is, sexual morality. Sha'ul demands cherem excommunication for the incestuous offender, and here we see a covenant curse go into effect. It has a redemptive purpose "for the destruction of the basar, that his ruach may be saved in the Yom Hashem," but, nevertheless, until the man repents he is to be cut off from covenant identity and can not in his present state experience covenant renewal in the Moshiach's Seder. The people of the covenant are to cut themselves off from him. In chapter 5 Sha'ul makes a direct reference to the Pesach and demands that the Corinthians scour their mind searching for the chometz of sin in order that they might "celebrate the festival" in an attitude of teshuvah and sincerity and truth. Commentators have spiritualized the Paschal theme of I Cor. 5:6-8 so much that they completely divorce it from the context of I Cor.11. Consequently, they miss the Paschal character of the Moshiach's Seder, which like the ancient feastof Israel, is also a covenant meal and one that is also approached in an attitude of teshuvah. This notion of teshuvah is so crucial Sha'ul demands that any one who is living in a gross unrepentant state is to be cut off from the brothers (see I Cor.5:11). All chavurah is to be curtailed, not only the covenant eating of the Moshiach's Seder, but all eating in general. In chapter 6, Sha'ul again is concerned with his L-rd's subjects and their covenant standing. They are undermining the covenant in two ways. First, by their disunity which has reached the point of lawsuit, and second by their going to another sovereign to settle their disputes rather than to the One in whom they are covenantally related. Sha'ul says he would rather suffer wrong or be defrauded than do what the Corinthians are doing (see I Cor. 6:7), for their actions undermine the very sovereignty of the covenant maker and sustainer, the L-rd himself. In I Cor.6:9-11 Sha'ul enumerates quite specifically the kind of immoral behavior worthy of the curse of cherem excommunication from covenant privilege. The Corinthians are commanded to separate themselves from any vassals of another authority who would have them join them in sensual pursuits. Indeed throughout the epistle of I Cor. there are reprisals threatened against the covenant breakers. It could be argued that Sha'ul is advocating "shunning" rather than something as drastic as cherem excommunication, but the former is in reality a provisional form of the latter, if there is no teshuvah, though the door could be left open to allow time for teshuvah, which Sha'ul does by delaying his visits to the Corinthian kehillah. In chapter 10 Sha'ul reminds the Corinthians that although the Covenant of Sinai subjects, the Hebrews, had their form of Moshiach's Tevilah and Moshiach's Seudah, they were idolators. Therefore G-d cut them off from covenant privilege. Sha'ul explains to the Corinthians that this was a warning and that they must not take part in the outward form of covenant renewal by eating and drinking with Adoneinu and then engage in immorality, for this is putting Adoneinu to the test (see I Cor. 10:9). In I Cor. 10:20-21 Sha'ul shows that a sacrificial meal implies devekut with the one to whom the sacrifice is made. Therefore, they are not to commune with shedim (demons) by joining pagans in ceremonies of eating food consecrated to idols. "You cannot drink the cup of Adoneinu and the cup of shedim (demons). You cannot partake of the Tish of Moshiach Adoneinu and the table of shedim." In I Cor.11:29 Sha'ul warns that where there are covenant offenses against the L-rd there will be covenant reprisals. This explains why many were sick or weak or even dead. The Corinthians were coming together in a manner that was unworthy of the covenant and its sacrifice. Consequently, instead of renewing the covenant by eating and drinking they were bringing on the covenant curse of judgment on themselves. In verse 32 we see that the judgment of the L-rd is a chastening judgment that has the purpose of bringing them back into a state of salvation and not pushing them away into condemnation, since the L-rd is not willing that any should perish (II Pet. 3:9). Nevertheless, this curse is in fact a real curse and Sha'ul is making clear that the Moshiach's Seder is deadly serious business. In fact, it is very probable that the curse which falls at the end of the epistle comes from the liturgy (see I Cor.16:22). Millard is right in comparing the covenant reprisals against the Corinthians for their averos to the Tanach where the L-rd takes his people to court for their faithlessness.(21) Exod. 12:22 is relevant here, for at the Pesach the man who left the house showed by his leaving that he did not believe in the promised protective power of the blood and was therefore not relying on the covenant relationship it provided for his safety. The Corinthians had in effect "left the house" by fraternizing with demons and immoral sex partners and by entertaining attitudes wholly out of keeping with the L-rd's nature and his covenant demands. Therefore, these Corinthians were likewise exposing themselves to death. Against Jeremias, who could not see how the Moshiach's talmidim could possibly forget the L-rd, (22) it is not G-d who is in danger of forgetting his Moshiach, but it is men who are in danger of forgetting Moshiach Yehoshua. Not that they would forget Moshiach Yehoshua, but that they would forget Moshiach Yehoshua as the L-rd who is also the Lamb and whose covenant depends on men remembering that the L-rd died as the Lamb for their sins lest they sin again. Therefore, the Corinthians must remember the great price their sin cost G-d in order that he could institute a covenant with them through his Moshiach, and they must trust the L-rd at his Moshiach's Tish with that same attitude of teshuvah that they had when they were initiated into the L-rd's community through the act of the Moshiach's tevilah. In sharing the Moshiach's Seder, the Corinthians attested, however hypocritically, to the covenant that the Moshiach's Tish proclaimed. Millard gives two purposes for remembering the death of the L-rd. "Thanksgiving which involved renewal of loyalty to the gracious Suzerain, and recollection of the commitments undertaken in response."(23) To these there could be added a third purpose, and that is remembering the L-rd's death in order to proclaim it. Here eating and drinking become preaching (I Cor.11:26), for in the Moshiach's Seder, the covenant is remembered in both its inauguration and its saving benefits, and the call to zikaron (remembrance) is responded to in a form that is itself visual or acted proclamation. Eating and drinking, the response to preaching, is itself preaching in that it calls other men to eat and drink. Therefore, the covenantal response (of eating and drinking) to the Besuras Hageulah is a form of preaching that calls men to make the same covenantal response to the Besuras Hageulah and to the Lamb of G-d and the Brit Chadasha blood of the Moshiach's Exodus. The Moshiach's Seder points men to the covenant-initiating act of faith, the Moshiach's Tevilah, and leads them to the Pesach celebration of the Moshiach's Seder, for only those who have covenanted themselves to the L-rd by obeying him in the mikveh may partake of his Pesach covenant meal of the Moshiach's Seder and be accounted part of his Kehillah which the Moshiach's Tish concretely sustains and centers. Just as the Tanach's Pesach sacrifice is designed to create devekut (spiritual communion, attachment to G-d, cleaving to him) since a common lamb was consumed by each household as each family communally remembered the benefits from the same sacrifice, so in the Brit Chadasha, "because there is one matzoh we, many as we are, are one body for we all partake of the same matzoh" (I Cor.10:17). Just as in the Jewish Kehillah the Pesach lamb which was shared by households also included strangers and neighbors and yet made them part of the same spiritual mishpachah, our Pesach Seder, the Moshiach's Tish, brings strangers together as one family and has constituted us one people, the Am Berit haChadasha, the People of the New Covenant, even as the Pesach sacrifice did in the Exodus from Egypt. CHAPTER FIVE: TOWARD A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY: CELEBRATING THE BRIT CHADASHA OF JUDAISM The key liturgical theme of the Moshiach's Tish (Table) is, of course, zikaron (remembrance). In constructing liturgy for a Devekut in Moshiach service, the primary question is, what exactly does the Moshiach's Seder remember? A good means of criticizing the liturgy of a Devekut in Moshiach Service is to ask the question, "Does this Moshiach's Tish celebration remember enough?" For the Moshiach's last meal was framed in a season of zikaron, in a Pesach setting, the memories of which permeated Moshiach's Seder with Paschal and covenantal significance. Moshiach Yehoshua took full advantage of this fact by asking the Moshiach's talmidim to remember him in this same context, enlisting the very matzoh and fruit of the vine of the Pesach season for use as his instituted reminders. By thus declaring himself to be the eschatological Lamb of G-d, he pointed backward to the Exodus and forward to Golgotha in a way that placed himself at the center of salvation history. Then he endeavored to frame the memory of himself in a way that would make it impossible to grasp and fully remember the significance of the Moshiach's Last Tish without also remembering its Paschal and covenantal overtones. Yet too often the Messianic believers celebrate communion with the barest of liturgical expressions, usually with very little hint that anything transpiring has to do with the Pesach or any sort of covenant, of Abraham or of Moshiach. There's a price to pay for such superficial liturgies. Dropping the depths of meaning in Tanach from the Moshiach's Seder makes the death of Moshiach less a matter of prophetic history and more a matter of coincidence. It also makes Messianic Faith less a matter of covenant faith and more of a mystery cult. The Covenant of Sinai still is a "school master" to bring us to Moshiach (Gal.3:24-25). However, ever since the First Century Judaizers, those heretical "schoolmasters" with a penchant for circumcising Goyim into a heretical Besuras haGeulah of works, began to plague the Moshiach's Kehillah with their pseudo-Jewish guise, the Moshiach's Kehillah has forever after over-reacted to anything too "Jewish." Consequently, it has only been recently that scholars have been willing to take a very open-minded and thoughtful look at the Moshiach's Seder as a genuine Jewish Pesach Seder, if not in its actual time of institution, at least in its theological significance. However, what is yet to be done is to frame liturgy for the celebration of the Moshiach's Seder which will make plain the paschal and covenantal values of the Moshiach's Tish. THE SEDER IN THE BRIT CHADASHA KEHILLAH Let it be said, first of all, that it is a mistake to say that the Moshiach's Seder "transcends" the Pesach if that is meant to make the Pesach somehow irrelevant and obsolete. Furthermore, it is now apparent that Sha'ul would be misread entirely if he were interpreted to teach that believers in Moshiach Yehoshua can no longer celebrate the Pesach. Sha'ul himself continued to celebrate the Pesach and we find him in the Brit Chadasha continually hurrying somewhere to do so. When Judaizers came and tried to impose certain festivals on the Gentile believers, these Judaizers were not doing this in Moshiach Yehoshua' Name or in order to glorify Moshiach Yehoshua, but in order to glorify themselves (Gal.6:13). Therefore, it would be misreading Sha'ul to say that Jewish festivals per se are totally out of place in the Brit Chadasha Kehillah of Moshiach Yehoshua. For in fact the very first Moshiach's Kehillah celebrated all the festivals (Acts 21:20) and Sha'ul celebrated these festivals with the Moshiach's Kehillah. When he was in Jerusalem, Sha'ul's quarrel with the Judaizers was not with the festivals but with the heretical soteriology involved in the imposition of these festivals on Gentiles. The Judaizers used the festivals as the pure water to wash down the poisonous pill of their false Besuras haGeulah (Gal.1:6-9; 4:10), and so they were minimizing Moshiach's way of salvation and drugging the Galatians with a way that leads to death. Far from discarding the Pesach, in I Corinthians, Sha'ul is very concerned that the paschal and covenantal character of the Moshiach's Tish be preserved, as we saw in previous chapter. Therefore, the Brit Chadasha Kehillah would do well to have a special Seder with extended communion on Pesach each year, (l) not only as a witness to the Jewish Community but also as a witness to itself. For the Brit Chadasha Kehillah must understand her historical links to Israel and to the Exodus, or she will not understand that she herself is covenanted to G-d as Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) and that she has also begun an Exodus pilgrimage. What a witness it would be to the Jewish throughout the entire world if all Brit Chadasha Kehillot everywhere celebrated the Pesach each year! For followers of Moshiach to remember that it was "our people" that were in Egypt would be a great testimony to Jewish unbelievers and would be a mighty weapon against anti-Semitism in Gentile Houses of Worship. How much more meaningful would such a Seder/Moshiach's Seder service be when all the immersed Bnei Avraham stood to take the same Matzoh that had been the hidden (middle matzoh) Afikoman and the same Seder fruit of the vine to proclaim to all "the death of the Moshiach Adoneinu until he comes." THE JEWISHNESS OF THE MOSHIACH'S SEDER But even an ordinary communion service can not be shorn of its paschal character, if justice is to be done to the covenant-keeping G-d of Israel that the Moshiach's Tish is intended to uplift. For it is the same G-d keeping covenant in the Moshiach's Brit Chadasha Tish who kept covenant in the Pesach Seder, and he chose to institute and perpetually teach the Mosaic Covenant and the Brit Chadasha through the continuity of the same Jewish feast. The Moshiach's Seder is a very Jewish meal. When you take away its Jewishness by playing down the paschal and covenantal significance of it, you also dehistoricize its content. You can't get rid of the Jewish and paschal character of the Moshiach's Tish any more than you can get rid of the Jewishness of Moshiach Yehoshua. To paraphrase a theologian named Allmen, let the following be said. This Jewishness of Moshiach is as irrevocable as the election of Israel (cf. Romans 11:29), and equally scandalous, and to wish to reject it threatens to separate Moshiach from his descent from heaven in human form and turn him into a vague spiritual principle. Because in a certain sense you cannot avoid becoming a Ben Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) when you become a follower of Moshiach, these elements of the Jewish Paschal meal (or of other Jewish religious meals), the matzoh and the fruit of the vine, must be honored in a Jewish way. It is in no sense a question of Judaizing after the manner of those who wish to impose circumcision on those pagans who became believers. "Judaizing is a soteriological anachronism; it calls into question the decisive, radically renewing nature of Moshiach's coming. To remember that this advent must be respected in its uniqueness and paticularity (of race, place, date) is not Judaizinq, it is preaching the Besuras Hageulah." (2) This ignorance of, and over-reaction to, Judaizing is what has made the Brit Chadasha Kehillah aloof and calloused to the salvation of the Jewish people and has also made the Brit Chadasha Kehillah ignorant of herself as she closes her eyes to her own intrinsic Jewish character. If a follower of Moshiach cannot understand that he himself is a Ben Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) he will be less apt to love and to identify with the Jewish people and will be more prone toward Western Civilization's latent anti-Semitism. If a follower of Moshiach does not see the Moshiach's Kehillah universal as a spiritual nation not of this world yet linked historically to the Israel of Abraham, an Israel who herself was born at the Exodus and spiritually liberated (at least in remnant) at Golgotha, then the follower of Moshiach does not recognize in reality what the Moshiach's Kehillah is. Moshiach Yehoshua left us the Moshiach's Seder in order to teach the Moshiach's Kehillah who she is, but he left us a Moshiach's Tish rooted in the Pesach. Therefore, we have no theological or liturgical right to cut the Moshiach's Seudah loose from the Seder in a way that makes the two appear unrelated or mutually independent. It is a strange commentary on some American congregations that they could wink at a Halloween party in their halls of chavurah but never tolerate a Pesach Seder. Gentile followers of Moshiach have for too long suffered from a Marcion-like aloofness from the "mere shadows" of the Tanach which really borders on anti-Semitic repugnance of the Jewishness of our Messianic Faith. And here Karl Barth is worth paraphrasing when he speaks of the Brit Chadasha Kehillah not succeeding in making Israel jealous, "in making clear to it the nearness of the Kingdom of the son of David, in making Moshiach Yehoshua of Nazareth dear and desirable." "In this sense, the Brit Chadasha Kehillah as a whole has made no convicting impression on the Jew as a whole. It has debated with him, tolerated him, persecuted him, or abandoned him to persecution without protest. What is worse, it has made water immersion an infant start into the best European society. It has seriously sought the spiritual turn-around of individuals. But for the most part it has not done for the Jews the only real thing which it can do, attesting the manifested king of Israel and Moshi'a of the world...and thus it still owes everything to those to whom it is indebted for everything. This failure...is one of the darkest chapters in the whole history of our Messianic Faith and one of the most serious of all wounds in the Body of Moshiach. (3) Two of the by-products of new liturgy for the Moshiach's Seder developed along more Jewish and more paschal lines are that (1) the Brit Chadasha Kehillah will magnify her ministry to the Gentiles and (2) the Brit Chadasha Kehillah will liturgically "go to the Jew first." Sha'ul, the Shliach to the Nations, magnified his ministry to them in order to make his fellow Jews jealous. Sha'ul would come to a synagogue and preach the Besuras Hageulah and certain Jews in the synagogue would throw him out, and Sha'ul would be forced to start a new synagogue (Jam.2:2 "synagogue," see Greek) next door, one that would sometimes be more Gentile in cultural character, but one that was clearly competitive with the local synagogue. This was so because, although Moshiach Yehoshua was in the center of the Brit Chadasha synagogue's worship, yet its worship forms were still Jewish enough to be jealousy-provoking to the local Jews. Sha'ul was magnifying his ministry to the Gentiles, and he was making his fellow Jews jealous. They could not simply ignore his Brit Chadasha Kehillah planting activity as something that had absolutely nothing to do with them. They saw that Sha'ul was in fact a synagogue planter, except the synagogues he was engaged in planting had in their center Moshiach Yehoshua leading the world to Elohim Avinu and the synagogues of Sha'ul had this even in the center of the Torah and its preaching and exposition. If the Moshiach's Tish is celebrated in a very Jewish manner with the paschal and the covenantal values clearly in evidence, then Gentiles--whether they are Italian, French, or whatever their ethnic or cultural or national background maybe--will be led to understand that they are also Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) and should have a special place in their hearts for the Jewish people. For their part, whenever Jewish people would witness such a Moshiach's Tish, they would see by its paschal and covenantal overtones that the Brit Chadasha Kehillah has not forgotten them and that the Brit Chadasha Kehillah still views talmidim-winning for the Moshiach from among the Jewish people as its world-wide priority, going to them first in every nation, even as they also go to the non-Jews. Then Jewish people will see that Moshiach's Shlichut (Mission) described in Matthew 28:19-20, see OJBC) is not just to the Gentiles, but to the lost sheep (Mt.15:24; Isaiah 53:6) of the House of Israel first and foremost. As Jewish people see the relevance of the Moshiach's Tish service, they will begin to see the relevance of the Besuras Hageulah. In fact, more than ever, when Moshiach's Seder is Jewishly observed, it has talmidim-winning power, for when both Moshiach's tevilah and Moshiach's Seder are publicly and properly administered, with only immersed-in-the-mikveh-mayim believers allowed to receive the Moshiach's Seder, the Moshiach's Seder Jewishly observed becomes a corporate sermon (I Cor. 11:26) calling men to make the emunah response of the teshuvah-tevilah in order that they too maybe no more excluded as spiritually uncircumcised unregenerates from the Moshiach's Seder, but may, as proselytes to Messianic Judaism, gather with the people of Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) around the Moshiach of Israel. As I Cor. 11:26 says, everytime we eat this matzoh and drink this Pesach Kiddush cup we are, by that very eating and drinking, preaching. We are preaching the saving significance of the Moshiach Adoneinu's death, which is the chief task of Messianic Judaism until the Moshiach Adoneinu comes again. When people without Moshiach's Tevilah, especially Jewish people without Moshiach's Tevilah, see that responding to the Besuras Hageulah is a very Jewish thing to do because water immersion is a tevilah with Moshiach in a mikveh mayim and the Moshiach's Tish is a Seder, then the tension is on them to confess Yehoshua as Moshiach Adoneinu by getting into Moshiach's mikveh in order to be no more excluded from Moshiach's Brit Chadasha Seder. Since making talmidim for Moshiach is drawing lines and persuading men to cross over them, the Moshiach's Seder, properly administered, persuades men to cross over the water immersion line into discipleship with Moshiach's talmidim. In effect, then, when we partake of the Brit Chadasha Seder, part of what we are celebrating is our spiritual circumcision, our spiritual Exodus of regeneration and new creation, and our actual Red Sea Tevilah of Moshiach that incorporated us into the People of Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14), in the same way Israel remembers her Red Sea national birth and eschatological new creation in the Pesach. For in eating and drinking, we are celebrating our new life as Bnei Avraham. And as we corporately participate in the Moshiach's Tish, by that very participation, we are defining who we are: the people of the Bnei Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14). As a matter of fact, the Moshiach's Seder is itself visual proclamation in that it calls men to realize that they are either inside or outside the circle of the people of the Bnei Avraham by faith, the eschatological people of salvation, and that they must make a decision either to remain outside, without a Lamb, without the Lamb's blood of deliverance and Exodus from the Olam Hazeh, or (via Moshiach's Red Sea tevilah) to enter the people of the Exodus of Moshiach and salvation. When men see the Moshiach's Seder celebrated, they must understand that a line is being drawn, a line drawn in the blood of the Moshiach Lamb, which they either cross to salvaiton or do not cross, depending on whether they will or will not receive the Word of the G-d of Israel. In the Moshiach's Seder, people are confronted with a choice: they can either remain "Egyptian," spiritually unregenerated and uncircumcised to be left behind in the Egypt of this dying Olam Hazeh world, or they can respond to the Seder's proclamation and (via Moshiach's Red Sea tevilah) can sit with remnant Israel's Moshiach and enter that aliyah l'regel (pilgrimage) and Exodus upon which we, as regenerated Bnei Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14), have already embarked. Therefore, preaching corresponds to immersion and the L-rd's Seder in that in all three ways the Word of G-d draws a line confronting men with a decision to either cross over that line or not cross over it, get into the Moshiach's Mikveh or not get into it, eat and drink at the Brit Chadasha Seder or not eat and drink, become Bnei Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14) or remain outside Abraham's Am Berit Chadasha. Preachers need to understand the Jewishness of their role, functioning as they do as Moses figures who call people out of an Olam Hazeh "Egypt" into an Olam HaBah Exodus, offer the opportunity to exit death and sin via a Red Sea of Tevilah and Brit Chadasha Seder. Gentile (and Messianic Jewish) preachers who are ignorant of the Jewishness of their task blur the definition of what the Moshiach's Brit Chadasha Kehillah is in relation to Israel, what the Jewish Brit Chadasha Scriptures are in relation to the Tanach, and they blur this not only for Jews who have in large part traditionally been unresponsive to the proclamation of the Moshiach's Kehillah and have nots een the relevance of it, but they also miss the significance for Non-Jewish followers for Moshiach. For a follower of Moshiach can only know who he is himself when he understands who he is in relation to the Jews at whose table he is eating. The call to become one of Moshiach's talmidim that is implicit in the Moshiach's Seudah can be brought to the fore by a simple and historically valid tradition: to have the believers stand as they partake of the elements. To the modern believer this may seem like an innovation, but, to paraphrase Dix, it appears to have been the universal tradition in the pre-Nicene Brit Chadasha Kehillah that all should receive communion standing."(4) Whether we agree with Dix's interpretation of the Last Moshiach's Seudah along strict chavurah lines is irrelevant to the important point that standing for the Moshiach's Tish was a wide spread practice in the early Brit Chadasha Kehillah. Regardless of the actual historical reason for such standing, we can think of many reasons why this might be done in the Moshiach's Kehillah today. If eating and drinking is preaching, we normally think of preaching as something that one does standing up. And if the whole Moshiach's Kehillah is participating in a kind of prophetic action of confession when the Moshiach's Kehillah celebrates His Seudah, then we can see why the Moshiach's Kehillah might stand. A second reason might be to make sure that the Moshiach's Seder is properly administered, meaning in the case of the theology set forth here that only those who had been immersed could partake. With the simple action of asking those who have been immersed to standup, a line, so to speak, is drawn and those who remain seated understand that they have not yet crossed over that Isaiah 53:7 Moshiach's-blood-on-the-threshold line, and that now they must sit to listen to a sermon, a corporate sermon, which the Brit Chadasha "Red Sea" immersed ones will now preach as they eat and drink and ingest the saving benefits of the Moshiach Pesach Lamb of the Brit Chadasha Exodus. Cochrane (5) seems to miss the significance of the Ani Ma'amin confessional value in the Moshiach's Seder with its attendant talmidim-winning for Moshiach discipling tension. He advocates that the Moshiach's Seder be eaten in a seated position in the Chavurah Hall, and seems to think the important concern is that the congregation be gathered at tables, since how can there be a "Moshiach's Seder" in pews? And, of course, he is right, and a special "Moshiach's Seder, can occur at Pesach at the Seder Table every year at that season. However, a staged re-enactment of a "Moshiach's Seder" is not the essence of the matter. Arndt comes much closer to the mark when he states that water immersion and the Moshiach's Seder are" 'objectivizations' of the Moshiah's Brit Chadasha Besuras haGeulah saving message. They objectify the Besuras Hageulah by means of objects and actions in association with the interpreting words." (6) The idea of a "visible word" goes back to Augustine. This is the concept that these "visible words" of a ritual immersion and a Messianic Paschal meal make the Besuras Hageulah visible to the eye even as preaching makes the Besuras Hageulah hearable to the ear. But what many zealously disciple-winning congregations of today seem to overlook is that the "visible words" provide an objectivization not only to the message but also to the response to the message. If you want to receive the Besuras Hageulah, what do you do, what is your response? You get in the Moshiach's mikveh mayim. That is something quite concrete, and when you get into the water with emunah and teshuvah, you know objectively that you have responded to the Besuras Hageulah. If you want to become part of the body of Moshiach, what do you do? You partake of his "Rev.5:6 Lamb in Heaven's" body with others who are also your fellow heavenly manna partakers by eating the matzoh and drinking the fruit of the vine. That is something quite objective that you can do as a response. And your doing it puts objective discipling tension on others to do it, to follow you across the Brit Chadasha Red Sea, because when you do it you are preaching a visible word. Congregations that have no concept of a response to the Besuras Hageulah other than the "altar call" are usually the congregations that find the "visible word" response of a believer as a kind of irrelevant after-thought to "coming up-front." These congregations usually have little theological depth of understanding or perception when they approach the Moshiach's Tevilah and His Seder. However, when the immersed ones stand to take the matzoh and the fruit of the vine of a very Jewish meal celebrated in a Jewish way, then it is clear to everyone observing that the people in this place either have or have not linked themselves up with the Israel of G-d, depending on whether or not they have turned in repentant obedience to the Jewish Moshiach. Stibbs hints at this when he says, if I may paraphrase: participation in the Moshiach's Seder, therefore, should before be for all who share in it a dramatic or acted proclamation of the Besuras Hageulah. In such oral announcement the scriptural record suggests that all who participate should share. For, the Shliach wrote, "As often as you eat this matzoh and drink the cup, you proclaim the L-rd's death till he come." One may compare in possible illustration what happens when the royal toast is proposed. In response not only do all stand to drink, but also audibly they all proclaim 'The Queen.' Similarly, it may be, when at Corinth Moshiach's Seder was eaten, not only was the story of Moshiach's passion retold, but also every communicant shared in confessing his faith by declaring audibly the significance of his action. Certainly it would make our own worship more fully corporate and confessional if, when the visible word is administered, every recipient proclaimed the Messianic significance of his participation; and said, for instance, as he received the matzoh: I take and eat this in remembrance that Moshiach died for me."(7) Stibbs' suggestion of a possible confession is helpful. However, if the fact that all who are standing have been immersed is clear by the liturgical preparation for their standing, then the very fact that they are eating and drinking is proclamation enough without any particular verbal confession needed from them. Their mere standing to the question, "Will all those who have been immersed with Moshiach please rise?" will be sufficient to make the discipling tension felt that there is no eternal matzoh for the spiritually uncircumcised and unregenerate and that one must become a spiritually reborn and adopted Ben Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14) by obeying the Jewish Moshiach Adoneinu. As the standing ones eat we see, following Allmen, the Moshiach's Seder "makes manifest" the character of Moshiach's Brit Chadasha Kehillah, that it is through Moshiach's tevilah, by means of Moshiach's shluchim and their eye-witnessed proclamation and Torah, and that this universal and world-wide chavurah is also local and here-and-now.(8) That it is the immersed ones standing shows that the meal is the meal eaten by the covenanted ones. What makes the words of institution significant is that they plunge the whole body into an achdut union of emunah and a unified preaching of that emunah by their unified response to it in eating and drinking. As the Besuras Hageulah takes concrete form in these visible words, it makes talmidim for Moshiach throughout the world and thoroughly turns around the whole man, his physical being no less than his spiritual being. Thus the corporate Messianic body is seen as the concrete manifestation of Moshiach's own people and those who partake are confirmed in their faith which in the Moshiach's Seder is shown to be a corporate faith, one that draws strangers together and makes them one mishpachah. The Pesach Haggadah prescribes that the pater familias present the paschal elements and say, "Let all those who are hungry enter and eat; all those who are in need come and celebrate (the Pesach)."(9) This open invitation is for all those who are willing to covenant themselves to the L-rd. For the Pesach is a celebration of the covenant by the covenanted ones. The same is true of the Moshiach's Seder. If this interconnection is not made clear through the preservation of the paschal and covenantal character of the Moshiach's Seder, then the clear connection between Moshiach's Tevilah water immersion and the Moshiach's Seder will be lost and one visible word will not point to and lead to the other as it was theologically intended to do. Arndt provides a good summary: "Preaching is the Good News of a New Life for man which G-d offers as a gift to man." Water immersion is an initiation into the new life and the Moshiach's Seder is its food. "They all have for their content what G-d has done, is doing, and will do to bring his reconciling purpose for all men to its fulfillment."(10) For the Moshiach's Seder liturgy to have more apparent covenantal and paschal character, it is necessary for the liturgy to teach that to partake of the Moshiach's Seder is to engage in a covenantal response to a covenant-making G-d. Therefore, the Brit Chadasha liturgy needs to explain something of the means by which G-d inaugurates a covenant by blood, how he did so in the Pesach and how he did so in the New Pesach through the Moshiach's death. Secondly, the Brit Chadasha liturgy needs to teach that this Brit Chadasha is commemorated, remembered, reaffirmed and renewed by the universal breaking of matzoh by the Moshiach's Kehillah throughout the world. Thirdly, in order that our salvation be linked to history, the liturgy needs to say something about the fact that Moshiach Yehoshua was a Jew, that he made his covenant with remnant Israel and all Bnei Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14) through a Jewish meal and that all those who respond to him become table partners with the remnant of Israel throughout the ages. To departicularize the Jewish historicity of the Moshiach's Seder is to seriously curtail the edification of the Moshiach's Brit Chadasha Kehillah and is to tragically hinder the world outreach to universal world Jewry. It is certain that Moshiach Yehoshua did not break the Afikoman (middle of three) matzoh and did not lift up the fruit of the vine of the Kiddush Cup of Institution on the night of his betrayal without first speaking the traditional brachah blessing. It was a strict rule for a Jew that he should eat nothing before a blessing is pronounced. All benedictions begin with the words: 'Blessed art thou, 0 L-rd our G-d, King of the Universe.' The blessing of a meal including fruit of the vine would continue: 'who hast caused bread to come forth out of the earth and who best created the fruit of the vine.' (11) An inclusion of these blessings in the Brit Chadasha liturgy would enhance the true Jewish character of the Moshiach's Seudah. This is also a point in the worship life of the Moshiach's Kehillah when we might expect to hear some Hebrew: "Baruch ah-tah Ah-donoy Eh-lo-hei-nu Meh-lech ha'olam hamotzi lechem min ha-ah-retz, blessed art thou, 0 L-rd our G-d, king of the universe, who brings forth matzoh from the earth." This we might hear before the words of institution, "this is my body, which is for you; do this as a zikaron remembrance of me," and the attendant breaking of matzoh. Next, we might hear Hebrew in the brachah blessing that Moshiach Yehoshua said before he lifted up the fruit of the vine: "Baruch ah-tah Ah-donai Eh-loh-hei-nu Meh-lech haolam boreh p'ree hagafen, blessed art thou, 0 L-rd Our G-d, king of the universe, who creates the fruit of the vine." These are the words said before the institution over the cup, "this is the Brit Chadasha sealed by my blood, whenever you drink it, do this as a memorial of me." Bible believers may very often be Non-Jews in culture and by birth but as far as their spiritual life is concerned, they are Bnei Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14) and members of Moshiach's people. They also have an obligation to preach the Besuras Hageulah to every creature, to make the Moshiach's Seder a sermon as relevant to Jews as it is to Gentiles. Therefore, Bible believers have an obligation to let the Moshiach's Seder shine through as a Jewish meal, at least as Jewish as it was for Moshiach Yehoshua. If the Moshiach's Seder were celebrated on the last Yom Rishon of each month, it could be the climax of the outreach of the Brit Chadasha Kehillah so that those who were to be immersed could be immersed all together on each month's final Yom Rishon. If this were also a Yom Rishon when the Moshiach's Seder was celebrated, then all the newly immersed could celebrate their Brit Chadasha emunah together with the other believers at Moshiach's Tish. This procedure would draw the visible words closer together so that they could mutually reinforce one another in the process of making talmidim for Moshiach. Then on that "Acts 2:42 Yom Rishon," (or Shabbos, for there is no reason why these visible words cannot be seen on Shabbos as they were in the early days of Moshiach's Kehillah), then when we stand from our seats to partake of the Moshiach's Seder Tish, those who have not yet submitted to Moshiach's tevilah would witness our visible Ani Ma'amin confession. When the server steps in front of each of us with the broken matzoh of the Lamb of Heaven and the Kiddush cup of his Exodus threshold blood, we are confronted with the very One who alone can free us and give us a redemption and deliverance to an Exodus of shalom. As the server says to us,"Every time you eat this matzoh and drink this Kiddush cup you proclaim the death of the L-rd until he comes," we realize that we are concretely receiving the saving Word of G-d who is the Lamb of Heaven who takes away the sin of the world (Bereshis 22:8; Exodus 12:5-13; Isaiah 53:7). We also realize that our very eating and drinking has become preaching as we witness to the wonderful fact that we have been "passed over" and our sins have been paid for and we have been forgiven and redeemed so that we can have a new Exodus to new life. As servers move around the room, the words "for every time you eat this matzoh and drink this cup" reverberate over and over again even as the Besuras Hageulah is echoing right now all over the world. This is a corporate sermon, preached by both the servers and the served, and does not end until the Reader is himself served. When the last server has come forward and Reader has himself been served, what a moment of intense worship ensues! For now we have just received the most precious Lamb imaginable and by the power of the Ruach Hakodesh he indwells us all anew with his presence and with a devekut most acutely experienced at this very moment. At this point there needs to be real overt expression of the unity that this covenant-making G-d has made possible through the Moshiach's death. Our hands may be up in the air but they also may be touching the shoulder of one another as we affirm our chavurah by our holy touch. As the Moshiach's Seder service is concluded, everyone who partook, should be in prayer for the rest, that they will have the veil removed from their eyes and will stop excluding themselves from the Moshiach's Tish, but will instead obey Moshiach Yehoshua and submit to His Tevilah so that, as a Ben Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14), they will be no more excluded from this Messianic Pesach Tish. One of the reasons the liturgy in the Moshiach's Kehillah has lost the paschal and covenantal quality it should have is because the Moshiach's Brit Chadasha Kehillah has not kept its liturgy closely enough tied to the Bible." (12) Certainly a liturgy based on several relevant passages of I Corinthians would have more paschal flavor and more covenantal significance, since, as we saw in Chapter IV, I Cor. has these built-in theological Pesach and covenantal values. Dix (13) has delineated a seven-action shape of the Biblical Moshiach's Seudah as (1) the L-rd took matzoh, (2) he gave thanks over it,(3) broke it, (4) distributed it, saying certain words. Later he did the same thing with the cup. He (5) took the cup, he (6) gave thanks over it, he (7) handed it over to his talmidim, saying certain words. However, the shape of the Brit Chadasha's liturgy traditionally began to fall into a four-action shape: (1)an offertory where the matzoh and fruit of the vine are "taken" and placed on the table together, (2) the prayer where the reader gives thanks to G-d over the matzoh and fruit of the vine, (3) the fraction where the matzoh is broken, and (4) communion where the matzoh and fruit of the vine are distributed, one at a time or together. So the seven-action shape which the Bible uses becomes, four-action shape in the actual practice of the liturgy, the criteria for determining which of the two shapes to follow is not historical authenticity alone, but the question of the discipling dynamic, involved and how the worshippers may be helped to receive the most vivid impression or remembrance of the Lamb of G-d, Moshiach Adoneinu. There could be equally impressive liturgies written with either of the two shapes. A possible outline for a liturqy (14) could be (1) the Moshiach's Seder is framed in terms of the Pesach, explaining its rootage in the Brit Chadasha "haggadah" found in I Corinthians as the institution of the Moshiach's Berit Olam and as a ceremony of covenant renewal; (2) all those who have been immersed in Moshiach's Tevilah in His Mikveh Mayim are asked to stand; (3) the immersed ones receive cleansing and remission from sins repented of and pronounce in unison an oath of covenant relationship between them and the G-d of Israel and His Moshiach before the covenant pledges are distributed and (4) the servers receive distribution by the Reader and go out in turn to serve the congregation. After every one is served, including the Reader and then there is a time for the expression of worship and the expresion of love for one another and for the Moshiach Adoneinu. This particular liturgy need not always formalize the prayer but leaves open the element of spontaneity for any prayers given at any point in the Brit Chadasha "haggadah" service. The important values of any Moshiach's Seder service should be (1) the paschal character of the meal rooting it in history in the Jewish faith and the "Exodus" of Moshiach from Jerusalem (see Greek Luke 9:31), (2) the covenantal character of the meal, making it a renewal of blood covenant relationship between G-d and man, (3) the fresh and present assurance of complete remission of sins including the remission of sins since last the visible word was received,(15) and (4) a sense of the presence of the covenant-keeping G-d of Israel and of his Moshiach who comes to bring the Brit Chadasha. Moshiach Yehoshua comes to us, and we are united to Him, not only in the Moshiach's mikveh mayim, not only in the Moshiach's Seder, but even in death when he will receive us as he did Stephanos. We know that Moshiach Yehoshua will receive us then because we have received Him now and enjoy the Ruach Hakodesh already as an actual down payment on our guaranteed eternal inheritance (Eph.1:14). The Pesach Seder of the Covenant of Abraham looked backward to G-d's blood sprinkled deliverance of his people from enslavement. This same festival also looked forward to the coming of the Moshiach. The Pesach Seder of the Brit Chadasha also looks backward to a blood sprinkled deliverance effected by the blood of Moshiach. This Brit Chadasha Seder, however looks forward to the Parousia of the Moshiach. As little families all over the world gather around the common lamb to commune through his blood sacrifice with the G-d of Israel, an international spiritual nation, a nation of Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14), a people not of this Olam Hazeh world, are proclaiming the significance of the Moshiach's death. It is hoped that this study will contribute to the re-writing of liturgy, liturgy that will help Bnei Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14) see the paschal and covenantal significance of Moshiach's Seder in terms of its Biblical and Hebraic roots. The Moshiach's Seder is the covenant meal of Messianic Judaism. As the people of this culturally all-inclusive Jewish religion come to the Moshiach's Seder, their common Jewish meal should become for them an rallying point for unity as well as a point of contact with the Jewish comunity, for all may become Bnei Avraham by faith not through pedigree or merit or legalistic self-attainment (Lu. 3:8-9; Eph. 2:8-9) but through the G-d of Israel's gift of faith (Ro. 2:28-29; Phil.3:3). CHAPTER SIX: TOWARD A JEWISH CONTEXTUAL THEOLOGY CELEBRATING SHABBAT IN LIGHT OF THE BRIT CHADASHA A Sabbath service is critically important not only because the original Brit Chadasha Kehillah kept the Sabbath (Acts 21:20 etc) but also many Jewish people want to keep the Sabbath and see no Goyishe reason why they should have to disobey Exodus 20:8 in order to believe in their own Moshiach, but also because the Hebrew prayers of the Sabbath service provide an appropriate setting for the bar and bat mitzvah services as well as the other vital culture-sustaining traditions of the synagogue. Thus, when the Moshiach's Brit Chadasha Kehillah finds herself in a Jewish neighborhood she must take cultural specialization as seriously as the Moshiach's shluchim did (Gal. 2:9), and become a fully operative Messianic synagogue which offers not only Yom Rishon services but Sabbath services as well. Only in this way will she give opportunity for both large-scale Jewish and non-Jewish people movements into the Body of Moshiach as whole Jewish families join Messianic synagogues where they can celebrate their faith in Moshiach Yehoshua as Jews and sustain their cultural identity from generation to generation even as they are sustained in their spiritual life as believers. Because the Moshiach Adoneinu Yehoshua first resurrected and appeared to His talmidim on Yom Rishon (Yochanan 20:1), and appeared to them again the following week on Yom Rishon (Yochanan 20:26), finally pouring out the Ruach Hakodesh on them (Acts. 2:1) on Yom Rishon (Shavuos A.D. 30), Yom Rishon became known as the Yom haAdon. Thus it became an established Jewish tradition to meet on the Yom haAdon for chavaroot. It was not enough for Jewish people to witness to the fact that G-d rested on the seventh day after the creation. It was now necessary also to witness to the fact that G-d worked a new eternal creation on the eighth day, the first day of the new creation, when his Ben haElohim Moshiach resurrected to become the head of a new eternal humanity who are experiencing their new life of chavurah in him already, even in this dying Olam Hazeh world in advance of the Olam Habah age to come. Therefore, the first Jewish believers did not fail to acknowledge both the Shabbos and Yom haAdon (Rev.1:10). This is why it is so important for Messianic Synagogues to offer services on both Shabbos and Yom Rishon (Yom haAdon), not in order to "l-rd it over anyone's faith" (II Cor. 1:24) in respect to legalistically dictating how each one should esteem one day over another (Rom.14:5); rather, in order to follow the principle of love in I Cor. 9:20 that Moshiach Yehoshua and the early Brit Chadasha Kehillah applied to all people when they preached the Good News on both days, and particularly on Shabbos in shul that Israel might be saved (Mk.6-.2; Acts.18-.4). Thus these synagogues point to the continuity of their Jewish faith, preserving both Shabbos and Yom haAdon as they witness to the fullness of their Biblical Judaism for the benefit of the salvation of their local Jewish Community. The liturgical outline which is offered in this study is neither an exact historical re-enactment of a First Century synagogue service in Israel such as Yehoshua may have attended nor is it a mere imitation of a modern Orthodox Sabbath service. Rather it is an attempt to faithfully preserve the components of the basic liturgy without tampering with their integrity, while at the same time making whatever slight addition might be necessary to Messianize the service (though it is already somewhat Messianized as we will see) and let Moshiach Adoneinu have his central place in the worship. There were a few minor deletions and additions, but this putting Moshiach Adoneinu in his proper place in the worship was done by adding only four words to the Shema -- Yehoshua haMoshiach hoo Adoneinu, and by adding the Moshiach's Adoneinu to the Kaddish. (l) These slight additions state, in effect, that once Jewish people realize that Yehoshua is the Moshiach and the Adon of their Judaism, He becomes the central focus of their Jewish life, the way to Elohim Avinu and to the Ruach Hakodesh, and His authority is felt at the center of every aspect of their Jewish religion. Yet as far as their religious forms are concerned, all Moshiach Yehoshua really added to their religion was a new confession and a new prayer. Moshiach Yehoshua did not come to destroy Judaism. He came to fulfill it and therefore all the hallowed, scripturally compatible traditions and custom so Judaism need not be discarded once Jewish people believe that Moshiach Yehoshua is Adoneinu. Moshiach Yehoshua can be the L-rd of their Jewishness and make them appreciate their heritage more than they ever dreamed possible. However, a word of caution is needed here. In the somewhat involved analysis of liturgy that follows, an impression may be given that the Sabbath service is a burdensome straitjacket that is bound to quench the Spirit and bore the worshippers. This is not true, as experience has shown. Used with spiritual discernment and edifying explanation rather than legalistic inflexibility, the Sabbath liturgy provides a loose framework within which an exciting variety can be achieved through the selection and order of the ancient prayers. The Ruach Hakodesh is free to spontaneously intervene and alter the flow of the service at any point. However, without the liturgy to supply a Biblically based and yet culturally relevant framework in which the Ruach Hakodesh can move, the service may lose its vitally attractive indigenous appeal to the Jewish Community. The two basic components of the Friday evening Sabbath service are the Shema, which is the central confession of Judaism, and the Amidah, which is the main prayer of the evening. The Shema and the Amidah are the two indispensable portions of the liturgy around which everything else revolves. The basis structure of the service is this: A) Opening prayers and hymns; B) The Shema and its framework of benedictions; C) The Amidah; D) Scripture reading and sermon; E) Closing prayers and hymns. There is a certain amount of freedom and flexibility in how the various prayers and hymns are selected for the evening but all Friday Night Services include the Shema and the Amidah. In the opening prayers and hymns there is a prayer said on entering the synagogue. "How goodly are thy tents, 0 Jacob..." comes from Num. 24:5 and from Pss. 5:8; 26:8; 69:14. This prayer expresses the great love that Jewish people have always had for their synagogue and is an indication of the festive and yet reverent mood encountered in witnessing a synagogue service preparing to begin. Psalm 122 is included in many prayerbooks as an opening meditation to ready the worshipper for the Sabbath service. In conservative and orthodox synagogues the Sabbath candles are lit already when the service begins because no work is done after nightfall. However, in many synagogues a Jewish lady is called to the bemah (front platform) to say the Sabbath blessing over the candles. The lady who is given this honor is usually the mother or grandmother of a son or daughter preparing for participation in the bar or bat mitzvah service. She may not light the candles but she does say the blessing over them. The Sabbath lights in the synagogue are a very ancient custom and symbolize the eternal hope of the Jewish people, eternal life.(2) This custom is a precious Jewish tradition which has been largely lost in the modern gentilized Jewish home. Therefore, it is all the more important, especially in view of the symbolism of Chayyei Olam -- the hope of the Besuras Hageulah, that this ceremony not be excluded from the Messianic Erev Shabbat Service. Along with the benediction on kindling the Sabbath lights, there is also a special benediction for the lighting of the candles during the Jewish holidays. A selection of opening hymns and songs should include such long beloved favorites as Shalom Alechem and Lecha Dodi. Shalom Alechem is a beautiful song which Jewish people sometimes sing swaying back and forth with their arms around one another. Sung in this way by Jewish believers in Yehoshua, this song, which isabout the King of kings, becomes an eloquent witness that the King of kings and the L-rd of l-rds is Yehoshua Ha Mashiach. The most important opening hymn of the service is Lecha Dodi. In this 16th century Cabalist hymn, the Sabbath is personified as a queen who is welcomed by the worshippers. The fourth stanza is especially important for Messianic believers in Yehoshua for it says, "Shake thyself from the dust, arise, put on the garments of thy glory, o my people through the son of Jesse, the Bethlehemite, draw thou nigh unto my soul, redeem it." The other psalms are also important to the opening of the service. The theme of a "new song" in Psalm 96 is an especially relevant selection for a Messianic Erev Shabbat Service. Psalms 92 and 93 are beautiful expressions of thanksgiving and praise to the just,sovereign G-d of Israel and are included to set the tone of worship for the Friday evening service. The Psalms have always played an important part in the liturgy of the congregation andit is appropriate that a Messianic Erev Shabbat Service should begin with Psalms.(3) After the opening hymns and songs comes the second section of the service, which is the Shema and its framework of benedictions. The Shema (Deut. 6:4) is set in a framework of four benedictions in which two precede it and two follow it. The first two benedictions are the Baruch ah-tah and the Ah-ha-vaht. The Baruch ah-tah is a prayer which celebrates G-d as the giver of physical light and glorifies him for his role in creation. The Ah-ha-vaht blesses G-d as the giver of the spiritual light of Israel, the Torah. Both of these benedictions are preceded by the Canter's leading the congregation in prayer by singing the Bar-choo. The congregation either sings or recites sections of these benedictions in anticipation of the Shema. In the daily morning service of the Temple, the Ten Commandments were recited just before the Shema. Indeed, there could be no better place for a recitation of the Ten Commandments in the synagogue than after the Ah-ha-vaht which blesses G-d for giving his Torah to the people. Since Jewish believers in Yehoshua are often accused of abandoning the Torah, a recitation of the Ten Commandments in the liturgy of Messianic Judaism serves as an important witness to the Jewish Community.(4) The Shema consists of three sections of the Torah (Deut. 6:4-8; 11:13-22; Num.15:37-42). The sections from Deuteronomy and Numbers are either recited or sung in Hebrew and/or English by the congregation. In Judaism's declaration of the unity of G-d is the heart of the Friday Night Service. Therefore, this is the place to put the heart of Messianic Judaism's confessional faith, that there is one G-d and that Yehoshua the Moshiach is the L-rd. This total confession of Messianic Judaism should be sung in the synagogue on Friday night so that Jewish unbelievers present will understand that the saving confession is not the Shema alone (Jas.2:19) but that Yehoshua is L-rd (Ro. 10:9). Therefore when the Shema is sung it would be good to have the congregation sing "Ah-donai1, Ah-donai, Yehoshua Ha Mashiach Ah-donai, Ba-ruch ah-tah ah-donai elo-hay-noo, Yehoshua HaMashiach Ah-donai" (Sung to the tune of "He is L-rd"). With these few words Yehoshua is placed at the center of the worship life of the synagogue and everything that transpires all evening long is understood to be done in his name. The final two benedictions which conclude the Shema portion of the Friday evening service are called the Guellah and the Hahsh-kee-vey-noo. The word guellah means "redemption," and it comes from the next to the last word in the benediction, ga-ahi. Here the Jewish people assert their unfaltering faith in the G-d of Israel whose Torah is of eternal validity and who is trustworthy to save them even as he did at the Red Sea. There are quotations from the Bible in this benediction, including Job 9:10, Ps. 66:9., Exod.15:11,18 and Jer. 31:11. The guellah benediction includes the paragraph entitled "G-d our Redeemer" as well as Mee Chah-moh-cha. This latter portion, Mee Chah-moh-cha, is sung in the synagogue and there are many beautiful musical settings for it.(5) The Fourth Benediction which is the concluding benediction to bring the Shema portion of the service to a close is called Hash-kee-vey-noo from its first Hebrew word. The prayer is for protection during the night, and is an expression of man's dependence on G-d to protect him from all enemies, including the devil (Hebrew, sah-tahn). At the conclusion 0? the Fourth Benediction the Scripture from the Torah (Exod. 31:16-17) is normally recited. Besides this Scripture pointing to the significance of the day, there are also Scriptures inserted for the Jewish festivals such as Lev.23:44 for Pesach, Shavuos, and Succot in the liturgy. Also, there is a selection from Ps. 81:4-5 for the Jewish New Year, and Lev. 16:30 for the Day of Atonement. In some prayer books there is a Kaddish inserted at this point, but in a Messianic Jewish service the Kaddish need not be repeated but may only be recited once, when it falls later in the service. Therefore, with the recitation of the Fourth Benediction and the appropriate Scripture regarding the significance of the day,we have concluded the Shema portion of the service, which included two benedictions, the Shema, and two concluding benedictions. The congregation has stood to sing the Shema, and will stand again for the Amidah, which is the prayer par excellence of the Friday night service. The word Amidah means "standing," because the congregation stands and faces the ark and reads the prayer silently. These prayers come from the Shemoneh Esreh which are the Eighteen Benedictions, the oldest congregational prayers of the synagogue, almost all of them going back to the time of Yehoshua and even before. Although there are now Nineteen Benedictions, since one was added after the fall of the Second Temple, only six of these are silently read in the Friday night service. These are the first three benedictions, which are praises, and the last three which are thanksgivings. A "Benediction of the Day" is inserted in the middle to substitute for the twelve (now thirteen) intermediate blessings which are called petitions. These six benedictions are referred to by name in the Mishnah (Rosh Hashana IV. 5). The first one is called aboth, which means "fathers," and praises G-d as the G-d of history who brings Messianic redemption to his people. Benediction one begins after the quotation from PS. 51:17, "0 L-rd, open thou my lips and my mouth shall declare thy praise." Benediction one begins with the words, "Blessed art thou 0 L-rd our G-d", and goes to the words "thou art mighty to save." Supplementing the rest of the benedictions are occasional small interjections that are to be made on the festivals, but, for ordinary Sabbath service, these interjections are ignored so that the worshippers may read silently only the benedictions. The second benediction is called geburoth and means "mighty acts." It begins with the words "Thou 0 L-rd art mighty forever," and concludes with the words, "0 L-rd who quickenest the dead." This benediction celebrates G-d as the one who sustains both the living and the dead, and who is able to bring about the Resurrection. The third benediction is very short: "Thou art holy and thy name is holy and holy beings praise thee daily. Blessed art thou 0 L-rd, the holy G-d." This benediction is called the Kedushath HaShem which means the "sanctification of the name." With these three benedictions thefirst three praises are offered. Next comes the so-called "Benediction of the Day" which is the Ah-tah Kee-dahsh-tah. This includes both a quotation from Gen.2:1-3 and a prayer for the Sabbath which begins "Our G-d and G-d of our fathers." The thirteen intermediate petitions which would normally occur in the week-day Amidah are replaced in the Sabbath Amidah by a special prayer which varies depending on whether the Sabbath service is the Evening, Morning, Musaf, and Afternoon Service. This special replacement prayer for the thirteen intermediate petitions is deemed necessary because petitions dealing with want or sorrow such as are found in the thirteen intermediate petitions are considered inappropriate and disturbing to the sanctity of the Sabbath. Therefore the Sabbath Amidah in the synagogue always substitutes for these thirteen intermediate petitions the special prayer called the "Benediction of the Day." On Friday night, the Benediction for the Day includes Gen. 2:1-3 and a prayer called "Our G-d and God of our Fathers." The last three "Thanksgiving" petitions of the Friday night Sabbath Amidah deal respectively with the Temple, with G-d himself, and with shalom. The firstof these, Benediction Seventeen, is called Avodah, which means "Service," because it thanks G-d that he will restore the Temple worship service in Jerusalem. This benediction starts "Accept, 0 L-rd our G-d, thy people Israel and their prayer" and concludes with "who restoreth thy divine presence unto Zion." Benediction eighteen is the second of the "Thanksgiving" benedictions, and it is called Hodah, which means "thanksgiving." It begins with "We give thanks unto thee" and concludes with "unto whom it is becoming to give thanks." The last benediction in the Amidah is Benediction nineteen which is Birkat Ha-kohanim (meaning "the Blessing of the Priests"). This benediction was normally preceded by the Kohen's Blessing of Num. 6:24-26 in the Morning Sabbath Service. Benediction nineteen is a prayer for peace, which begins "Grant abundant peace unto Israel" and concludes with "blessed art thou O L-rd who blessest thy people Israel with shalom." Following the last benediction in the Amidah there is a silent meditation, "0 my G-d, guard my tongue from evil and my lips from speaking guile" which concludes with "let the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart be acceptable for thee, 0 L-rd, my rock and my redeemer." This concluding meditation was written by a famous fourth century rabbi named Mar and contains reference to Psalm 60:7 and 19:15. It is an appropriate conclusion because, since the last benediction of the Amidah concerns peace, this meditation deals with the evil tongue, which is the most terrible enemy of shalom. Finally, there is one more silent meditation beginning "May it be thy will," Although this particular petition has found its way into the liturgy, this might be a good place for spontaneous silent prayer where each person makes his own petition. (6) The Amidah is sometimes concluded by a recitation of Gen. 2:1-3, repeated three times in some prayer books, once in the middle of the Amidah; once concluding the Amidah; once at the beginning of the Kiddush. Also, a summary of the Amidah is sometimes recited at the close of the Amidah portion of the service. However, these repetitions could be omitted from the liturgy for the sake of time, which could be taken instead by reading from the Torah and the Haftorah (the Pentateuch and the Prophets). There is no good reason why this scriptural reading from Moses and the Prophets could not precede the sermon, normally not preached on Saturday in the time of Yehoshua but on Friday night. (7) The congregation rises to its feet when the Torah is taken out of the ark so that the Scripture may be read. The Torah reading may be a set reading so that in regular annual periods the entire Pentateuch can be read. The word Haftorah means "dismissal" or"conclusion," since it probably came at the end of the service originally. (8) However, since the sermon may want to make reference to both the reading from the Torah and the Prophets, it would be good to have the Haftorah read before the sermon. The practice of reading both the Lawand the Prophets goes back to Brit Chadasha times (see Luke 4:16 and Acts 13:14-16). The Haftorah readings have been set in more recent times, but originally the Haftorah selections were probably up to the discretion of the reader. Following the sermon comes the Kaddish. This beautiful prayer speaks not only of the glorification of G-d but of the Messianic hope, and was once spoken at the conclusion of rabbinic discourses as a kind of doxology to conclude a sermon. This is one of the most ancient prayers in Judaism and is important for its promise of the resurrection and the establishment of the Messianic Kingdom of G-d. This prayer must surely have been on the mind of Yehoshua when he composed the Moshiach's Tefillah and therefore it is most appropriate that the Moshiach's Tefillah follow the Kaddish to remind mourners reciting the Kaddish that the Moshiach has come to bring mourning to a close. Therefore, it would be appropriate for the spiritual leader to ask for all those who have lost loved ones to stand and recite the Kaddish. Then, following the recitation of the Kaddish, the spiritual leader could ask the entire congregation to stand and to recite the Moshiach's Tefillah. This would be a tremendous testimony to Jewish people of the hope that they have in the Moshiach of Judaism. No thought here would be given of the eternal destiny of those who died. It is not our duty to tell Jewish people whether or not their loved ones are in Gehinnom. This is something that in the final analysis only G-d knows for sure, and we cannot play the judge. But it is our responsibility to tell Jewish people who the One is who alone can take away their mourning and dry all their tears, and this One is the Moshiach of Judaism, Yehoshua. Therefore, in the Kaddish and the Moshiach's Tefillah the sermon is given a double congregational amen. For the common theme in both the Kaddish and the Moshiach's Tefillah is the glorification of G-d and the sanctification of his Name, which of course is also the goal of any good sermon. The important concluding prayer of the service is the Ahleynoo which means "it is our duty." This prayer contains Scriptures from the Tanach including Dan. 2:37, Deut. 4:39, Exod. 15:18 and Zech. 14:9. In the Messianic Erev Shabbat service the Ahleyoo is a prayer in which Jewish people acknowledge their election by Cod as the people who are selected to preach G-d as the King of the universe to all men. The second half of the prayer visualizes a world which is one kingdom with one G-d as its King. The congregation stands for the Ahleynoo and bows toward the ark as it confesses its faith in the one G-d. The Kiddush is a weekly ceremony ushering in the Sabbath. It is a sanctifying of the day, hence its name. Originally it was a home ceremony in which a benediction was said not only over wine but also matzoh. However, when wayfarers would lodge and eat on the synagogue premises, the blessing over the fruit of the vine was made in the synagogue in Babylon and in some medieval European countries so that the travelers could have the benefit of the Kiddush away from home. The Kiddush came at the end of the service and it is especially important that the Kiddush be at the end of a Messianic Erev Shabbat service because of the remembrance of Moshiach Adoneynu at his Tish (Table) it contains for all Messianic Jews. This portion of the service could even be a possible place for communion in some Messianic synagogues and as such would occur last as the spiritual climax of the service. The spiritual leader has the choice of at least two favorite hymns to conclude the service: Ayn keh-loh-hay-noo ("There Is None Like Our G-d") and Adon Olam ("L-rd of the Universe"). Ayn keh-loh-hay-noo glorifies G-d as L-rd, King and Saviour of the Jewish people, and it answers the question that Moses asks in Exo. 15.11, "Who is like our G-d?" The answer is, "There is none like our G-d." Adon Olam is a centuries old hymn which glorifies G-d as the L-rd of the Universe and is the traditional closing hymn for the Friday Night Service. The Priestly Blessing of Num. 6:24-26 is an appropriate benediction for Messianic Jews who have realized the priestly role to which they have been called. The spiritual leader can at this point raise his hand and dismiss the congregation with the blessing as the people prepare to be greeted by him and to join one another for the Oneg Shabbat ("Joy of the Sabbath") which is a social/religious refreshment time following the service. The only portion of the Friday Night Service which has been omitted in the Messianic Erev Shabbat Service described here is the Yigdal, which is a poetic hymn that summarizes the "Thirteen Principles of the Faith" according to Maimonides. The unbiblical theology of this document makes it inappropriate for a Messianic Erev Shabbat Service because it gives Moses a pre-eminence belonging to the Moshiach and it makes certain assertions about the nature of the G-d of Israel that are unbiblical: namely, that in his unity he is simple (yachid) rather than complex (echad) which the Bible nowhere asserts. Rather than end the service on the gloomy note of an unbiblical Yigdal confession, the order has been changed so that following the sermon comes the Kaddish, 2) L-rd's Prayer, 3) Ahleynoo, 4) Kiddush, and 5) Concluding Songs and Benediction. As the service approaches its conclusion, the fruit of the vine upraised in the Kiddush cup symbolizes the "Jubilee Judaism' of Yehoshua. For he is the one who changes water into wine and who brings the simcha of the Kingdom of G-d to us even now in this dying age. In him G-d revealed that He is echad, a complex unity, and in him the form of the mode of being of G-d took the form of a servant. In him Judaism finds its fulfillment and its true simcha and shalom. Credit should be given here for groundwork laid by other scholars, which should be helpful in constructing messianic Jewish liturgy for the festivals and other occasions. Dalman's chapter on the synagogue in Jesus-Yeshua is very helpful for getting a sense of what synagogue worship was like at the time of Yehoshua. Idelsohn's book, Jewish Liturgy and Its Development, gives an analysis of the liturgical components of the Sabbath and other services. The annotated work of The Authorized Daily Prayer Book edited by Joseph Hertz is most useful in understanding the religious significance of the various prayers in the Sabbath service as well as the Biblical underpinnings. Eric Werner's book, The Sacred Bridge, is helpful in seeing the liturgical parallels between the synagogue and the early community of Messiah, as is also Oesterley's book, The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy. All of these works plus the personal experience of attending many kinds of synagogues were helpful in this study. It is hoped that the development of Messianic Jewish liturgy can be used by the Kehillah of Yehoshua to reach out to the Jewish Community and to show Jewish people that the Body of Moshiach is really a Messianic synagogue herself and has the freedom to become as much like the Jewish Kehillah to win the Jewish Kehillah as she does to become like the Gentiles to win Gentiles. (I Cor. 9:20-23). With services such as these in operation the rabbinic interpretation of Judaism will find stiff competition from Yehoshu's interpretation of Judaism, and the Jewish conmunity will find itself faced with a real theological alternative to Rabbinic Judaism which takes her culture seriously and offers her not only the opportunity to be Jewish but the opportunity to live in the peace which comes from faith in the Besuras Hageulah of Judaism. There is freedom in the Brit Chadasha for Messianic Jews to meet not only on Yom Rishon but also Shabbos (Acts 21:20; I Cor. 9:19-20; Romans 14:5, 6). The Saturday morning Sabbath service follows an outline similar to that of Friday miqht A) Opening prayers and hymns; B) The Shema; C) The Amidah; D) Torah and Haftorah readings and sermon; E) Closing prayers and hymns. Leaving aside the somewhat repetitive task of analyzing the liturgy, let us focus on the highly important Torah section (D). In many of the coming messianic synagogues this will be the portion of the religious service where the climax of the Jewish education of young adults will occur. The Bar and Bat Mitzvah services, which represent the fruit of Jewish Biblical, cultural and language training, may be conducted during the Torah-Haftorah readings. When time comes in the service for the study of Scripture, readings may be in both Hebrew and in either English or the native language of the congreqation. The Messianic bar mitzvah candidate may recite one of the blessings for the reading of the Torah or Haftorah, or part of the Torah or Haftorah portions or lead the service. Some of the important prayers during the Scripture readings are as follows: Bahr-choo et Ah-doh-noy hahm-voh-rahch, Bless the L-rd who is to be blessed. Bah-rooch Ah-doh-noy hahm-voh-rahch l'ohlahm vah-ed. Blessed be the L-rd who is blessed forever and ever. Bah-rooch ah-tah Ah-doh-noy Eloh-hey-noo melech ha-oh-lahm ah-sher bah-chahr bah-noo mee-kohl ha-ah-meem v'nah-tahn lah-noo et Toh-rah-toh bah-rooch ah-tah Ah-doh-noy noh-tain hah-Toh-rah Blessed art Thou, L-rd our G-d, King of the universe, who hast chosen us from all peoples, and hast given us Thy Torah. Blessed art Thou, O L-rd, Giver of the Torah. Bah-rooch ah-tah Ah-doh-nye Eloh-hey-noo melech ha-ohlahm ah-sher nah-tahn lah-noo Toh-raht eh-meht v'chah-yay oh-lahm nah-tah b'toh-chey-noo hah-rooch ah-tah Ah-doh-noy noh-tain ha-toh-rah. Blessed art Thou, L-rd our G-d, King of the Universe, who hast given us the Torah of truth, and hast planted everlasting life in our midst. Blessed art Thou, O L-rd, Giver of the Torah. May he who blessed our fathers, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, bless (person called to read) who has been called to the reading of the Torah. May the Holy One bless him and his family, and send blessing and prosperity on all the work of his hands; and let us say, Amen. Two concluding points are relevant here. First, the importance of the Bar Mitzvah service can not be overemphasized. Without it, the religion of Yehoshua appears to many Jews as a sure road to cultural assimilation (in three, if not two generations). Many Jews, even non-religious Jews who care little for the synagogue, think of the Bar Mitzvah for their children when they think about their religion with any positive sentiments. Of one thing these parents are sure: their children will have at 1east as much Temple identity and Jewish religious education as the training prior to Bar Mitzvah will offer them. Our Biblical Faith is not at all a viable option to such people because to them a religion which does not offer the Bar Mitzvah could not be truly Jewish. In short, a real cultural barrier exists here and a real cultural adjustment must be made if these Jewish people are to ever know that Yehoshua is their Moshiach and become Moshiach's talmidim. Second, the Jewish parochial school is an important tool for preparing Jewish children to witness to their Brit Chadasha faith in the Bar Mitzvah service. With the rise of immorality stemming from secularism in public schools, congregations have already seen the need for parochial education; however, an even greater need exists in the case of the coming Messianic synagogue. Education retards cultural assimilation. The Jewish Community's corporate fear of assimilation may prevent it from flowing into the Body of Moshiach Adoneinu until proper provision is made for the Biblical and cultural education of Jewish youth. When there are enough messianic synagogues, enough Jewish parochial schools, enough messianic Bar and Bat Mitzvahs to insure a sufficient number of Jewish believers for an adequate Jewish messianic marriage market, then a Jewish people movement in the Kehillah of Moshiach will begin, and will probably increase as has never been seen before in the history of the Jewish people. Therefore, a celebration of Shabbat in light of the Brit Chadasha really presupposes more than a minor liturgical adjustment. Masses of Jewish people must be exposed to the Good News through all possible means of communication. All the People of Messiah must be educated and mobilized into action. Jewish Bible classes and chavurot must be multiplied. Messianic Jewish congresses must convene. Messianic synagogues must be organized. Jewish parochial schools must be founded. New structures must be formed and old structures in the Jewish Community must be leavened with Jewish believers. Much work lies ahead. But G-d will lead the way and use all these means to build bridges whereby hundreds of thousands of Jewish families can come into the Kehillah of the Moshiach and can come to know their true Sabbath rest in the Eternal Covenant of G-d. May the formation of many messianic Yeshivas in the United States and around the world hasten the day! PART II? MESSIANIC YESHIVA -- SUBJECT MATTER, RESOURCES,AND POSSIBLEMODELS CHAPTER SEVEN: A MESSIANIC YESHIVA BY JOSEPH SHULAM One would think that with all the different institutions of higher learning that exist within the framework of Evangelical Biblical Faith, we would not need a hybrid referred to by nature and by name as a messianic yeshiva." However, the need for a messianic yeshiva arises intrinsically from two basic presuppositions: (1) Jewish people who accept the Brit Chadasha and Yehoshua as their personal Moshi'a (Savior) need to study the Good News of the Brit Chadasha in a Jewish setting. (2) The traditional interpretation and approach to the Brit Chadasha Scriptures has not taken sufficiently into account their Jewish background. Granted, in the last two thousand years, the study of Biblical hermeneutics has taken into account the Greek, the pagan, the mystery religion background of the Brit Chadasha texts. However, we must not forget that the Brit Chadasha Scriptures were written in the main by Jews and for Jews in a Jewish context (namely, the conflict between the Jewish believers and the synagogue). A messianic yeshiva would be a fertile academy for further study in this area. Returning to the first presupposition, within the traditional Jewish upbringing, the educational method of learning has been a dynamic and a Socratic method of learning. Learning in the rabbinical colleges (which are called yeshivas by the Jewish community) was and is today basically according to the Socratic method of questions and answers. This aspect will be expanded later in this article, but first let us define and understand the concept of "yeshiva." "Yeshiva" basically comes from the Hebrew word for "sitting, sitting and meeting together." This concept is derived from the fact that people gathered, usually on the Sabbath day, to study together at their leisure the tradition and the law. Originally, in the First Century context, there was no term as "yeshiva." The term used for the rabbinical schools was Bet Midrash, "the house of learning." In these institutions, the pupils gathered together to discuss and to define the Jewish law mainly by reflecting it one from another. This method was called "chavruta" which means "get together of friends." It comes from the root of the word "chaver" and means "to join or to become friends." This is clearly defined in the tradition of the early Tannaitic rabbis that were called the "zugot" or the "pairs," because the great rabbis were "paired" in polemics. From their polemics came the great teachings of the Scriptures. This, then, is the yeshiva method, which comes from questions and answers. If one will forgive the over-generalization, there is within our Jewish character a certain argumentativeness, an impetuousness. I would offer the theory that this quality of character has developed as a result of the traditional yeshiva method of study, which was designed to be a mind-sharpening experience by the questions and answers. Now, what advantage would such a thing be for people who are reborn believers? The first advantage that we have in using the yeshiva method to train men of G-d is to understand the Jewish background of the Brit Chadasha and at the same time be effective witnesses of Yehoshua as our personal Saviour even within the Jewish setting of our studies. In the messianic yeshiva we would learn to encounter in a very Jewish way the questions and the objections the Jewish people have to believing in the Brit Chadasha. The second benefit that such a method of learning would have is in the materials that would be learned in the yeshiva. We are not talking about a place in which only the Bible would be learned. We are talking about a place in which the traditional Jewish body of literature would also be given general attention, with special emphasis of how to use this Jewish literature to present a better and more Jewish approach to win to the L-rd the Jewish people cognizant of this literature. The objective of a traditional Jewish yeshiva is what is called "Talmud Torah." Talmud Torah, "the learning of the Torah," is considered an end in itself. However, as a messianic Jew, I don't see in my vision room for an institution of higher learning that would delve strictly (for the sake of intellectual exercise only) into this vast body of Jewish tradition. But I do see that, because of two thousand years of the wrong kind of Biblical witness to the Jews, we need to revise our witness and use good sense and tactics in preaching the Good News to the Jewish people from within the structure and the tradition which they are well acquainted with. In addition to this, I feel that through the study of this Jewish literature and the use of it for witnessing, we can get a better grasp of certain of the issues and relationships of Biblical doctrine that would not only enable us to witness, but also give us a deeper understanding and a closer walk with Yehoshua. Now, what do people study in an Orthodox Jewish yeshiva normally? In an Orthodox yeshiva, first of all, in the early ages, emphasis is put on the Mishnah, mainly on memorizing the Mishnah and not really delving in depth into every possible interpretation. In the higher classes and high school, emphasis is put on the Talmud and mainly on the passages of the Talmud which deal with halakhah. Not a great deal of emphasis is put in the beginning years of Talmudic study on the subject matter itself but mainly on the method of study. A knowledge of the Talmudic method of study is very important for us as students of the Brit Chadasha, because we must realize that especially in Paul or Sha'ul's literature some of the same types of questions and answers in this Talmudic style were incorporated by Sha'ul, the student of Gamaliel. Understanding how to study First Century Jewish literature would assist us in understanding Sha'ul and his writings. See, for example, such rhetorical questions which betray a clearly rabbinical style in Sha'ul as these: "Since we have grace, shall we sin more so that grace may abound? (Romans 6:1) Is there an advantage to the Jew? (Romans 3:1) Is the law unholy? G-d forbid. (Romans 7:7) Was Israel stumbling in order that they may be lost?" (Romans 11:11) Questions like this and their answers portray a clearly rabbinical and Talmudic style. In the hiqher levels and after high school the Orthodox yeshiva concentrates on what is called the Midrashic literature, the different stories and legends (haggadot) in the Talmud and in the related Midrashic literature. These very old traditions are sometimes important because they have direct applications to the Brit Chadasha Scripture and its background. In a messianic yeshiva, I would see the main purpose of the course of our study as being to train students in how to present Yehoshua as the Moshiach of the Jewish people and as an intrinsic part of G-d's revelation to Israel. That is, to present Biblical Judaism, not as it has been presented in traditional circles as another religion, an alternative to the Jewish religion of the first century, but as an outgrowth and an offshoot of that same root to which Abraham, Isaac and Moses belonged. In the Orthodox Jewish yeshiva, we must understand that the objective of every religious Jew is to eventually study the law. It does not make a difference if he's a watchmaker, a cobbler or a tailor. He desires to study the law and G-d's Word and his tradition. This he desires to do, at least part-time, if he cannot dedicate himself full-time to this great commandment and calling. Remember, in Tevya's song from "The Fiddler on the Roof" it says, "If I were a rich man, I would sit and study the Torah all day long.." This is the vision not only of the so-called Rabbi or Jewish clergy but of every Jew that is interested in delving deeper into the knowledge of G-d. So a messianic yeshiva could be a layman's school, as well as for clergy, and would be modified in a pragmatic way to equip the believer to qive an answer for the hope which G-d has planted in him through Yehoshua the Moshiach. The teacher in any yeshiva, messianic or orthodox, is a very important figure. The teacher is important, not because he stands before the class and lectures, as professors in universities and in seminaries do, but because he is the one informed person who has the time to spent individually with people when they have questions. Basically, the teacher (rabbi) has his time multiplied by the fact that, as he presents the subjects and the difficulties and asks the questions from the students, they separate into groups of two-by-two to discuss the text, its intricacies and its solutions. Then, when they gather together again at the end of the day, the rabbi is able to ask his students the questions that would be relevant to bring forth the most dynamic and valuable lessons that they could learn from the text that has been discussed. Now I have said this much in order to state that a yeshiva is not necessarily an institution which requires large facilities. Mainly, it is an institution which deals with a certain approach and method to learning. This is why it is important to realize that, in order to start a messianic yeshiva, the main thing one needs first is to have the people, the students who are willing and hungry to win souls for the L-rd in the most effective and in the most convincing Jewish way. I would say that this is the first requirement for a yeshiva. The second requirement for a yeshiva is to have the basic books and works with which Jewish people are familiar, and which contain in them the material that would best relate to the Brit Chadasha Scriptures. Unlike a traditional Jewish yeshiva, I would say that studying a tractate of Babylonian Talmud Bezah is not the most important thing that a messianic yeshiva should be studying, although it is one of the tractates that is normally studied in an Orthodox yeshiva. On the other hand, a tractate like Sanhedrin has multiple passages that are dealing with the Jewish view of our Moshiach (they don't want to use the name Yeshuah but Yeshu which is a derogatory sense of the word Yeshua.) Therefore, a talmudic tractate like Sanhedrin would yield multiple passages dealing with the person of Moshiach Yehoshua. These passages have been sometimes used as a stumbling block to prevent Jewish people from accepting the L-rd as their Saviour. But, a careful analysis and study of these passages could reverse them and they could be used as an important tool to show the historicity, the validity, and the true character of the teachings of Yehoshua as the Ben haElohim and as the Moshiach. (Note the short bibliography at the end of this chapter which would help the student in looking through these vast volumes of Jewish literature and finding material that could be beneficial to this kind of a learning experience.) What else is needed to start a messianic yeshiva? We said that first of all you need the people willing to become serious students and effective witnesses, made more credible by their familiarity with this Jewish literature. Secondly, we said the yeshiva needs to have the right books. In addition, we must stress that the learning of the Hebrew language in a messianic yeshiva would be imperative. Much of the Jewish literature we are talking about has not been adequately translated into English and is still not respected in its English version by the Jewish community. Therefore, one of the principal courses of study in a messianic yeshiva, in my opinion, would he the learning of the Hebrew and Aramaic languages to enable one to delve deeper into this vast Jewish literature. In addition to the learning of the Hebrew language, the messianic yeshiva should offer its students a very close spiritual pattern of life. Messianic spiritual warriors have to have a very living faith which expresses itself in a devotional life that is unequivocally dedicated to Yehoshua as the Moshiach and to the discovery and the preaching of the Brit Chadasha Scriptures as a Jewish book! A messianic yeshiva would not survive and will not succeed if there is no rich exercise of all the fruits of G-d's Spirit in prayer and in fasting and in a dedicated life that would be an example to any Orthodox Jew that would stumble upon such a yeshiva. Some of the practical technicalities of the yeshiva as they are expressed in the messianic Jewish cultural context are these. First of all, an orthodox yeshiva is usually open from Yom Rishon to Friday at noon. The study hours are twice during the day-time, when the rabbi addresses his students, once in the morning when he presents to them the chapter or the page in which they will be studying (and gives some direction to it), and once in the evening when the rabbi of the yeshivah gathers his talmidim to find out what they have learned (and to redirect their thinking in case they have strayed from what is right). The messianic yeshiva, depending on where and when it is started, would probably have to make some adjustments because of the cultural difficulties in daily life. We in Israel have found that because of the fact that believers are scattered over a large part of the country and their numbers are limited, it is only possible for us to meet one day a week with three, four or five hours in straight intensive study. However, I realize that in a different context in America, it would be possible to give more time for such an endeavor. The question would be left to the local needs of the students or congregations participating. In addition, I would say that a messianic yeshiva ought not to appear as a cultural-theological mongrel but ought to be authentically a messianic Jewish expression. This can be achieved by decorating the place, or in the clothes that we wear, the yarmulke or kippah, the tallis, the fringes, which provide the feeling of being inside the community and an authentic yeshiva. Now I realize that these are only outward, but atmosphere is important for our credibility. In all the discussions of a messianic yeshiva we are talking as if we are ignoring our Gentile brothers and sisters. It is true that a messianic yeshiva would be primarily designed for training Jewish believers to be better witnesses to their fellow Jewish brothers and sisters, but I would say that a messianic yeshiva is not only for Jewish believers but any believer, be he Gentile or a Jew, that has a burden for Israel and desires to see Jewish people saved and wants to understand the Jewish background of the Brit Chadasha. Any such believer would find interest and spiritual edification in studying in the same way that Sha'ul studied from Gamliel, and with the same method, and even some of the same materials. It is important for us to know that the Jewish people who have been educated in the Orthodox tradition are well aware of many of the passages in the Talmud dealing with Yehoshua. These passages reverberate over and over again in the mind of the educated Jew preventing him from seeing the Brit Chadasha as the Word of G-d. The average Jew looks at the Brit Chadasha as the "Christian Bible." It is important for us in our witness to the Jewish people to establish not only the divinity of Yehoshua and his office as Moshiach, but also to establish the very deep Jewish roots in the writings of the shluchim of the Brit Chadasha. For this reason, I feel that anyone who wants to be more effective as a witness to Israel would by necessity have to deal sooner or later with some of this yeshiva material. Therefore, where is there a better place than with the chavurah of other Jewish and Non-Jewish brothers who want to see the people of G-d return to their true spiritual heritage in Yehoshua the Moshiach? Now let us delve into the curricula and into the material that is actually studied in the yeshiva. First of all, let us deal with the curriculum of a messianic yeshiva. Every yeshiva, whether it be that of believers or of the Orthodox Jews, starts with the studying of the basic mishnaic literature. I would think that in order to interest the students initially it would be important to study a tractate that has connections and implication to their faith. That, of course, is different than the average Orthodox yeshiva. The average yeshiva starts with the tort laws and the agricultural laws. But the messianic yeshiva, in my opinion, ought to start with something liko Pirkei Avot, "the sayings of the Fathers," in English, or another tractate that would generate the initial interest and zeal required to attack this material. After one learns the character of the Mishnah and its background I would think that it would be time to delve into how to analyze and study the arguments of a Talmudic page. In Israel the yeshiva regularly started with Tort laws (which are usually found in Baba Metzia or Baba Kamma of the Babylonian Talmud) or in Kiddushin, "marital laws." But any one of these tractates would be sufficient to teach a student how to study by himself a page of Talmud. After the understanding and the analysis of this methodological application, I think it would be time to start to deal with some of the passages that touch on Yehoshua and to see if one could understand them. One should attempt to understand their background and their literary character, not only in order to refute them but in order to gain an insight into the minds of the Rabbis who actually thought that they would have an impact on the Jewish people and would serve as contraceptives to the powerful message of the Besuras Hageulah. After a course of dealing with the passages throughout the Talmud that touch on Yehoshua, I would think that it would be right for the believer to delve into some of the messianic concepts and problems that are discussed in tractates like Sanhedrin and Hagigah and in separate incidents in the different tractates of the Talmud. I think that the course of study of such dimensions would probably take as long as a year. The second year I would suggest would be dedicated to the Midrashic literature and its parallels in the Biblical hermeneutics of the Brit Chadasha. The third year of the yeshiva study, I think ought to be dedicated to the text of the Brit Chadasha itself and to the application of the things that have been studied before in the direct witness of the Brit Chadasha to the Jewish community. Of course, what I have said does not exhaust all the material that should be studied, but it would at least give to the person interested enough knowledge that he could pursue this study on his own as long as he lives. Now, in order to achieve all this study, the yeshiva has to have some books. First of all it would be imperative to have the basic Biblical tools for study: that is, of course, the Concordances, the Dictionaries, the Biblical Encyclopaedias, that are general tools for examining the Scriptures. Second of all, I would say that the yeshiva ought to have the Babylonian Talmud, the Jerusalem Talmud, the set of the rabbinical commentaries of the Torah which are all included in Mikraot Gedolot and all the books of Maimonides. These would serve as an excellent commentary on the Talmud and the Laws. In addition to these, one could have of course the Hebrew and the English versions of all these books that are available and then the major midrashim of the five books of Moses and the five scrolls, Esther, Ecclesiastes, Song of Songs, Ruth and Lamentations. The major midrashim can be obtained in English by the Soncino Press. A messianic yeshiva should have an Encyclopaedia Judaica. If the people know Hebrew, then the Talmudic Encyclopaedia, which has been published in Hebrew,is important. Also, there is Marcus Jastrow's Dictionary of the Targumim, the Talmud Babli and Yerushalmi, and the Midrashic Literature, published by Judaica Press. There is also Rosenthal's Aramaic Grammar. Now I realize that such books are costly. What we did in Israel to help was to type out and reproduce the lessons so that students didn't have to buy all the books, but could have available to them the particular lessons that they had to study during that day. I would suggest that a messianic yeshiva save by the employ of a full-time secretary to type out these lessons, both in Hebrew and in English. There are additional works that would be helpful to the student of the Jewish background to the Brit Chadasha Scriptures and which deal with the character of Yehoshua. Let me mention a few of them. First, there is Dr. Gustaf Dalman, Jesus Christ in the Talmud, Midrash and Zohar and the Liturgy of the Synagogue, pulished in 1839 in London and republished by Arnold Press of New York in the series of the Jewish People, History, Religion and Literature. Emil Schurer, The History of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ which was published in two volumes. Also by Schurer there is The Literature of the Jewish People in the Time of Jesus Christ, and also Sefer Toldot Yeshua, (The Book of the Genealogies of Yehoshua) which was published in English. Then R. Travors Herford has written, Christianity and the Jewish Talmud. Many of these can be found in libraries, such as Hermann L. Strack's Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, a Temple Book, Atheneum NY 1972; David Daube, The New Testament and Rabbinic Judaism; W.D. Davies, Christian Origins and Judaism, both published by Arnold Press, reprints; W. D. Davis, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism; E. P. Sanders, Palestinian Judaism and Paul; E. P. Sanders' second book has been published called, Problems of Identity in Judaism and Christianity in the Second Century. Hans Shoeps, Paul. There are numerous other books which wou]d be helpful to a person who is interested to know more about the Jewish background of the Brit Chadasha, but these would be some good suggestions to start with in building a proper source library for a messianic yeshiva. In conclusion, it is clear to me that there is a real need both for the growth of the Jewish believers and for the witness to the Jews, to establish real schools of training for people who are interested in bringing the Besuras Hageulah to Israel and to the Jewish community throughout the world. In addition, I believe a model would be afforded to the non-Jewish Bible believers by these yeshivas showing the implications for cross-cultural communication of the Besuras Hageulah. This model would enhance the effectiveness of those who are interested in reaching people of different cultures, namely, by showing that not only an outward adaptation of the Besuras Hageulah but also an adaptation in the very means of communications is a healthy imperative for an effective witness. I long to see the day when one or two such messianic rabbinical yeshivas will be established in the United States and in Israel in order to train Jewish believers to give a more effective witness on the one hand,and a deeper understanding and identity with their own heritage on the other hand, as well as an effective tool for the evangelizing of Israel that she may return to her true and natural Moshiach, the Son of David who, in the name of Israel and the Jewish people,brought salvation to all mankind. CHAPTER EIGHT: RABBINIC WRITINGS BY RACHMIEL FRYDLAND Reprint by permission (c)copyright 1980 Hineni Ministriesin Basic to Talmudic and Rabbinic writings is the claim that their teachings have Mosaic authority. Thus one of the most important tractates in the Talmud begins with these words: Moses received the LAW from Sinai and handed it down to Joshua, and Joshua to the elders, and the elders to the prophets, and the prophets handed it down to the men of the Great Assembly. (Tractate Avot 1:1) This was sufficient excuse for later rabbinic opinions and decisions to claim Mosaic authority. While the L-rd Yehoshua is aware of this claim, as seen in Matt. 23:2, "The Scribes and Pharisees sit on Moses' seat," he goes on to show the inconsistency of the Rabbis between their teachings and practice. Their claim to Divine origin, therefore, has no practical value. THE PEOPLE OF THE BOOK Nevertheless, the Jewish people are justly called "The People of the Book," for G-d called them to write down His Word for us, both Tanach and Brit Chadasha, as the Shliach Sha'ul says: "Then what advantage has the Jew? . . . Much in every way. To begin with, the Jews are entrusted with the Oracles of G-d." (Roman 3:1-2) In addition, the Jewish people were primarily responsible in preserving for us intact the text of the Tanach. From the time of Ezra, of whom it is said,"Ezra...was a scribe skilled in the law of Moses" (Ezra 7:6), until this very day, the religious Jewish scribe is extremely careful in copying and preserving the text of the Tanach. The scribes not only carefully copied the Tanach text, but also produced new religious teachings based on the Old, as the L-rd Yehoshua says: "Therefore, every scribe who has been trained for the Kingdom is like a householder who brings out of his teasure what is new and what is old."(Matt. 13:51) TEN PERIODS OF JEWISH LITERATURE Generally speaking, Religious Hebrew Literature can be divided into Ten Periods: 1. The period of Holy Scriptures; 2. The Intertestamental Period, when the books of the Apocrypha were composed; 3. The Brit Chadasha Period, when as we believe, some of the books like Matthew and Ya'akov were originally composed in Hebrew; 4. The Talmudic and Midrashic writings, 5. The Gaonic Period; 6. The Kabbalah which is esoteric and mystic explanation of the Torah; 7. The Karaite Period, those who denied the Rabbinic authority; 8. The Jewish Religious Poetry. Much of it became part of the Jewish Prayer Books for the various Jewish Holidays and Holy Days; 9. The writings of the Decision Makers. The Codes of Biblical and Jewish Law in the narrower ceremonial sense; 10. The writings of the Hassidim and their Rabbis. Leaving out the first three periods, which we assume are familiar to our readers, we take up the Talmudic and Midrashic writings. Perhaps we should not have used the term "writings," for until at least 200 A.D., these teachings were handed down orally from generation to generation. (Nevertheless, even in this period, when it was officially forbidden to put these teachings into a book, there is strong probability that some of the students and Rabbis would at least have made some notes as aide-memoire.) Be it as it may, we are told that Rabbi Yehuda Hannasi, who died 212 A.D., composed the first part of the Talmud called "The Mishna," which simply means "The Teaching" or "The Learning." It has six parts to it, dealing with the following Laws: 1. Zera'im. Seeds, dealing with laws relating to Agriculture. To this section has been added, at the beginning, the laws of which blessings to say over the various foods and seeds. And, since one should not eat before one prays, also the laws for the Daily Prayers. 2. Mo'ed. Seasons, laws regarding the Sabbath and the Jewish Holy Days. 3. Nashim. Women, laws relating to marriage, divorce, marriage treaties, levirate marriage, suspicion of unfaithfulness, etc. 4. Nezikin. Damages. Criminal laws, also laws for the Court and Court Proceedings. In this tractate is also included Avot -- the Sayings of the Fathers from which we quoted the first Mishna at the beginning of this article. 5. Kodashim. Holy Things pertaining to Temple Services and sacrifices; also dietary laws, slaughter of animals, laws of meat and dairy dishes. 6. Toharot. Purification of Priests, people and women. It must have been a gigantic task to put all these laws in order. Rabbi Yehuda had the help of his many students to complete the task, who, as we surmised, must have had some notes to aid their memories. THE GEMARA The ink was hardly dry, and a new generation of scholars began to discuss and expound the Mishna. They recalled teachings which were not incorporated in the Mishna called Beraitot (Aramaic for the text left outside). Others worked on a Tosefta (Additions to the Mishna), but the main body of scholars were occupied with discussing and exegeting the reasons that lie behind the final decisions of the Mishna. They could not contradict what was decided, but by far-fetched sophistication they could modify or explain things in spite of seeming contradiction with the Biblical text or contractions within itself or with a Beraitha or a Tosephta. The Palestinian Schools of Tiberias, Sephoris, and Lydda, suffering under persecutions of the Roman governors, especially one Ursicinos, were forced to complete their work by 400A.D. The Babylonian schools had much more freedom to elucidate the teaching of the former Rabbis. They established far more academies. The most famous were in Nehardea, Sura, Pumbeditha, Mahoza, Naresh and Mata-Mehasya, all in Babylonia which is now Iraq. The Halakhic exegesis was usually accomplished by two famous Rabbinic leaders taking opposite views and each adducing reasons and Scripture to support his view. The most famous of these pairs are Rav (short for Rab Abba) (died 250 A.D.) versus Shmuel, and Rava (also for another R. Abba) (died 352 A,D.) versus Abaye. Rabba bar Nahmavi (320 A.D.) was called Oker Harim (Uprooter of Mountains because of his erudition) and R. Joseph (323 A.D.) was referred to as Sinai (because of his knowledge of the Law). The larger Babylonian Talmud has 2? million words consisting of one-third halakha (law) and two-thirds Aggada (religious and ethical stories and teaching). The Babylonian Talmud was arranged and closed by the two great scholars Rabina and Rab Ashi at the Academy of Mata Mehasya. THE GAONIM The scholars following them were called Gaonim. To them were addressed Questions about the choice of a final decision in a matter of Halakha (law) about the order and the dates of each scholar mentioned in the Talmud. The answers to these questions were preserved in a literature which is called Responsae (in Hebrew She'elot utshuvot) which were studied and elucidated by subsequent scholars. THE KABBALAH The Talmud is aware of the mysticism that surrounds Moses' seeing G-d, the Schechineh, Ezekiel's chariots, the mysticism of creation, Daniel's vision of the Ancient of Days (Daniel 7), and the dates he gives about the coming of Moshiach (Daniel chps 9 and 12). Yet the preoccupation was with the Law, since this gives Life as it says in Lev. 18:5, "which if a man do, he shall live by them." To a certain degree there is even a warning in the Talmud not to meddle too much with esoteric matters. For, according to the Talmud, of Talmudic scholars who tried to find out the secrets of the hidden things, only one entered peacefully and came out peacefully -- R.Akiba. Of the others, one died, one went mad, and one lost his sound faith. Yet others did attempt to find out the mystic secrets, and it was Rabbi Shimon bar Yochai of the Second Century A.D., who is known to have lived in a cave for many years and to whom G-d is said to have revealed many secrets. The Rabbis who dabbled in mysticism usually ascribed their findings to this revered saint and Rabbi. According to modern scholarship, the whole book of the Zohar (a mystic elucidation of the Pentateuch, ascribed to R. Shimon b. Yochai) was actually composed in Spain in the 13th Century by Leon Di Modena. Other mystics wrote in their own name. Especially famous are H. Isaac Luria and his disciple Hayim Vital. Be that as it may, these writings became the handbook of the Hassidic movement that started in the 18th Century with R. Israel Baal Shem Tov (the Master of the Good Name), and is still prospering today in the USA and in Israel. THE KARAITES The Brit Chadasha mentions often the Sadducees who did not accept the oral law and did not believe that the Torah speaks of supernatural angels, or the resurrection. Yehoshua opposed them and agreed with the Pharisees who believed in angels (Matt. 18:10) and in the resurrection (Matt. 22:29-32). He even had an attitude of respect toward the Oral Law (Matt. 23:2), except that he condemmed its promoters, the Pharisees, in that they didn't practice it themselves (Matt. 23:3), that the burden was too hard (Matt. 23:4), that it tends to ignore the weightier matters of justice, mercy and faith (Matt. 23:23), and that many of them were seeking recognition (praise) of their piety by other men. With the destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70, the Sadducees lost their prominence but remnants kept up their faith and convictions. In the Eighth Century, Anan ben David who had a claim to the leadership of Jewish people in the Diaspora, but was refused the position, revived the Sadducee movement. Now they called themselves Karaites (from the Hebrew Kara) or Qara-Scripturalists. Now the stress was not on the supernatural, angels, or the resurrection, but the denial of the authurity of the Talmud in ordering how every Jew must practice the law. This involved literalism. There was no fire, hence no lights on Sabbath eve, based on a literal reading of Ex. 35:3. The tallit with the fringes was hanged only on the eastern wall of the synagogue, so that everyone could see it as it says in Numbers 15:39, "and ye shall see them." The Karaite apologetic literature is extensive. Of the other Karaite writings,the most popular is Hizzuk Emunah by Isaac Troki of the 16th Century, a book that attacks Yehoshua's claim to be Moshiach and Adoneinu. This is adequately answered by A. Lukyn Williams in the Manual of Christian Evidences (Cambridge, London,l911). Remnants of the Karaite movement have found a home in the land of Israel in a town near Jaffa Tel Aviv. RELIGIOUS POETRY Needless to day, many of the books of the Tanach are written in a poetic way. These books include Job, Psalms, Proverbs, Song of Solomon, Lamentations,and Ecclesiastes. The Prophets also gave many of their messages in a poetic style. Here we should mention the great poets of Israel and of the Spanish Golden Age of Hebrew poetry, the 8th to the 12th Century: Eliezer Ha-Kalir's poem was based on Isaiah 53, Pana Mendo Mashiach Tsidkenoo ("Our Righteous Moshiach has turned from us --the one who bore our sins and our iniquities upon His shoulders"-- which is found in older prayerbooks) has been quoted by Messianic Jews often in tracts and pamphlets. R. Yehuda Halevi of Spain, who went to Israel to die there and was apparently killed on arrival, pours out his love for his people and the land with the words of Psalm 102:15, "So precious your dust, so sweet your stones of Zion. How I would love to embrace your rocks and fall down to kiss your stones." THE CODES OF LAW With the conclusion of the Talmud it was necessary to make decisions as to which opinion is the stronger. Of the many Codes, probably the most popular is that of Maimonides of the 12th to 13th Century. However Rabbis today base their decision on the Great Code called Joseph Karo's Shulchan Aroch (16th Century) This was commented on by Taz (Turey Zahav) and by Shakh (Rabbi Shabtai Cohen) . A student who wants to receive S'micha (ordination) has to study the four large tomes, dealing with the House and Synagogue kashrut, court procedures, laws about relations with women and menstrual purity. CHAPTER NINE: TRAINING MESSIANIC JEWISH LEADERSHIP BY DANIEL JUSTER (article written 1980) I. Training Lay Leaders. Messianic Judaism presently experiences a vacuum of leadership. Small congregations grow up and seek adequate leadership to teach and to shepherd the new flock; they find this leadership hard to come by. Many are the new followers of the Moshiach in the movement; few are seasoned, mature followers. Those Jewish followers of Yehoshua who could provide leadership are often unwilling to sacrifice and to receive a small salary by the struggling congregation. "Tent-making" (that is, a willingness to make a salary by working in another profession) is often necessary at this stage. Messianic Judaism thus faces these difficult problems, which by G-d's grace, will be solved: 1. The practical, spiritual, and intellectual preparation of Messianic Rabbis. 2. The developinent of strong elders (lay leaders). 3. Adopting congregational models which can most adequately fulfill these goals. If we recognize the existence in the United States alone of over forty messianic congregations, recognize that nine or ten have full-time spiritual leaders,and of these leaders perhaps only half a dozen have adequate Biblical and Jewish backgrounds, we can recognize the intensity of the problem. The training of adequate lay leaders is foundational for finding those who can be called to full-time congregational leadership. It is my view that the grass-roots nature of our movement is such that most full-time clergy leadership will be and should be drawn from the ranks of those who prove their maturity on a lay level. Certainly some will train for leadership from a strictly academic level, college and seminary, but such people are poor risks if they can give no congregational proof of pastoral qualities. In the next section, we shall look at the strictly academic model of training and speak of the pros and cons. Here are some of the crucial factors in developing lay leaders: First, chavurah fellowship, prayer, and work with present leadership. This first step is crucial. This is the model Yehoshua provided in choosing twelve "to be with him." It is crucial to identify potential and aspiring leadership. The present leadership should gather aspiring or potential leaders for prayer, sharing, chavurah and teaching of the central principles of Biblical servant hood, humility, spiritual life and stability. As a trust and love relationship grows, these otential leaders can be given various responsibilities according to their spiritual gifts and interaction with others. A potential elder will demonstrate involvement in caring for others, good council, and an ability to learn and convey the word. A potential shamash (or deacon) will demonstrate coordinating ability as well as dealing with the material and physical needs of the kehillah as a whole and its members. If the Biblical requirements of eldership or the diaconate are fulfilled, a person may be ordained to this office according to the congregation's system of choice. There are unlimited opportunities to prove potential leadership and chavurah fellowship times can enable discussion of leadership problems and performance. Here are some suggestions we have found useful. 1. Building coordinators to assist the messianic rabbi. 2. Training lay counselors by the Biblical counselmg methods developed by Dr. Jay Adams, Hatfield, Pennsylvania. 3. Leading cell groups which include Scripture study, prayer, personal ministry and chavurah. Cell leaders should be part of a cell serving as assistant leaders before assuming head leadership (see Ron Trudinqer, Cell Life, Logos). 4. Discipling new believers through a series OF Bible study lessons. 5. Committee chairpersons for chavurah, outreach, etc. 6. Teachers of various Bible classes. 7. Coordinators of transportation, tape ministry, book ministry. Those proven as humble servants, teachers and shepherds become elders, since they have proven themselves functionally. The growth of a person does not stop upon being ordained into the eldership or diaconate. Each elder should seek to better equip himself according to the Biblical ideals of shepherding, recognizing the heavy and holy responsibility laid upon him (See Ezek.34, I Pet. 5, Titus 1). Meeting with the messianic rabbi for continued chavurah, prayer, and growth is essential. Also, the elder should seek to equip himself spiritually by regular study. Here are some essentials: 1. Regular times for Scripture study and prayer... learning to use good tools for help (Bible dictionaries, encyclopaedias, and commentaries, e.g., Intervarsity, New Bible Dictionary, and New Bible Commentary) 2. Reading the best of great spirit and faith building literature. A. The Books of Watchmen Nee. B. Biographies of the greatest men of faith such as Norman Grubb, C. T. Studd, Rees Howells, and also Hudson Taylor's "Spiritual Secret." These are only starts. The principles of faith and of reaching the lost exemplified by these men are models for us. C. Books on doctrine and teaching of a systematic nature: 1. Charles Finney on Revival; 2. J.O. Buswell, A Systematic Theology; 3. Books by Beranard Ramm; 4. Books and tapes by Derek Prince; 5. Mark Bubeck's The Adversary on Spiritual Warfare. D. Books to broaden an understanding of Jewish history and literature. (1) Abraham Cohen, Everyman's Talmud; (2) C. G. Montifiore, A Rabbinic Anthology; (3) Buber, Tales of the Hassidim; (4) S. Grazel, A History of the Jews;(5) Parkes, The Conflict of the Church and the Synagogue;(6)Franklin Littell, The Crucifixion of the Jews;(7)Hertz, Authorized Daily Prayer Book. E. Books to increase our Jewish witness. (1) Books by Arnold Fruchtenbaum; (2) Arthur Kac, The Messianic Hope; (3) P. Liberman, The Fig Tree Blossoms; (4) Sid Roth, Something for Nothing; (5) R. Frydland, When Being Jewish was a Crime; (6) Books by D.Juster on Messianic Judaism Leaders who do not give themselves to study may be narrow in mind and spirit, dogmatic, intolerant, and unable to discuss with understanding. The above is a small beginning to life-long study and development. As the elders meet together, they may discuss their personal needs, and their problems and concerns in shepherding the flock in their charge. Some among the eldership will show special desire and ability for training to be messianic rabbis. We turn now to that concern. II. Training Messianic Rabbis. 1. The Professional Model. In this model, usually a young person senses the desire to train to be a spiritual leader. He therefore goes off to college and chooses a major that coincides with this call. After graduation he goes to a seminary and at the end of approximately seven years of training seeks to find a one year student internship before finding a congregation of his own. What are the pros and cons of this arrangement? In favor of this arrangement we should note that such a program may maximize ability to think and perform academically. If the right schools are chosen, the student can learn to interact with the arts and sciences. He may gain insights from the very best Biblical scholars. The potential for developing a broadness of mind and heart can be enhanced in the environment of Biblically oriented schools. Furthermore, interaction with students and professors produces some very valuable growth in personal areas. However, there are several negative factors in this model. In my experience, students in colleges and seminaries far from their home congregation are little involved in the body. They learn in an artificial atmosphere. Not only does the messianic congregation lose their gifts for years, but they lose the practical ministry-training which is crucial to pastoring and can only be gained in congregational life. And who says it must always take seven to ten years to train a congregational leader? As far as the congregation is concerned, calling an academically-only trained person is a real risk. Perhaps he has the gifts; perhaps not. He will perhaps develop in the hard knocks of the ministry; perhaps not. However, the final tragedy might be a disillusioned person leaving his ministry and a disillusioned congregation. Most messianic congregations are not of a size to hire such formally trained students to the positions of assistants so as to prove them, and a one year internship, if available, may not be adequate. Perhaps developing as a lay elder after the academic training could prove such a person. However, as Sha'ul writes "knowledge puffs up," and the pride of strictly academic training may blind a person to his need for spiritual and practical growth in the areas of ministry. Secondly, there is not as of this writing one academic school which gives the balance of courses in Bible, Jewish studies and practical areas which a messianic Jewish leader would desire. Perhaps after Biblical academic training such a person could enter a Jewish training program. This is indeed a long haul. 2. The Congregational Model of Training. In this model of training, it is the current spiritual leadership of the local messianic kehillah that trains the new leadership. Out of such training, it is hoped, will come solid leaders. Those who espouse this model argue that the most valuable training takes place in the context of the practical experience to be gained in congregational life. Furthermore, the spiritual leader is the one called to disciple new leaders, just as Moshiach Yehoshua trained the twelve talmidim. The above arguments speak well for this model of leadership development. This thinking fits extremely well with our reasons for developing a leadership chavurah (fellowship) in the local kehillah. There is a direct accountability and evaluation as increasing responsibilities are given. This maximizes the personal, spiritual, and practical development of the future leader. However, this model also exhibits weaknesses. First of all, let us note that when the Twelve talmidim trained under Yehoshua, they trained under the perfect Son of Man! The Scriptural teaching he gave was the best, the moral and practical experience gained in following him was without comparison! In other words, training on a totally local level can only be as adequate as the one who is the trainer. How many leaders provide the trainee with adequate spiritual modeling, administrative ability to provide for the trainee's practical experience, and a broadness of mind sufficient to provide adequate development in Biblical theology and Jewish studies? Who can, in addition, exemplify the ability to apply insights from these studies to the complex situations we face in modern life? Although this model maximizes the truth that leadership training is a function of one's growth in leadership responsibilities, there are dangers. They are: A. Producing talmidim who are mirror imaqes of the discipler. Do I really want future leaders to be just like me, or do I want them to develop uniquely so our strength together will be broad and complementary? Do I want them to preach just like me, think just like me, and act just like me? B. The danger of narrow mindedness: Even if the leader is broad in his understanding, the strongest development of a student comes in getting firsthand exposure to various viewpoints. He may not be able to develop intellectually to the highest degree because he is precluded from learning from the best scholars in the areas of their expertise. C. The danger of "ingrown" attitudes: This model maximizes the possibility that the student will not be able to respond to other religious traditions. Without fighting through to his own convictions through direct exposure to these traditions, he either appears foolish in his interaction or must "bury his head in the sand" so as to not be threatened by unknown possible opponents. Our primary goal is the production of leaders who are spiritually strong and exhibit the broadest possibility of interacting with various human beings. An isolationist mode of training is not helpful toward this end. 3. A New pastoral Training Model. The solution to the above dilemma is to recognize that the above models are not the only ones possible. Rather there are models that can combine the best of models 1 and 2 above while avoiding their worst pitfalls. Most messianic congregations are located in large urban areas. The academic resources of these areas are great. Let us note some of them: A. Christian colleges, bible schools, and seminaries; B. Colleges of Jewish Learning; C. Local leadership training Institutes; D. Libraries for Independent Study Courses; E. Jewish Community Centers for training. Beyond this is an array of tapes, possible correspondence courses, and even an independent study reading program developed by Phil Goble for training messianic rabbis. This new ministry training model leaves the training of future leaders in the hands of the local congregation while combining with it the best academic training. Each congregational leader can tailor a curriculum for his aspiring future leaders. It can be flexibly tailored to the resources available. It may even combine a prescribed time away, say six months to a year, for study in Israel, at a seminary or at Betzel Shaddai Yeshiva, which we shall mention. In this model, the student still is under the care of the spiritual leader of his local congregation, and gains the best practical experience through increments of leadership responsibility in his own local kehillah according to his own rate of spiritual development. A few years ago Betzel Shaddai Yeshiva was formed in Chicago. This provides the best example of the kind of thing we are speaking of. A student of Betzel Shaddai remains in his local congregation in Chicago. He takes the best and most relevant courses in Jewish studies from a local college of Jewish learning. He takes the most relevant Biblical studies courses from Trinity Evangelical Divinity School, and takes integrative courses at Betzel Shaddai. There is a four year messianic rabbinic curriculum which offers an M.Div. from Trinity, a Bachelors of Jewish Studies from the local college of Jewish Studies, and a certificate from Betzel Shaddai Yeshiva. Moody Bible Institute also offers a Jewish Studies program under Dr. Louis Goldberg. Degrees are offered by independent enrollment in these schools; there is no cooperative arrangement and there does not need to be. However, the Betzel Shaddai Yeshiva certificate is offered on the basis of adequate study in the areas of Biblical and theological studies, Jewish studies and practical theology. There is also a one year and summer program. Not everyone can be a student at Betzel Shaddai in Chicago, but similar programs can be tailored in most large cities and some Betzel Shaddai courses will be on tape. At Beth Moshiach in Rockville, we have sought to use the facilities of local seminaries, a local college of Jewish Studies, a local training Institute called New Life Training Institute, and courses taught by myself as an extension of Betzel Shaddai. Each student is given practical involvement in the local kehillah and the congregation oversees his spiritual development. We are not so concerned about the degree itself from the local institutes, although some will gain such degrees. We are more concerned about a record being kept of the students' course work and practical work to reflect his capability in prescribed areas. Perhaps someday the Union of Messianic Jewish Congregations will certify adequacy of training on this basis. Of course, any local congregation that seeks to be independent of this model can follow its own way and forego official recognition, but we think some standards are important and that a demonstration of proficiency is significant. Instead of academic institutionalization, the model of "equivalency in training" by recorded independent study under the spiritual leader and coursework taken at various schools can fully suffice. This gives us a flexibility to enable training to take place in as rapid a pace as individual capability allows. Even while one leads a congregation he can continue training. To help the spiritual eldership of various congregations, we list the Betzel Shaddai curriculum. A similar one can be tailored in your area and Betzel Shaddai Yeshiva can perhaps help you. Courses to be integrated into a full messianic rabbinic training course, a one-year intensive study program, and a special summer study program. Most courses are three quarter hours. CORE COURSES TAUGHT BY THE YESHIVA Theology --Messianic Jewish Theology -- covering covenants, law, grace, and other central theological issues. History --The Brit Chadasha Against Its Jewish Background -- understanding the Brit Chadasha in its original setting. --Messianic Judaism, Historical survey from first century to the present --Anti-Semitism--survey from biblical times to present (2 quarters) Apologetics --Messianic Jewish Apologetics - general course geared to Messianic Jews (2 quarters) Biblical Studies --Crucial Biblical Issues and Messianic Judaism. --Epistle to the Hebrews. Talmud --The Talmud and Messianic Judaism (2 quarters) Practical Theology --Cross-Cultural Communications. --Sharing Our Faith. --Spiritual Life of the Messianic Leader, includes personal spiritual life, power of the Spirit, gifts of the Spirit, spiritual warfare and deliverance, establishing and leading a Messianic synagogue; the above coordinated with internship involvement at Adat Hatikvah or Congregation B'nai Maccabim in areas of preaching, teaching, counseling, etc. (3 quarters) --Contemporary Issues in Interfaith Relations. --Messianic Drama and Music. --Liturgy, learning the traditional chants and prayers. Summer study in Israel strongly recommended. RESOURCE COURSES FROM AREA SCHOOLS Theology --Survey of theology - 3 quarters (TEDS) Languages --Greek - 6 quarters (TEDS) --Modern Hebrew - 3-6 quarters (SCJ) --Biblical Hebrew - 3 quarters (TEDS) Biblical Studies --Survey of Tanach -3 quarters (TEDS) --Survey of B'rit Chadasha - 3 quarters (TEDS) --Theology of Tanach--1 quarter (TEDS) --Critical Introduction to Tanach - 1 quarter (TEDS) --Critical Introduction to Besuras Hageulah - 1 quarter (TEDS) Talmud --Survey and courses totalling 5 quarters (SCJ) History --Intertestamental Period (TEDS) --Jewish History - 3 quarters (SCJ) --Church History - 2 quarters (TEDS) Practical Theology - each one quarter --Counseling (TEDS) --Homiletics(TEDS) --Hermeneutics (TEDS) --Education (TEDS) --Administration (TEDS) For Students Lacking College Background --Jewish Studies curriculum (MBI) III. Models of Congregational Authority. A messianic congregation is a Brit Chadasha kehillah. Its structure is based on the teachings of the Brit Chadasha Scriptures, However, various groups throughout history have come to different conclusions in their study of Biblical passages. It is not our purpose to give an exhaustive exposition of the Scriptures on this topic. We only desire to put forth the models, and then to give some comments on each so an intelligent choice can be made. MODEL #1: The final authority for spiritual direction is vested in the spiritual leader of the congregation. Under this model, the spiritual leader may have an advisory board of elders, but when push comes to shove, he makes the final decision. He may seek the input of congregations and other leaders, but this is on a solely voluntary basis. 1. Basis of the Model. There are Scriptures that are used to show the final authority of leaders chosen by G-d. Moses in the book of Exodus appoints the leadership (Ex. 18:25); Timothy, as Spiritual leader, is told to teach, reprove, and rebuke. Timothy was appointed by Sha'ul. There is no appeal in this passage to a board of elders. Sha'ul appoints elders in Ephesus and Timothy is told to appoint men (II Tim. 2:1,4:2). The conclusion is thus drawn that (1) leadership is by G-d's appointment through other leaders and (2) that individual leaders have final authority in their own sphere. 2. Positive Features of This Model. A. It fully recognizes that G-d's anointing upon a leader is the historical way of his great working throughout Scripture. B. It recognizes that G-d does vest real Scriptural authority for leadership in selected individuals. C. It enables future leaders to be chosen by mature leaders who have greater wisdom in choosing. 3. Negative Features. A. It tends to overlook the response of the people as a criteria of leadership. I Timothy and Titus teach that a leader chosen should be of good reputation and well thought of by the believers. Moses in Deuteronomy speaks of similar criteria for leaders, and the people acclaiming a prophetic choice seems to produce the King (Deuteronomy 17:14-17). B. It places power of a very absolute type in the leader. There is no check on his power from other leaders, and the only recourse for individuals and other leaders who believe the head leader to be wrong, even to the point of sin, is to leave the congregation. The head leader may keep his operations secret or open and may or may not receive council or correction. When we remember that leaders are also fallible sinners saved by grace, is it a good idea to put this level of trust in any single individual, or to test an individual's life so radically by yielding all power to him? MODEL #2: The congregationalist model holds that final power is vested in the congregations. The person who holds to this model emphasizes those passages which speak of the necessity of the leader's being well thought of and approved by the people. Leaders hence serve to inspire direction and to carry out the will of thepeople. Submission is a voluntary matter conditioned by whether the leaders carry out their prescribed tasks. Hence leaders are elected by the congregation and are subject to recall by them. Furthermore, major decisions should require congregational approval. 1. Positive Features. A. Recognizes the dangers of the abuse of power in leadership and provides a check. B. Seeks to develop in congregants the capability of hearing G-d. 2. Negative Features. A. Although every soul is of value, should everyone have an equal say in the direction of the congregation? Are the wise and mature to he outvoted by a large contingent of new, baby believers? Our hearts recoil at such an idea. B. Does not recognize the clarity with which the Brit Chadasha Scriptures speak of the appointment of leadership and their authority. Also, this model imposes too literally a formal democratic election procedure, and all the "politics" that involves, on the manner in which the house of G-d is managed. THE ELDER PLURALITY MODEL: In this model, the eldership of the local congregation serves as the ultimate spiritual authority. The spiritual leader is respected in his position, inspires direction and leads the meetings of the elders board. Under this model, however, the elders must come to a sense of unity in the spirit (at least a majority) before moving forward in major decision areas. The elders,in this model, are mutually accountable to one another. No one person can assume total power. Some congregations in this model are given the opportunity to affirm and reaffirm elders periodically after the nomination or renomination of such a person by the elders board. 1. Positive Features. A. Recognizes the dangers of vesting a level of almost final trust in human beings. B. Recognizes that no one ever outgrows a need for a level of accountability and mutual submission in their lives. C. Recognizes the spiritual power of the group coming to unity in the Spirit and hearing from G-d together. D. Leaves recourse to congregants to bring charges against leaders in sin and to not reaffirm those leaders who do not perform as unto the L-rd. E. Recognizes the Scripture's teachings of an authority and wisdom vested in the leadership so that the mature and immature do not equally define direction. F. Fully gives room to those passages which teach accountability to leadership (Heb. 13:7 and 17) as well as indicating the value of leaders having the approval of those they lead. G. Gives full weight to those passages which give a sense of leadership acting in plurality such as (1) Acts 15, The Jerusalem council; and (2) Kefa's address to the elders as acting as a plural center of authority (I Pet. 5:1-5). 2. Negative Features. A. There is a chance of congregants not adequately responding to the leaders of G-d's choice. B. The Plural Elders board may become a closed cliquish circle, neither letting in new capable mature leaders or adequately hearing from the congregants. This discussion is not exhaustive, and does not treat, for example, the presbyterian or episcopal models of congregational authority. However, there are comments which I believe are important for whichever model is chosen. 1. Be open and direct concerning the model of leadership followed in your congregation. Prospective members have a right to know what they are opting for, and should be able to make an informed choice. 2. Have an open system of leadership. A. Disclose finances; operating secretly creates suspicion and rightly so. First, the fear of criticism should not lead us into a closed style, for it is the place of congregants to show a proper accountability in love and it is the job of leaders to deal with criticism head on, not to adopt a secretive style. Secondly, where money is spent is an index of the congregation's vision and direction, for which all should pray and work. Thirdly, secret finances can be a temptation to some men who are not capable of handling such in times or difficulty and dip into the reserves in injudicious ways! This has been a downfall of many. B. Create channels for congregational input and do not dismiss those who disagree in the right spirit. We have included the Beth Moshiach Constitution as an example of this last model (see Appendix). IV. Planting and Establishing Congregations One of the central areas requiring clarification is on how to move a congregation from the planting stage to the full congregational stage. The planting stage is one in which either a leader or a group senses a call of G-d to birth a congregation. In this context they begin to study the Scriptures in regard to the structure of congregational life and come to clarity on the issues we discussed above. The very first stop, if a planter-leader is not the initiator of the congregation, is to find an adequate leader. Experience has shown that most efforts are bound to dry up if there is not adequate leadership. A leader of a messianic congregation should have a solid knowledge of Scripture, an ability to motivate others, an ability to teach and train, a positive discerning appreciation and understanding of the basics of the Jewish heritage, and a willingness to discipline and exhort. His life should be a positive spiritual example. At this stage, the leader encourages and gives on-the-job training to others to reachout to the unsaved. He also teaches concerning the vision and direction of the congregation and seeks to disseminate the Word among those who come to his meetings. Numbers should not be the main concern at this point. Rather the concern should be to make soul-winning talmidim who are deeply committed to the L-rd. After a time, the leader should identify those with elder potential and give himself to them for special training. They can be given minor responsibility as well. Charles Coleman's "The Master Plan of Evangelism" is helpful in giving the Biblical foundations of this model. At the time of discerned readiness, when adequate eldership has developed to care for the fledging flock, an organization meeting should be called. The nature of this organization meeting will vary depending upon the congregational model being followed. Some will choose to have the congregants affirm the constitution as well as the leader's proposed elders. In other settings, the congregation will affirm elders but not the constitution which would become effective through its adoption by the leader and his chosen elders. However, it is important that the congregants be continually informd of the direction of the leadership so as not to feel that any subterfuge has taken place. All should know what they are opting for, and there should be no hidden agenda. Once this has been accomplished, the leadership as constitutionally stated now seeks to develop the full orbed life of the congregation, bringing forth new leaders as well as the gifts of the members. V. Growing and Dividing versus the Large Congregation. A messianic congregation, as with any other congregation, can follow several models of growth. The most common model has been to grow as large as possible. Even numbers in the thousands are considered desirable. This model of growth has several advantages. 1. It minimizes the need for messianic rabbis. 2. It provides a large group for all ages and hence can meet those specific needs. 3. It can provide through a larger pool of people: A. Excellence in a variety of educational offerings; B. Excellence in a large music program; C. Excellence in finding adequate numbers for committees, boards, etc. 4. It provides a powerful visible testimony to the Jewish community. There are disadvantages, however. As largeness grows, one's sense of personal significance and intimacy with the larger body begins to suffer. Largeness also creates an organizational bureaucracy which is hard for the individual to penetrate. It also requires the building or rental of larger and larger facilities for the work and a heavy emphasis must be given to these concerns. Large congregations have sought to minimize these procedures by dividing the larger group into smaller ministering cells. This is an excellent idea which we greatly encourage. The classes and programs for various groups also break down the anonymity. The gifts of the spirit may also be practiced at the more intimate level of the cells with the elder leadership providing oversight for such practice. However, we do not want to minimize the difficulties of a large congregation. A large group of lay shepherds must be trained, and it is possible that some of these could lead a congregation in their own right; so the large model may stifle their potential. The second model is the house group model. Those who perfect this model point to the fact that the Brit Chadasha congregations met in houses. They see the house group as maximizing intimacy, the sense of welcome in real fellow-ship. The gifts of the Spirit in the home atmosphere, Bible study, and prayer are deeply personal. The model has many advantages. However, if each house group is an independent congregation, there are several problems with this model. 1. Each group will need to have adequate leadership. Without adequate leadership, these groups will die. This will require a massive number of leaders, since if a house group grows beyond a certain point it must divide to maintain the ideal. 2. A structure must be developed to create such leadership; will each leader always seek to groom the next leader? Or will there be a cooperative effort under an agreed-upon area leadership. 3. How will the needs of various groupings and ages be met? We have often found single adults and couples enjoying the house group for a time, but many singles and families with children eventually leave for a fellowship chavurah that can provide more adequate programming. 4. How will the house group adequately provide for the cultural expressions of Jewish worship? There is the question of Bar Mitzvahs, messianic weddings, social affairs, the Aron Kodesh and scrolls, High Holy Day services, etc. In our geographical and cultural context such aspects of our congregation have been a great blessing. The third model is the ideal which we espouse. Through our cell groups, we could survive without a building if necessary, but there are things we desire to do beyond the purely house-group model. Hence our ideal is a moderate congregational size from one to three hundred. Such a congregation is a feasible administrative load. It is large enough to have adequate programs for most groups. However, if broken into smaller ministry groups, it is still an intimate congregation. In this model, there would be few enough cell groups that the leadership could adequately oversee them. Those programs requiring larger numbers could be done in cooperation with a sister congregation. We have found that our congregation is large enough (100 members, 175 attendance) to have a full program of education including a messianic Jewish Day School for grades 1-9, six ministry cells, a Yeshivah extension, a Bar Mitzvah program, a building of our own,etc. Yet we are small enough to be personal. Such a congregation can be looking to train an adequate leader to take over a spin-off sister congregation at a near future time. In their mutual cooperation they can help one another. Studies of congregational life and growth have shown that most people are on an acquaintance "first name" level with a maximum of fifty people. Therefore, a fellowship chavurah of under one hundred is usually intimate. However, many have found one hundred to be a stagnation point because of the limit of recognition, marriage market, etc. Unless a congregation then breaks into smaller ministry groups and trains for outreach and growth beyond one hundred, it will stagnate. Some break into such groups via education programs, etc. without realizing it. The goal of the Brit Chadasha Scriptures is a ministering body, not a weekly rally. The model we espouse has the following disadvantaqos: 1. It cannot provide the larger groups for various ages like the bigger congregation, unless it cooperates with a sister congregation. 2. It requires adequate leadership to take control of the spin-off congregations (but we believe this is a feasible goal). We believe that growing and dividing is a healthy model just as bodily cells strengthen the physical human body in growing and dividing. Where the size of the Jewish population warrants it, there should be several messianic congregations in every area. Some may feel that at a stage in which most messianic congregations are small, we need not concern ourselves with these issues. Yet they are crucial if by faith we expect supernatural growth in the near future. VI. Four Extremes in Messianic Judaism -- A Section for Leaders. Messianic Jewish leaders are liable to attack from various sectors in congregational life. A balance of authority and open channels of communication are very important. Our perception has been, however, that rebellion and division has primarily come from four quarters. For want of better terms, we shall describe them as Legalistic Judeans, the Anti-Jewish Jews, the Super-Charismatics and the Anti-Charismatics. Common to all these groups is an attitude problem. We are not speaking against any style of worship or against the variety of viewpoints within Messianic Judaism concerning identification with tradition. We are rather speaking of attitudes which, for various reasons, exhibit lack of love and narrow mindedness. 1. The Legalistic Judeans. These people parallel that group of pharisees which constantly derided Yehoshua and engaged him in debate. In this group, the error is not so much that they hold a strong identification with tradition, as it is their attitude in holding it. A. They get angry and cause strife whenever things in services are done in a new way. B. They show marks of hypocricy; for example, they may occasionally eat non-kosher food, but they become enraged if they see some minor infraction of tradition. C. They are offended at songs and choruses which they take to be "gentile" even if these songs have a neutral folk style and wouldn't be associated with goyishe religion by Jewish visitors. D. They constantly criticize the congregation for its level of traditional Jewishness, even if that low level compares favorably with many synagogues. These people can be a great thorn in the flesh. Remember, we are speaking of a negative attitude and not a view. There are friends who are messianic Jews who live a very Jewish traditional life, but do not exhibit this attitude problem. The source of this problem is parental harshness and criticism. Through insecurity the person in this mold very often is threatened by whatever is contrary to this parental childhood model. Perhaps as a child he was severely disciplined for minor mistakes in traditional observance. Hence his response to adult freedom in approach to tradition is fear and anger. Yet the same person mistakes being able to do something well in terms of tradition as a mark of real spiritual merit or piety. It is a throwback to parental approval. These reactions are rote copies of childhood response and experiences. This is why there is such hypocrisy and irrationality. The Sabbath-breaker will often be the most vociferous critic in minor traditional areas! Yet it is hard to penetrate such a person. What can be done? A. Make sure such a person is not put in leadership until he is healed. B. Seek to counsel such a person with love and to enable him to receive inner healing from his wounds and the idiosyncrasies in behavior that they cause. C. Help him to understand such key teachings as "freedom in the Ruach Hakodesh" and the spirit and truth of the law. D. Help him to seek teshuvah and forqivenoss for dogmatic judgmental attitudes copied from parental models. 2. The Anti-Jewish Jew. An equally difficult but opposite problem is the anti-Jewish Jew. Such a person finds Jewish practice and observance to be dead and finds himself or or herself bored and angered whenever there is a piece of traditional music, prayer, or teaching the Jewish heritage. Such a person is displaying something more subtle than the modern "lawless" imbalance which seeks complete amoral "freedom" and total hedonism in the spirit of our age. You might say, regardless of that, what is such a person doing in a Messianic congregation? We shall answer shortly, but unless they are soon helped they won't remain in a Messianic congregation. In its least severe case, such a person seeks a constant emotional high in entertainment and exhibits no patience for things which require depth in thinking or quiet reflection. Such a person needs to be counseled in regard to the "meat of the word" and the dangers of shallowness. The worst case is the Jew who was brought up with harsh disciplines and inconsistencies in the home. Jewish things bring memories of a very painful childhood. There is rebellion against the harsh parents and the synagogue teacher who cracked the knuckles. This underlying bitterness and rebellion thwarts spiritual life, leads to self-rejection, and leads to the rejection of Jewish things. There are cases in between as well, where, as a child, Jewish things were boring, empty and externally enforced. Such persons come to a Messianic congregation because they are from physically Jewish origins. Hence, despite all the above, they are threatened in non-Jewish congregations by the fact that they alone are Jewish. Though they have no patience to appreciate Hebrew, the language of their people, they are uneasy at "First Baptist" too. Unless these people are kept from leadership and given counsel in love so as to seek G-d's healing touch, they will continue in an unhappy, "up-down" spiritual roller coaster until they end up rejecting all Jewish identities. 3. The Super-Charismatic. The Super-Charismatic is one who rebels against all form, discipline, and order. Such people are disruptive and will not hear sound teaching. To subject their prophecy to the body is for them "quenching the Spirit." There is no patience for the deeper teachings of the Word, of history, or heritage. The bottom line for these folks is very often rebellion against parental authority. They will thus not be under authority in the kehillah either, but will rail against "deadness" in a constant quest for "spiritual highs" and emotional entertainment. Such people may make common cause with the anti-Jewish Jews in opposing authority, discipline, and any traditional identifications in the body. If such people are willing to receive counsel, there will often be noticed an almost manic-depressive dimension to their spiritual life. It is crucial that they understand their syndrome and repent, seeking the inner healing that is necessary for continued growth. 4. The Anti-Charismatic. This person fears all expressions of freedom and the gifts of the Ruach Hakodesh in the Kehillah. They are horribly offended by any of the immature manifestations which are necessary for the body to grow in Spiritual maturity. Such a person would outlaw all spiritual manifestations of freedom altogether to avoid embarrassment. Perhaps this person was embarrassed in younger years and now cannot tolerate any breach of decorum. He was embarrassed in youth and will not again be so embarrassed either by his own actions or by association. Safety from embarrassment comes from having a tidy and neat and logical plan that can be fully anticipated with no surprises; this means a totally formal approach to worship. Furthermore, such a person often is distant from G-d. Upon questioning, it is discovered that a real, deep and intimate love between G-d and the person is absent. Quiet time is a rarety and prayer and faith are not effectively exercised. G-d is the great but distant "watchmaker" who determines all, so, why pray? The charismatic, on the other hand, challenges such a person to confront the personal reality of G-d in his own life. This is too painful! Often such a person had distant, cool, formal-acting parents. Keep in mind that we are describing the extreme type of anti-charismatic, no one else. Their need is for counsel, prayer, and healing as in the other cases. The anti-charismatic may often make common cause with the Jewish legalists. May these thoughts help the Messianic Jewish leaders of congregations to be gentle and kind with all, having a healing objective (see II Timothy 2:22-26; also I Timothy 1:3-11) CHAPTER TEN: PRACTICAL HELP IN CONGREGATION PLANTING AND PREACHING BY PHILLIP GOBLE CHAVER FELLOW IN BIBLICAL JEWISH STUDIES (FIRST YEAR) TEXTS BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Goble, Everything You Need to Grow a Messianic Yeshiva - Leadership Training for Messianic Judaism, William Carey Library. 2. Goble, Everything You Need to Grow a Messianic Synagogue (William Carey Library, 1705 North Sierra Bonita Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91104, (213) 798-0819, $2.45) 3. Goble, The Rabbi From Tarsus, Tyndale Publishers Recommended. 4. Rosen, Share the New Life With a Jew (Moody Press, 1977) 5. Adler and Van Doren, How to Read a Book (Touchstone Books, Simon and Schuster) 6. Donin, To Raise a Jewish Child (Basic Books, 1972) 7. Dimont, Jews, God and History (Signet, 1962) 8. Buksbazen, The Gospel in the Feasts of Israel (Christian Literature Crusade, Fort Washington, PA 19034) 9. Rosenbaum , To Live as a Jew (KTAV Publishing House, 1969) 10. Wittman and Bollman, Bible Therapy: How the Bible Solves Your Problems: A Guide to God's Word (Simon and Schuster, 1977) 11. McGavran and Arn, Ten Steps for Effective Church Growth (Harper & Row, 1977) 12. Chandler, The Kennedy Explosion (Elgin, David C. Cook, 1971. Order from Evangelism Explosion, P.O. Box 23820, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33307, 781-7710) 13. McIntyre, Big ideas for Small Sunday Schools (Baker Book House, 1977); also Word of Life Catalogue, GPH, 1445 Boonville Ave., Springfield, MO 65802 14. Strong's Exhaustic Concordance of the Bible (Abingdon, Nashville, NY) 15. Jay Green, Sr.'s The Interlinear Bible, 4 volumes (Religious Book Discount House, P. 0. Box 1161 C, Evansville, IN 47713 (812) 464-2569) Also Required 12 Book Report forms completed 12 Biblical Survey entries completed 12 Visitation forms completed 10 Symposiums attended CHAVER FELLOW IN BIBLICAL JUDAISM (SECOND YEAR) Bibliography and Requirements Prerequisite: Certification as Chaver Fellow in Biblical Jewish Studies. Required 1. Gartenhaus, Winning Jews to Christ (Sword of the Lord Publishers, Murfreesboro, TN 37130) 2. Chill, The Mitzvot: The Commandments and Their Rationale, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1974 Recommended 3. Heilman, Synagogue Life (University of Chicago, 1977) 4. Towns, The Successful Sunday School and Teacher's Guidebook (Creation House, Carol Stream, IL) 5. Kitov, The Jew and His Home (Shengold Publishers, 1963) 6. Colman, The Master Plan of Evangelism (Fleming H. Revell Company, NJ, 1963) 7. R. C. Sproul, Objections Answered (Gospel Light, Glendale, CA, 1978) 8. Green, Why Churches Die (Bethany Fellowship, 1972) 9. Tanenbaum , Wilson & Rubin, eds. Evangelicals and Jews in Conversation (Baker, 1978) 10. McNair, The Birth, Care, and Feeding of a Local Church (Canon Press, 1971) 11. Green, Michael, Evangelism in the Early Church (Eerdmans, 1970) 12. Aron, Robert, The Jewish Jesus (Maryknoll, NY: Orbis Books, 1971) 13. Donin, To Be a Jew, Basic Books, 1972. Recommended Reference Books New International Version Bible The Open Bible, Nelson Bible Publishers Also Required 12 Book Report forms completed 12 Biblical Survey entries completed 12 Visitation forms completed 10 Symposiums attended CHAVER FELLOW IN BIBLICAL RABBINIC STUDIES (THREE YEAR SUPPLEMENTAL READING TO COINCIDE WITH ORDINATION REQUIREMENTS) Bibliography Prerequisites: See Chaver Fellow in Biblical Jewish Studies and Chaver Fellow in Biblical Judaism. Recommended 1. Engstrom and Dayton, The Art of Management for Christian Leaders, (Word Books, 1976) 2. Gordon, Leader Effectiveness Training (Wyden Books, 1977) 3. Bower, Solving Problems in Marriage (Eerdmans, 1972) 4. Turnbull, Baker's Dictionary of Practical Theology (Baker Book House, 1967) 5. Martha Zimeman, Celebrate the Feasts of the Old Testament in Your Own Home or Church, (Bethany House, 1981) 6. Goldberg, Louis, Our Jewish Friends (Moody Press, Chicago, 1977) 7. Goldin, Hyman, Hamadrikh, The Rabbi's Guide, (Hebrew Publishing Company, 77-79 Delaney Street, NY) 8. New Bible Dictionary (Eerdmans) 9. Now Bible Commentary (Eerdmans) 10. Adler and Van Doren, Great Treasury of Western Thought (R. R. Bowker Co., NY, 1977) 11. The Jewish Catalogue 12. The Second Jewish Catalogue 13. Hertz Authorized Daily Prayer Book 14. Hertz Pentateuch and Haftorahs 15. Strong's Exhaustive Concordance 16. Jay Green, Sr., The Interlinear Bible, 4 volumes 17. Englishman's Hebrew and Chaldee Concordance 18. New Brown, Driver and Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon 19. New Englishman's Greek-English Concordance 20. New Thayer's Greek English Lexicon 21. Thompson Chain Reference Bible 22. Information Please Almanac 23. The Doubleday Rogets Thesaurus in Dictionary Form,Doubleday, NY, 1977 24. Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary 25. Abrahm Mayer Heller, The Vocabulary of Jewish Life 26. Idlesohn, Jewish Liturgy and Its Development 27. Werblosky and Wigoder, ads., The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion 28. Keil and Delitzch, Commentaries on the Old Testament 29. Robert Nicoll, The Expositor's Greek Testament 30. The New Testament in Hebrew and English 31. Coopersmith, The Songs We Sing 32. A. Dana Adams, Four Thousand Questions & Answers on the Bible, A. J. Holman Co., Phil., PA 33. Lawrence Crabb, Basic Principles of Biblical Counseling, Zondervan, 1977. 34. Lawrence Crabb, Effective Biblical Counseling, Zondervan 35. Tracy D. Connor, The Non-Profit Organization Handbook, McGraw Hill, 1980 36. William Proctor, The Born-Again Christian Catalog, M. Evans, 1979 distributed to Christian Bookstores by Fleming Revel 37. Harry Gersch, Sacred Books of the Jews, Stein & Day, 1972 38. Eric Werner, ed. Sacred Bridge: Liturgical Parallels in Synagogue and Early Church, Schocken, 1970 39. R. J. Zwi Werblowsky and Geoffrey Wigoder, The Encyclopedia of the Jewish Religion, Holt Rinehart and Winston, 1966 40. D. Stern, Jewish New Testament, Box 1045, Pasadena, CA, 91101 41. Donin, To Pray As A Jew, (Basic Books) BOOK REPORT FORM -- ANALYSIS 1. What kind of book is this? Describe the nature of the subject matter (Interpretation, Congregation Growth, History, etc.). 2. Very briefly, state what the whole book is about. 3. Study the table of contents or the chapter headings. Very briefly, state what each chapter or major division is about. 4. Define the unsolved problem that the author may have believed created the need for his writing this particular book. INTERPRETATION 1. What are the author's key words in the heart of the book's message and what do these words mean to the author? 2. What are the leading propositions (truths the author intends his book to demonstrate) in the author's most important sentences (the heart of the book's message)? 3. Where are the key arguments in the book? Give page numbers and quote briefly. 4. Which problems did the author solve? 5. To your knowledge, was the author's treatment of his subject uninformed, misinformed, illogical or incomplete at any point? What page? Quote briefly. 6. What did you gain from the book in terms of your own cultural credibility in Jewish ministry or in your own Biblical knowledge that will help you minister to Jewish people? A PRELIMINARY CONGREGATIONAL DESIGN BE IT RESOLVED THAT the fellowship called ______________ has the following purpose for being; to call out and build up for service the chosen people of God in the true Biblical Judaism of our Fathers in order to fulfill the Great Commission, locally and world-wide; to propagate in the community of ____________ (city), _____________ (state) the spiritual values of Israel in order that our children will not depart from our God-given heritage as Jews. BE IS RESOLVED THAT the fellowship called ____________ HAS THE FOLLOWING GOALS: To cooperate with like-minded synagogues in creating available Jewish people movement for the spiritual and cultural survival of our Jewish people; To increase our constituency at the rate of at least ______ a year (_____ a month); To achieve financial sovereignty within five years so that funds can be available to raise up a daughter synagogue before that time; To contribute prayer and tangible support to the work of the Great Commission in the diaspora and in the nation of Israel; To provide a program to meetthe needs ofthe whole man and the entire family as well as the special purpose needs of the Jewish community. HAS THE FOLLOWING STRATEGIES FOR THE GOALS: To participate in a monthly inter-Messianic congregation function and an annual inter-Messianic congregation Passover service as well as such other activities that may seem productive (co-operative School of Rabbinic studies, youth camp, young singles retreat, Pesach service etc.) for the creation and sustenance of a Jewish people movement; To institute a program of Jewish lay training and visitation ministry; To institute a stewardship lay committee and to cooperate with it in implementing a specially designed stewardship program for our synagogue; To institute a congregational and inter-Messianic synagogue strategy to effectively implement strategies for synagogue planting in both the diaspora and in the nation of Israel and for non-Jewish Messianic people movements in our local area, the U.S. and abroad; To implement strategies for meeting the social, physical, recreational, and spiritual liturgical needs of our local community. The book, Everything You Need to Grow a Messianic Synagogue, is a series of tracts that can be given one by one to people so that they can move as the Ruach Hakodesh leads them through the continuum from inquirer to worker. The L-rd has required of us that we be good stewards not only of our time and of our money but of His people! This is why attendance sheets are so important for the Bible studies and even for congregational meetings, so that when someone is absent, their absence is noticed and they are contacted via post card, telephone, or visitation. Only in this way will they know that people care about them. If they do not know this, they will not come back. That's why it's important to keep correspondence going between the leaders and all the people, which involves regular letters, post cards, newsletters, phone calls, etc. Obviously, no one man can visit all the people. However, if he is a good executive and if he has cooperation, a leader can help to coordinate other people to help him do visitation by having a regular weekly night of visitation in which he goes out with perhaps just one person in the beginning, but later on, goes out training people to train others to visit people. Also, he can sit down at different times during the week and do phone ministry with other people that he is training to do this so that he can then delegate to them people to telephone. Also, he can sit down with other people and deal with them about how to help him with correspondence, post cards, newsletters, or whatever he may be sending out. It's extremely important in starting a Bible study to spread the word around via the mail and phone and also to remind all the people who came to keep coming. This is why attendance records, guest sheets, addresses, zip codes,and phone numbers are extremely important, probably as important as anything that is taught or studied, since there can be no follow up without this information. Everything You Need to Grow a Messianic Synagogue can be put in a binder, and as people move from inquirer to seeker to believer to tevilah candidate to membership candidate, different chapters are given to them until finally the whole binder is given to them on the day they become formal members of the congregation. It's important to be very consistent and very thorough in dealing with cross-cultural persuasion where there is a prejudice barrier. Without this thoroughness and care about details there are many people who will be carelessly slipped over and will not be given the attention that the Word of G-d would have us give people for whom the Moshiach died. PREPARATION FOR VISITING PEOPLE A. RECRUITMENT OF VISITORS (SURVEYORS) should be done by individual invitation, rather than general announcement, and in terms of a planned program of regular visitation. B. TRAINING OF VISITORS (SURVEYORS) has three aspects. 1. Instruction: Workers must be trained on a regular weekly basis in how to relate the Word of G-d to the needs of people by means of the Ruach Hakodesh. 2. Homework Assignments: An outline and a list of accompanying Scriptures must be learned along with supplemental Scriptures for refutation and ministry to special needs. 3. On-the-Job Training: Moshiach Yehoshua said, "Follow me." He did not only lecture or exhort in the synagogue or temple; he took trainees two by two and little by little reproduced himself in them as a "playing coach." Then in the Great Commission of Mt. 28:19, he commands his followers to go and do likewise. The gross failure in much congregational growth and in much of our educational models is at just this point. We lecture, we don't train on-the-job. James Kennedy took two observers with him once a week for three months. Then each became a leader taking two more observers for another three months. This pattern worked because it follows the scriptural principles that Moshiach Yehoshua taught in the Brit Chadasha for his workers to use in training other workers, namely: selection, association, consecration, impartation, demonstration, delegation, supervision, reproduction. For an excellent explanation of these, read Robert E. Coleman's, The Master Plan of Evangelism (Fleming H. Revell Company, Old Tappan, New Jersey, 1963). All workers must have a system of reporting the results of their labors to a coordinator who can oversee their total effort and insure that every visit or contact is properly prayed over, reviewed, followed up and moved forward as far as possible on the continuum inquirer to seeker to talmid who has had pre- and post- tevilah counselling to member to worker. C. POTENTIAL PEOPLE TO CONTACT: 1. Those who visit the congregations 2. Those who see the drama programs 3. Those who attend the Pesach and other special affairs 4. Parents of children contacted 5. New residents in the community (see listing of those buying new homes) 6. Family and friend referrals of people known to the congregations 7. Jewish names in the geographically arranged telephone book via telephone survey 8. House-to-house survey using VHS home video distribution 9. Bus worker survey 10. Campus survey 11. Prayer group invitations 12. Bible study invitations 13. Street literature distribution Visitation ministry cannot be done by worldly people or methods, but only by people whose hearts are sensitively and prayerfully full of the love of the L-rd. When speaking to a person about spiritual matters, always remember that he was created by G-d and G-d loves him. Therefore, no matter what he says, we must still treat him with love, courtesy, respect, and consideration. Before we can help another person move forward in spiritual matters, we must first know where the L-rd has brought him so far. If he is only a casual inquirer and has not yet given his heart to the L-rd, we should not discuss the deeper teachings that only a member or worker would be ready to handle (like tithing, supporting outreach projects, etc.). Therefore, we must listen and ask questions to determine the point of spiritual apprehension the person has already attained before we endeavor (prayerfully) to minister to that person. Otherwise, we may try to deal with a person in an area where G-d has not yet prepared him to receive our words. The questions on the survey below will help you determine something about the person's degree of spiritual apprehension. APOLOGETICS (DEFENSE OF OUR FAITH) OBJECTION #1: What about the Crusades and the Spanish inquisition and all the hurt that has been perpetrated against the Jewish people in the name of you so-called Meshiah? ANSWER: Not all followers in name are true believers in fact, and also many have much to repent of. King David was a believer who had blood on his hands and great sin, so we are not going to throw the Jewish religion out the window just because King David killed Uriah and committed adultery with Bathsheba. Not all Gentiles are truly followers of the Messiah. Those who follow the Messiah ought to live as He lived ( I John 2:6). The fact that religious men have failed only proves that religion is not enough. We must be reborn into a new spiritual existence, become new creations and become sanctified in kedusha holiness. The Messiah died to save his Jewish people -- He has proven His love in this irrefutable way. Nothing anyone, even one of His ignorant followers, can do will ever change such proof. Those in whom the Messiah fully lives cannot hate or intentionally hurt our Jewish people. In Galatians 3:13 Paul makes it clear that Messiah's death is a curse for the Jewish people, not a curse against them. OBJECTION #2: I don't need it, and I don't buy it. ANSWER: It's not for sale, it's a gift. But we must renounce self righteousness, self sufficiency, and self centeredness or we will never realize our unfelt need until it's too late. (Ps. 53:3; Isa. 53:6,11; Jer.8:20; Dan. 12:2; Isa. 55:1) OBJECTION #3: Death is only a natural phenomenon, not also the result of sin. ANSWER: Ezekiel 18:4 says, "The soul that sins, it shall die. OBJECTION #4: Then why don't our teachers believe this? ANSWER: The Bible is well aware of their unbelief, which the Scripture predicts (Isaiah 53:1-3). You must seek the truth yourself and not allow yourself to be misled or you like them will be responsible (Isa. 43:27; Ezek. 34:2). OBJECTION #5: I'm already Jewish. ANSWER: Yes, but not Jewish enough to please G-d, who has the criteria you must meet. To be truly Jewish, you must be in good covenant standing with G-d. Since the Covenant of Sinai contract can no longer be honored now that the Beis Hamikdash sacrifices have ceased and the Moshiach's sacrifice has been accepted by Hashem, you cannot be a true covenant-keeping Jew in G-d's sense of the word "Jew" without the Brit Chadasha prophesied by Jeremiah. Read Jeremiah 31:31-34 and Deuteronomy 18:19. OBJECTION #6: I don't believe in hell. ANSWER: Neither did Adolf Hitler. Are you putting yourself in his company -- forever? Daniel 12:2 says that G-d says there is a hell. One of the surest ways of going there is to call G-d a liar. Your belief about hell won't help you escape it. OBJECTION #7: We believe in one G-d, not three. ANSWER: We believe in one G-d, who sent his Word as the Moshiach to heal us (Ps. 107:20; Isa. 42:6-7) and his Ruach haKodesh to give us a new birth (Ezek. 18:31-32). We didn't invent this doctrine. It's found in your Bible. If we had wanted to make up a religion we could have come up with something easier for your to understand. G-d says to us, this is the way I am, take me or leave me. See in the Jewish Bible in Isa. 48:16 and Gen.1:26. The Ruach Hakodesh is mentioned in I Samuel 10:6; Micah 3:8; Psalm 51:11; Isaiah 63:14; the Ben haElohim Moshiach/Chochmah in Psalm 2:7 and Proverbs 30:4. OBJECTION #8: The virgin birth is impossible. ANSWER: Jeremiah 32:27. Do you not believe the story of Yitzchak (Isaac) birth, either? The Moshiach's way Of entering life was no more supernatural than his way of exiting life and overcoming death. The Jewish Bible predicts his return will also be supernatural (Daniel 7:13-14). The Hebrew word for "virgin" in Isaiah 7:14 (almah) was certainly understood by the orthodox rabbis who translated the Old Testament into the Greek Septuagint 200 years before the Brit Chadasha times. These Jews translated the Hebrew word into the Greek word for virgin. Can anyone in the 20th century claim to know the original meaning of the Hebrew word better than these ancient and revered orthodox rabbis? Also the older Hebrew/English translations of Song of Songs 6:8 said "almot (virgins) without number. Kings weren't interested in mere unmarried young women, they wanted virgins, and that how the older Jewish translations translated the word. OBJECTION #9: If this is true, why are we blamed for the death of J----? ANSWER: The Brit Chadasha teaches that Gentiles killed Him (Matthew 27:27-32) but that we all are sinners, Jews and Gentiles alike, and the sins of all of us have required his death to pay the penalty for our sin. So we are all responsible (Acts 4:27; Isaiah 53:6) and cannot be cleared of our quilt until we turn in teshuvah and mishpa'at to obey Moshiach as Adoneinu and become his talmidim (disciples). OBJECTION #10: But what about all the hypocrites? ANSWER: They will get theirs (Luke 13:26-27). But we must make sure we won't be with them. This means we must turn from ourselves and trustfully obey the L-rd. If we rebel, we are hypocrites, too, and will share their fate. OBJECTION #11: Sorry, I'm orthodox. ANSWER: You are not orthodox enough. Read Leviticus 17:11 and tell me how you can be orthodox without a blood sacrifice. Who is more orthodox, the one who obeys Leviticus 17:11 or the one who does not? The one who has a Kohen Gadol (Psalm 110:4) or the one who does not? The one who has a kapparah (guilt offering of blood, Isaiah 53:10) or the one who does not? You are by no means orthodox enough in the Biblical sense which is more important than the Talmudic sense of orthodoxy. OBJECTION #12: How can you say you are Jews when you don't follow the Talmud? ANSWER: We are not Talmudic Jews, we are Biblical Bnei Avraham by faith (Gal.3:7-14). We do not believe in Talmudic Judaism, we believe in Biblical Judaism. We respect the Talmud and see much in it that can help us understand the Hebrew Bible, but the sayings of rabbis do not have the same inspiration as that of Moses and the prophets. We do not make void the doctrines of G-d by the precepts of men (Isaiah 29:13; Matthew 15:8-9). But our religion has not changed. It is still Judaism, though Biblical and not Talmudic. OBJECTION #13: All my friends will be in hell, and we'll have a good time. ANSWER: You won't see them. Hell is a place of outer darkness, pain, and torment (Matthew 8:12; Isaiah 66:24). OBJECTION #14: Whoever came back from heaven or hell to tell anyone what it is like? ANSWER: Moshiach Yehoshua. See John 8:42; 24:2; I Peter 3:19. OBJECTION #15: I don't believe in G-d. ANSWER: G-d's existence is seen in the order of nature (Romans 1:19-20). The Bible says that only fools would jump to the unreasonable conclusion that Chance caused the order of the world (an absurd, foolish conclusion that is obviously impossible). See Psalm 14:1. OBJECTION #16: I don't believe the Bible is G-d's Word, it's only a book written by men. ANSWER: It's clearly a supernaturally inspired book, whose human authors demonstrate by their agreement that their common source was G-d. There is no other book like the Bible in the world, because no other supposedly "inspired" book is able to actually produce what the Bible is: a book in which G-d makes His will infallibly known by predicting history through prophets and confirming history through eye witnesses and written records (Isa. 53; I Cor. 15:1- 8). What other G-d can do this but the G-d of the Jewish Bible (lsaiah 41:23)? Look at the predictions that have come true in our own time regarding the nation of Israel (Isaiah 11:12; Jer. 16:14,15). OBJECTION #17: Isaiah 53 is not talking about the Messiah, it's talking about Israel. ANSWER: Can Israel die for Israel? The Scriptures say that everyone must die for his own sin (Ezek. 18:1-4). OBJECTION #18: That's right. I must die for me, not some mediator. No mere man can die for another man (Ps. 49:7-9). ANSWER: He was no mere man (Isa. 9:6; Malachi 3:1). OBJECTION #19: We Jews do not worship men. You've turned a man into an idol. Anyone who would do that is an idolatera and could never be righteous Gentile or a Jew. ANSWER: We Jews worship G-d through his word, which is the way to G-d. And his Chochmah, his wisdom, his Word, his Dvar Hashem became the Moshiach who is the way to G-d. We are told to worship his Word with praise (Ps. 56:10). Moshiach is worshipped in Daniel 7:13-14. OBJECTION #20: What about the good and innocent people who never heard about the Moshiach? ANSWER: The Scripture specifically states that no people are good and innocent. "There is no one who is righteous, no not one, " according to Psalm 14:3. But if a person has never heard of the Moshiach, he will not be judged guilty for that, but for rejecting the Father of whom he has heard. "The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament showeth his handiwork." (Psalm 19:1). Creation and conscience speak to every person of the glory and the holiness of the Father, but all people invariably tend to exchange the truth for a lie (Romans 1:19-25; John 8:42) and by going their own way, deserve death. Absolutely no one deserves, for any reason, salvation. However, the rejected Father has mercifully sent His Ben haElohim (also rejected) who sends us (and we are often rejected, too). But the Great Commission (Matthew 28:19-20) is that all believers do all they can to help the proclamation of the Good News reach every person in the remotest part of the earth. For it is not G-d's will that any should perish (II Peter 3:9), and G-d takes no pleasure in the death of the wicked (Ezekiel 33:11). OBJECTION #21: How can there be a G-d, or how can he be good, when there is so much evil? Why does G-d let evil go unpunished? ANSWER: G-d has already punished all the evil of all men by mercifully directing his fury against his own Dvar Hashem himself that he sent among us as a man to take our chastisement in our place (Isaiah 53:5) and give us a way of escape from G-d's anger against evil. This one is Yehoshua, who fulfills all these Messianic prophecies in the Tanach predicted hundreds of years before Yehoshu was born! Messiah to be the Son of David Psalm 132:11 to be a prophet like Moses Deuteronomy 18:15, 19 to be the Son of G-d Psalm 2:7; Proverbs 30:4 to be raised from the dead Psalm 16:10; Isaiah 53:10 to be crucified Psalm 22; 69:21 to be betrayed by a friend Psalm 41:9 to be rejected Psalm 118:22-23; Isa.8:14-15; Isaiah 28:16 to be born of a virgin Isaiah 7:14; Song of Songs 6:8 to minister to Gentiles Isaiah 42:1-4 to pay the penalty for sins Isaiah 52:13-53:12 to make men whole to bring in a New Covenant Isaiah 42:6; 55:3-4; Jer.31:31-34 to be called "the L-rd" Jeremiah 23:5-6 to come before the Temple & Jerusalem are destroyed (70 C.E.) Daniel 9:24-26 to be born in Bethlehem Micah 5:2 to bring the coming of the Ruach Hakodesh Isa. 11:2; 42:1; Joel 2:28 to be have the Moshiach's (Tzemach's) name YEHOSHUA, Zechariah 3:8; 6:11-12; Ezra 3:8, see Acts 7:45 in original language where YEHOSHUA is the same name for the prophet who followed Moses and our Moshiach. G-d has not allowed the evil of this world to occur without warning his people. In Deuteronomy 18:18-19, G-d warns that when a law-giver-prophet like Moses comes, the people will be "cut off" (punished) if they do not listen to him. In other words, to disobey the Moshiach is to reap eternal disaster. Then, in Deuteronomy 28:15-68 all the horrors of the Holocaust are predicted if G-d's people do not obey him. THE BETTER QUESTION IS NOT: WHY DOES G-D LET EVIL GO UNPUNISHED, BUT IS, WHY DO PEOPLE INSIST ON DOING EVIL AND TAKING THEIR OWN ETERNAL PUNISHMENT FOR IT WHEN THEY COULD STOP DOING EVIL AND LET MOSHIACH YEHOSHUA TAKE THEIR CHASTISEMENT (ISA.53:5)? CAN YOU THINK OF ANY GOOD REASON WHY YOU WOULDN'T WANT MOSHIACH YEHOSHUA TO TAKE YOUR PUNISHMENT RATHER THAN FOR YOU TO HAVE TO SUFFER ETERNALLY YOURSELF? GOOD NEWS PRESENTATION (THE ROMANS OUTLINE IN THE JEWISH BIBLE --- CONDENSED) LEAD-IN QUESTION: "Let me ask your opinion... G-d forbid, but if you passed on tonight and met your maker, do you know for sure that his judgment of you would be favorable?" PERMISSION "Would you like me to quickly tell you how the Jewish Bible answers that question? that question? ... it's really wonderful!" THE BESURAS HAGEULAH (GOOD NEWS OF REDEMPTION) IN THE JEWISH BIBLE IS THIS: 1. ALL OF US WILL INDEED LIVE AGAIN TO MEET OUR MAKER (DANIEL 12:2). "Many of those who have already died will live again: some will enjoy Chayyei Olam (Eternal Life) and some will suffer eternal disgrace." (Daniel 12:2) 2. HOWEVER, ALL OF US DESERVE G-D'S PUNISHMENT FOR REBELLIOUSLY GOING OUR OWN WAY INSTEAD OF G-D'S WAY IN HIS WORD (ISAIAH 53:6). "All of us were like sheep that were lost, each of us going his own way. But the L-rd made the punishment fall on him (the Moshiach), the punishment all of us deserved. (Isaiah 53:6) 3. THE GOOD NEWS IS THIS: OUR JEWISH BIBLE PREDICTED THAT THE MOSHIACH WOULD TAKE OUR PUNISHMENT SO THAT WE CAN BE SET FREE FROM THE PUNISHMENT WE DESERVE (ISAIAH 53:5) "But because of our sins he was wounded, beaten because of the evil we did. We are healed by the punishment he suffered, made whole by the blows he received." (Isaiah 53:5) By the Word of the L-rd were the heavens made ... (Psalm 33:6); G-d sent his Word (the Moshiach), and healed them, and delivered them from death (Psalm 107:20). 4. OUR JEWISH BIBLE PREDICTED THAT THE MESSIAH WOULD RISE FROM THE DEAD SO THAT WE CAN KNOW HIM, THE RIGHTEOUS ONE, AND BE JUDGED RIGHTEOUS BY G-D (ISAIAH 53:8, 10, 11) "He (the Moshiach) was put to death for the sins of our people, ... when he makes himself an offering for sin ... the L-rd shall prolong his life... and the righteous one (the Moshiach) will make many to be judged righteous by knowing him and he shall bear the penalty of their guilt. (Isaiah 53:3, 10, 11) 5. YOU CAN KNOW FOR SURE RIGHT NOW THAT G-D WILL JUDGE YOU FAVORABLY WHEN YOU PASS ON -- NOT BY YOUR OWN RIGHTEOUSNESS (PSALMS 14:3), BUT BY EMUNAH IN THE MOSHIACH, G-D'S RIGHTEOUS ONE (HABAKKUK 2:4). There is none righteous, no not one. (Psalm 14:3) The righteous shall live by faith. (Habakkuk 2:4) Behold the days are coming, says the L-rd, when I will make a Brit Chadasha with the house of Israel and the house of Judah... I will put my law within then, and I will write it upon their hearts. (Jeremiah 31:31, 33) Behold, I stand at the door and knock; if any one hears my voice and opens the door, I will come in to him and dine with him and he with me. (Revelation 3:20) 6. YOU CAN PRAY THIS PRAYER: G-D OF ISRAEL, I AM JEW AND I AM GOING TO DIE A JEW. BUT I ADMIT THAT I -- LIKE EVERYONE -- HAVE SINNED AND GONE MY OWN WAY, INSTEAD OF YOUR WAY, IN YOUR WORD. I HAVE RELIED ON MY OWN UNDERSTANDING RATHER THAN ACKNOWLEDGING YOUR WILL. I HAVE RELIED ON MY OWN RIGHTEOUSNESS, RATHER THAN TRUSTING YOUR RIGHTEOUS WORD. I THANK YOU, L-RD, THAT THE WORD THAT CAME TO MOSES CAME IN THE MOSHIACH FROM NAZARETH TO OVERCOME DEATH AND LEAD ME TO GOD. COME INTO MY LIFE, RIGHTEOUS MOSHIACH. FORGIVE MY SINS THROUGH YOUR DEATH IN MY PLACE. MAKE ME RIGHTEOUS BY KNOWING YOU, MOSHIACH ADONEINU YEHOSHUA MY GOEL REDEEMER. AMEN. KEY QUESTION: "Does that prayer make sense to you?" CLOSING QUESTION: "Don't you want to pray this prayer with me right now?" ASSURANCE QUESTIONS (AFTER YOU PRAY THE PRAYER TOGETHER): "IS MOSHIACH ADONEINU YEHOSHUA TRUSTWORTHY WHEN HE PROMISES HE'LL COME INTO YOUR LIFE IF YOU ASK HIM TO?" "DIDN'T YOU JUST ASK MOSHIACH ADONEINU YEHOSHUA TO COME INTO YOUR LIFE?" "IS MOSHIACH ADONEINU YEHOSHUA IN YOUR LIFE RIGHT NOW?" BEHOLD, I (MOSHIACH YEHOSHUA) AM WITH YOU ALWAYS, EVEN UNTIL THE END OF THE AGE. (MATTHEW 28:20) NOW WHAT ??? 7. IF YOU WISH TO GROW AND REMAIN IN YOUR KNOWLEDGE OF THE RIGHTEOUS ONE MOSHIACH ADONEINU YEHOSHUA (IN ORDER THAT G-D WILL CONTINUE TO JUDGE YOU RIGHTEOUS), YOU MUST BE FAITHFUL IN STUDY AND CHAVURAH FELLOWSHIP IN A CONGREGATION WHERE THE JEWISH BIBLE IS BELIEVED AND FAITHFULLY TAUGHT (PSALMS 84:4; HEBREWS 10:25-27). Happy are those who dwell in thy house, ever singing thy praise! (Psalm 84:4) Do not stay away from our meetings, as some do, but rather come encourage one another; for if we willfully persist in disobedience after receiving the knowledge of the truth, no sacrifice remains: only a fearful prospect of judgment and a fierce fire which will consume G-d's enemies" (Heb. 10:25-27). We know that we have passed from death unto life, because we love the brethren (other believers in Moshiach Adoneinu Yehoshua). (I John 3:14) SOME THINGS TO DO: 1) Meet other Jewish believers and stay in touch with sincere Bible believers whose g-dly lives reflect their true emunah in our Jewish Bible. 2) Realizing you are a new believer who may not yet know fully what has happened to you, walk softly and do not criticize Judaism or your family's beliefs and practices. 3) Understand that your life will not be easy and perfect always just because you are a believer. 4) Keep your eyes on the L-rd and not upon people, whose failings would steal your joy. 5) Avoid every kind of evil, even the appearance of evil. 6) Worry about nothing, but involve yourself fully in meditation on and study of G-d's Word in order to find wisdom and strength to participate in G-d's Work. 7) Watch in prayer that you would not fall into temptation or into an unfruitful life. WHAT SHOULD I PRAY FOR?: Some of the things to pray for are: 1) the peace of Jerusalem (Psalm 122:6); 2) that more Bible believers would become in some sense Zionists--since G-d is, according to His Word (Amos 9:15); 3) that the World-wide Brit Chadasha Kehillah would regularly intercede for our Jewish people--especially on all the Jewish holidays--and would educate all people against anti-Semitism and callousness toward Israel by supporting ministries that serve the Spiritual and physical best interests of G-d's ancient people (Romans 15:27). SURVEYOR'S NAME _______________ DATE SURVEY TAKEN ____________ BIBLICAL LITERACY SURVEY Whom the Surveyor Represents: A JEWISH STUDIES INSTITUTE Why the Information Is Needed: FOR A SHORT SURVEY Why the Survey Is Being Taken: TO DETERMINE THE NEEDS OF THE LOCAL JEWISH COMMUNITY PERMISSION QUESTION: YOU WOULDN'T MIND GIVING US A QUICK BIT OF INFORMATION WOULD YOU? (MAY I CHAT WITH YOU BRIEFLY?) (circle one) 1. WHAT IS YOUR RELIGIOUS BACKGROUND - Yes No ARE YOU JEWISH? 2. DO YOU BELIEVE OUR JEWISH RELIGIOUS SCRIPTURE SHOULD BE STUDIED TO STRENGTHEN HUMAN VALUES IN OUR SOCIETY? Yes No 3. HAVE YOU EVER READ THE JEWISH BIBLE IN ENGLISH IN ITS ENTIRETY? Yes No 4. WHAT IS YOUR NAME? ________________________ 5. HOW LONG HAVE YOU LIVED IN THE AREA ARE YOU A FAIRLY NEW RESIDENT? Yes No 6. IS YOUR PHONE LISTED? Yes No 7. WOULD YOU BE INTERESTED IN RECEIVING A FREE JEWISH COMMUNITY NEWSPAPER TO KEEP INFORMED ABOUT EXCITING LOCAL EVENTS? Yes No YOUR ADDRESS AND ZIP CODE (APT. NUMBER) Street ___________________________________________ City, Zip ________________________________________ 8. DO YOU BELIEVE IN G-D? Yes No Uncertain 9. AN OPINION QUESTION: G-D FORBID, BUT IF YOU SHOULD PASS ON TONIGHT, DO YOU THINK YOU WOULD MEET YOUR MAKER? Yes No Uncertain10. FOR THE PURPOSE OF THE SURVEY ... IF TONIGHT YOU DID PASS ON AND DID MEET YOUR MAKER, WHAT DO YOU SUPPOSE HIS JUDGMENT OF YOU WOULD BE DO YOU THINK IT WOULD BE A FAVORABLE JUDGMENT? Yes No Uncertain SURVEYOR'S NAME_______________ DATE SURVEY TAKEN_____________ BIBLICAL LITERACY SURVEY RESULTS* (circle one) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1. (Name) _______________________________ y y y y y y y y y y n n n n n n n n n n (Address) ________________________________ u u u u u u u u u u (City-Zip) ________________________________ (Date-Phone?) _____________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 2. (Name) _________________________________ y y y y y y y y y y n n n n n n n n n n (Address) __________________________________ u u u u u u u u u u (City-Zip) __________________________________ (Date-Phone?) _______________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 3. (Name) ____________________________________ y y y y y y y y y y n n n n n n n n n n (Address) ___________________________________ u u u u u u u u u u (City-Zip) ____________________________________ (Date-Phone?) _________________________________ 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 4. (Name) ______________________________________ y y y y y y y y y y n n n n n n n n n n (Address) _______________________________________ u u u u u u u u u u (City-Zip) _______________________________________ (Date-Phone?) ____________________________________ *(y for Yes, n for No, u for Uncertain) PHONE MINISTER'S REPORT FORM Phone Minister's Name _________________ Month and Year _____________ 1. Is there any reason why you couldn't come this week? A. Too busy B. Afraid of changing faith in G-d of Israel C. Too much to give up D. I have my own ideas E. Not now ... maybe later F. Involved in a cult G. Back-slidden believer H. Yehoshua was just a man I. Won't explain J. Other (write on back) 3. Do you have any needs you would appreciate prayers for? P. Illness Q. Depression R. Financial S. Spiritual T. New believer needing nurture U. Other (write on back) 2. How much probability is there you could come if I should call you later? K. Don't call me again ever! L. Don't call us - we'll call you. M. You can call again, but I probably will not be able to come N. I'll come later once in a while 0. Other (write on back) Recommendation V. Wait before contacting W. Transfer this name to _______ X. Have someone make a personal visit (recommend who on back) Y. Send friendly letter underlining urgency (put address on back) Z. Already committed to another Body of believers Note: If the person is not home or is unreachable by phone, write absolutely nothing here but instead make your own notes on the back of this page. Remember, too, if Moshiach Yehoshua had a quiet time before he ministered, how much more should you! Before you send this to the outreach coordinator on Acts 2:42 week-end, save a carbon copy for your own records. Day/Time Recom- Name Phone Called #1 #2 #3 mendation 1. ________ ________ ___/___ ____________ _________ __________ _________ 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. (On a larger page there will be reporting room for more names.)VISITATION FORM NAME ___________________________________ DATE OF CALL ___________ NAME OF TEMPLE AND TEAM MEMBERS_______________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ NAMES OF PEOPLE VISITED___________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________________________ STUDENT'S ROLE: OBSERVER _____________ PRESENTER ______________ SUMMARY REPORT OF CALL: WHAT HAPPENED? EVALUATION OF CALL: STRENGTH, WEAKNESS, ETC. WHAT DID YOU LEARN IN THE EXPERIENCE? BUS MINISTER'S FORM BUS MINISTER'S NAME ___________________________________ ADDRESS, ZIP ____________________________________________ PHONE ___________ 1. WHO DO YOU PRESENTLY BRING TO A MEETING? __________________________ ___________________________ ___________________________ 2. HOW MANY MORE PEOPLE DO YOU HAVE ROOM FOR IN YOUR VEHICLE? ___ 3. WOULD YOU BE WILLING TO BRING THE FOLLOWING PEOPLE IN YOUR VEHICLE? (YES) ______ (NO) _____ (NAMES, ADDRESSES, AND PHONES TO BE FILLED IN BY THE LEADER) 4. WOULD YOU BE WILLING TO BE RESPONSIBLE TO SEE THAT THESE PEOPLE ARE BROUGHT EVERY WEEK? (YES) _________ (NO) ________ A. TO WHICH SERVICES WILL YOU BRING THEM? (CHECK ONE OR MORE) FRIDAY _____ SUNDAY ______ MIDWEEK______ B. WILL YOU ALSO TAKE THEM HOME? (YES) _______ (NO) ______ C. WILL YOU CALL THEM AT LEAST TWO DAYS BEFORE EACH MEETING TO CONFIRM THEY WILL BE PICKED UP AND AT A CERTAIN PLACE AND TIME? (YES) ______ (NO)______ D. WILL YOU PRAY FOR AND WITH THESE PEOPLE AND WILL YOU PRAY THAT G-D WOULD GIVE YOU MORE LOVE FOR THEM, SINCE ONLY AS WE HAVE THIS TYPE OF FAITH ACTIVE IN LOVE WILL OUR CHAVURAH GROW? RELIGIOUS EDUCATION STAFF REPORT DATE _____________ NAME OF TEACHER ______________________________________ NAME OF CLASS _________________________________________ *ATTENDANCE LAST WEEK_____________________________ *HOW MUCH TIME DID YOU SPEND IN PREPARATION? _____HR(S). *DID YOU PERSONALLY PRAY FOR EACH STUDENT OF YOUR CLASS THIS WEEK? ______________________________________________________________________________ *HAVE YOU SENT A POSTCARD TO EACH ABSENTEE? ___________________________ *DID YOU VISIT OR TELEPHONE EACH ABSENTEE? _____________________________ *DID YOU ISSUE ALL TIMELY BIRTHDAY, ANNIVERSARY, GET-WELL CARDS? ______________________________________________________________________________ *DID YOU RECONTACT ALL NEW VISITORS SUBSEQUENT TO WEEK-END? ______________________________________________________________________________ *HAVE YOU ENCLOSED ALL VITAL INFORMATION REGARDING NEW VISITORS? ______________________________________________________________________________ *WHEN IS YOUR NEXT CLASS ACTIVITY FUNCTION AND WHAT IS IT? ______________________________________________________________________________ *PLEASE LIST ANY IMPORTANT DEVELOPMENTS RESULTING FROM THIS WEEK'S MINISTRY: 1. _________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________ 3. ____________________________________________________________________________ 4.____________________________________________________________________________ 5. ____________________________________________________________________________ *PLEASE LIST ANY PROBLEMS YOU ENCOUNTERED THIS WEEK: 1. _________________________________________________________________ 2. _________________________________________________________________ 3. _________________________________________________________________________ *PLEASE LIST ALL STUDENTS YOU MINISTERED TO (IN PERSON OR BY PHONE) COUNSELED, VISITED, ETC., DURING THE PAST SEVEN DAYS: (USE BACK AS NECESSARY) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.HOME TORAH SECRETARY REPORT SHEET FOR THE WEEK OF _____________ SECRETARY'S NAME _____________________ TORAH STUDY ______________________________ 1. DID YOU ATTACH THE GUEST SHEET WITH ALL FIRST TIMER'S NAMES, ADDRESSES, PHONE NUMBERS AND ZIP CODES? _____(YES) _____ (NO) 2. DID YOU LIST BELOW THE NAMES OF ALL ABSENTEES SO THE PHONE MINISTER CAN CONTACT THEM? (YOU MUST HAVE AN ATTENDANCE ROSTER.) 3. LIST BELOW THE PEOPLE AND THEIR COMPLETE ADDRESSES WHOM YOU FEEL ARE INTERESTED ENOUGH TO READ DOCUMENT PART OF "EVERYTHING YOU NEED TO GROW A MESSIANIC SYNAGOGUE" AND WE WILL MAIL IT TO THEM. 4. PLEASE MAKE SURE THAT ALL NAMES AND ADDRESSES ARE PLAINLY PRINTED ON THE VISITOR SHEET. 5. PLEASE MAKE SURE THAT THIS INFORMATION IS MAILED IMMEDIATELY AFTER THE TORAH STUDY SO THAT WE CAN MAKE USE OF THIS INFORMATION THE SAME WEEK. SOME TOOLS FOR INTERPRETATION AND TEACHING PREPARATION (II TIMOTHY 2:15) We cannot persuade anyone to believe the truth until we have first discovered and understood the truth. Rhetoric is the art of persuasion. Exegesis is the discipline of probing the meaning of a written passage to lift out the truth that is there and expose it. We will deal with rhetoric in the next section. Here we are primarily concerned with exegesis (interpretation), the science of which is called hermeneutics. THE HERMENEUTIC PROCESS The systematic discipline of interpreting the real meaning in a text is called hermeneutics. The 12-Step study preparation method given in this section involves the student in Exegesis, Brit Chadasha and Tanach Theology, Systematic Theology, Hemeneutics, Classical Rhetoric, Homiletics, and Creative Writing. Suppose your text is from the Hebrew Bible -- say Jer. 3:15: "And I will give you pastors according to mine heart, which shall feed you with knowledge and understanding." You look up some of the key words in Strong's Concordance after you check the verse in Interlinear Bible -- if you own it -- as well as a familiar translation like the King James. On page 774 in Strong's, the key word "pastors" is listed along with the Jer. 3:15 text and the *7462 number of the Hebrew Lexicon. You turn to the Lexicon in the back of the Strong's Concordance to 7462 in the Hebrew Dictionary, and you find that the Hebrew word is transliterated "raw-aw" and means literally "the one who tends the flock" and, figuratively, "the one who tends the L-rd's flock, the believers." Now, suppose your passage is in the Brit Chadasha. Take I Cor. 3:10. If possible, look up the text in the Interlinear Bible. Then look it up in Strong's Concordance by checking out key words like "foundation,"which is located on page 369 in Strong's. The number *2310 tells you the place to look in the Greek Dictionary in back. But before you turn, notice the same Greek word number 2310 is also used in Eph. 2:20 where it speaks about "the foundation of the apostles and prophets." In the Greek Dictionary in the back of Strong's, you see that *2310 is the Greek word for "foundation" meaning "something put down." By asking obvious questions (who? what? when? where?), you are led to ask who puts it down. And the answer in the larger context is: the L-rd's workers (see I Cor. 3:9) or laborers. This leads us to ask who are the L-rd's workers? How do they build effectively? How are they prepared and recognized? What standards are they given in the Brit Chadasha and the Tanach? A teaching or speech is germinating here. But much study is left to be done. To begin, we must know the resource books that will help) us pursue our questions throughout the Bible. The difficulties and obscurities of Scripture can be understood through a number of means. Hebrew and Greek Lexicons (dictionaries) and Interlinears (word by word translations accompanied by the original Hebrew and Greek of the Bible) can help us understand the words of the Bible more clearly. Comparing translations is useful, but equally helpful is Concordance word studies, where the original word is given to the reader as it appears in every verse of Scripture in the Bible, so that every shade of meaning the word can contain becomes apparent. 12-STEP STUDY PREPARATION 1. Select the brief portion of Scripture which will become the basis for your Bible study, teaching, tract, or message. For example, take I Cor. 3:10. 2. If possible, look at this text in an Interlinear. In any case, study its key words in Greek or Hebrew. In Hebrew, turn from Strong's to the back of Strong's to the new Brown Driver, Briggs Hebrew Lexicon and Concordance. In Greek, turn from Strong's to the back of Strong's to the Thayers Greek Lexicon and Concordance. (If you only have Strong's, use the Hebrew and Greek Dictionaries (Lexicons) in the back.) 3. Read about the text in the New Bible Commentary to check your initial understanding. 4. Look at the Thompson Chain Reference Bible to get topical ideas that are implicit in the passage and read these Scriptures. 5. Do a little systematic theological study by reading New Bible Dictionary article, "ministry" 6. Begin asking the questions regarding the Introduction, Explanation, Argumentation, Refutation, and Summing Up on the Audience Analysis page, below 7. Begin creating arguments using the "Building with Silver and Gold" sample sermon as a model, especially referring back and forth from its text to its Glossary below 8. Look through the portion of Great Treasury of Western Thought dealing with the main ideas of this passage and start looking for illustrative quotations. For example, look up "responsibility" (an important idea in the text being studied -- I Cor. 3:10) on page 1698 in Great Treasury of Western Thought where you will get from the index where to find a great supporting quotation such as the one by George Barnard Shaw on page 897 (13-1-60). 9. On separate 3 x 5 cards, write down each separate argument, figure of speech, quotation, or Scripture verse that comes to you. (These can be filed in your Speech Preparation File later for future use.) This is a good time to consult your Almanac for a statistical argument. 10. After sorting all material into thought groups so you have a crude outline of your whole argument, force yourself to reduce your argument to a short declarative sentence (proposition) like "Privilege requires responsibility." write it on a 3 x 5 card. (Consult Topics on pages 53-55 in Charles Kollers, Expository Preaching Without Notes, Baker Book House, 1962.) 11. It will help you in revising and refining your proposition to state your raw argument formally (syllogism) and informally (enthymeme). Use a dictionary and thesaurus. See the terms you don't understand in the Glossary following the sermon, "Building with Silver and Gold." Syllogism: Being a zaken (elder, presbyter), a keli kodesh (minister), or a voting member is a privilege. This privilege requires the responsibility of keeping Scriptural standards. Therefore, zekenim (presbyters), klei kodesh (ministers), and voting members should keep the standards. Enthymeme: Zekenim (Presbyters), (Klei Kodesh) ministers, and members should keep Scriptural standards, since privilege requires responsibility. 12. Using your dictionary and thesaurus, select only your best material and refine it until it is ready to be presented orally or in written form. Remember, the words you choose should fit you as the speaker, your hearers as the audience, and your occasion as the total set of circumstances to which you are called to speak. RHETORICAL RESOURCES FOR MESSIANIC PERSUASION Needed Books Interliners Strong's Exhaustive Concordance Englishman's Hebrew Concordance New Brown, Driver and Briggs Hebrew Lexicon Englishman's Greek Concordance Thompson Chain Reference The Doubleday Roget's Thesaurus in Dictionary Form (Sidney Landau, Editor, Doubleday, New York, 1977) New Bible Dictionary Great Treasury of Western Thought Information Please Almanac Webster's Dictionary New Bible Commentary Thayer's Greek Lexicon or Ardt & Gingridge New International Version The Open Bible Charles Kollers, Expository Preaching Without Notes, Baker Book House, 1962 Talmud and other Jewish writings AUDIENCE ANALYSIS AND PRELIMINARY MEDITATION ON THE DISCOURSE But this is not just an exposition of a text. It is also a speech or teaching or discussion with someone. Therefore, the way the material is presented must take into account the audience. Here are the questions I asked myself as I prepared the discourse for an audience: 1. What is my purpose? 2. What is the occasion or the urgencies of the hour? (I knew that a membership meeting was only a month away - the annual January business meeting of the congregation where I was asked to speak, Aron Kodesh (messianic synagogue).) 3. What is their purpose? What do the people for whom I must speak need or expect? 4. Who exactly will be in the audience? 5. How will they feel about what I'm going to present? 6. Where will the sensitive points come, probably? 7. What do they need to hear? 8. What do they expect to hear? 9. How can I make what I have to say most memorable and most persuasive to them? 10. What will they already understand about what I need to say? 11. What will I need to explain? 12. What will they probably agree with me on? 13. What are the points on which they probably have to be persuaded to agree with me? 14. Where am I leading them? When I've finished speaking, what do I want them to have changed their mind about? What decision do I want to bring them to? 15. What about organization? Before I worry about the exact words I want to use -- to get their attention at the beginning and to stick in their memory at the end -- let's think about organizing the content of the discourse. I know that a good start is to be able to put the point I'm trying to make into a simple sentence (a proposition). Then everything I say has to be related to that proposition (I must not digress from the point). A good format is to interest and orient my audience to the proposition (this is the job of the INTRODUCTION.) Then I must provide them with any preliminary background details they need to follow my argument. (This is the job of the EXPLANATION). Then I must present my arguments (this part of the discourse is called the ARGUMENTATION). Then I must disarm all the counter arguments that may be popping up in my audience's mind (this part is called the REFUTATION). Then I must am up the case and leave the audience with a clear conclusion that neatly ties together all the loose ends so there won't be any confusion left in their mind as to what I was talking about for the past few minutes. Finally, I must give the audience the opportunity to actually do what I've been asking them to do. Oh, yes, now there's the other thing -- the time. Can I cover all this in the time allotted? How can I cut it down? What material will go over well with this audience? How can I cut it down to the briefest possible time and still get in the best strokes to move this audience to follow me all the way to the point I want them to go ? How can I use humor and all the other things at my disposal to keep them with me, both in their attention and in their emotions? How can I use explanation (what), argumentation (why), illustration (how) and application (how in regard to you and me), to drive home the one point that I'm trying to make as I go through the various aspects of that one point? Let's see. What about my own life? How does this passage relate to me? Let me search my memories. Then let me go to my books, my files, etc. Let me begin to pray. G-d will put it all together if I mull over it for a while. PURPOSE GENERAL PLAN: PART: INTENDED TO: MATERIAL TO DO THIS: INTRODUCTION GET ATTENTION AND EXPLANATION ARGUMENTATION KEEP ATTENTION AND REFUTATION KEEP ATTENTION AND SUMMING UP KEEP ATTENTION AND OPENING GET ATTENTION SENTENCE* AND CLOSING SENTENCE* *the opening and closing sentences are so very important you will Want to give special attention to them. THE RHETORIC OF HOMILETICS Homiletics is the science of faithfully expounding the Scriptures; rhetoric is the art of the effective use of language to accomplish persuasion. What follows is the speech that was written on I Corinthians 3:10 with a glossary of the rhetorical devices, figures of speech, lines of argument, and other language means used to accomplish the end of persuasion. It should be noted that a knowledge of figures of speech is necessary because the Bible is full of them and assumes their familiarity by the reader. My analysis, it should be emphasized, was set forth in this detailed manner after the fact, and the Ruach Hakodesh, who helps us all in all our speaking, was the chief analyst prior to my giving the speech. That is not to say that I just got up without preparation and spoke. No, there was preparation, but the Ruach Hakodesh put so much more into what I said than I realized, that the post-speech analysis brought forth much that I was only subconsciously aware of (or totally unaware of) as I spoke. This is not surprising since the Ruach Hakodesh is our helper, as He should be in all homiletical discourses. We study only to show ourselves approved as good talmidim of the Word, who follow the L-rd's thoughts after him. Study the speech and then go back and let the glossary take you through the speech again, teaching you how to use the art of rhetoric in your discourses before audiences of 1 or 1,000. Your repertoire of rhetorical devices, figures of speech, and lines of argument will expand with practice and imitation. Your aim is Rav Sha'ul's in Colossians 4:4, to make the Besuras Hageulah clear, as you ought to speak. BUILDING WITH SILVER AND GOLD (I COR. 3:10) TITLE, A Sermon on Standards for Klei Kodesh & Voting Members SUBJ. Preached at Aron Kodesh on December 4, 1977 "You are also G-d's building. Using the gift that G-d gave me, I did the work of an expert builder and laid the foundation and another man is building on it. But each one must be careful how he builds. For G-d has already placed Moshiach Yehoshua as the one and only foundation and no other foundation can be laid. Some will use gold or silver or precious stones in building on the foundation; others will use wood or brass or straw and the quality of each person's work will be seen when the Day of Moshiach exposes it. For on that day fire will reveal everyone's work, the fire will test and show its real quality. If what was built on the foundation survives the fire, the builder will receive a reward. But if anyone's work is burned up, then he will lose it. But he himself will be saved as if he had escaped through the fire. " (I Cor.3:9b-15) [INTRO] 1. I'm not going to be preaching a Yeshu'at Eloheinu message this morning. I'm not talking about salvation. Did you notice that last verse? Even if you blow it, you can still be saved from the Charon Af Hashem (G-d's burning wrath), because it's not by ma'asim tovim that we are saved, it's by chesed. So what was true for King David is true for you. And there's hope for Goble even if he blows it. [ASSON] [PAREN] 2. However, since you are the builders of this kehillah, (Neil Lash, Randi, and I would look a little foolish here by ourselves this morning, wouldn't we?) since you are the builders, you have an interest in this verse, because it says, "if you build with silver and gold, your work will remain and you will get a reward." So this is what the sermon is all about this morning, how to get a reward, a reward made possible by certain golden standards in the avodas kodesh ministry which are G-d's insurance policy for our work, that these messianic synagogues will remain after our death. [PUR] [EXPLAN] 3. But first let's look in the future. Let's look at 1984, George Orwell's date. Wouldn't it be terrible if there was an announcement read at Aron Kodesh like this: We're having a theater party Saturday night. We're going to see "Lust Pigs" [SAT] starring sexy Burt Reynolds and foul-mouthed Richard Pryor. [CURR EV] Then after the show we're meeting for cocktails, cigarettes, bingo, and barroom dancing at Big Daddy's. A good time will be had by all. The next morning [ANASTRO] we stalwart members of Aron Kodesh will meet for a business meeting [IRONY] to vote on the holy matters of G-d. [HUM] 4. No way. It's not going to happen. Privilege entails responsibility. [PROP] We're going to set standards so that won't happen. Those people might as well [DEDUCT] sleep in on Shabbos, because they're not going to be the voting members of Aron Kodesh. They are not going to have control over the holy matters of G-d. 5. "We are the Beis Hashem, we are G-d's house," it says in I Cor. 3:9. What is G-d's house? Haggai 1:4 says this: "My people, why should you be living in well built houses while my House, my Beis Hamikdash [EXEG] lies in ruin?" You know your house and my house are not G-d's house. [DIFF] That's the reason why a privately owned corporation or house is not a kehilllah. My house is not G-d's house. One of the real temptations we have is to make "my [EPAN] house" G-d's house. 6. I was tempted this week. I put new carpeting in and it looked so beautiful, [ANEC] and then a little voice turned on in my head and said, [PER EXP] "Hey, why don't you get an extra job, don't do quite so much visitation, [EXAMP] don't work quite so hard, start socking it away and fix up the whole house. Take care of "Number One," like the best-seller says." [AUX] 7. I knew who that voice was, friends, and I think you know too, I clicked off that little voice quite quickly and got back out into my bus and made myself keep going, [ONOM] because, you see, your house and my house are not G-d's house. 8. Now sometimes we do things for people, and our homes are important; [EXAMP] for instance, this week I helped move a lady who is a member at Aron Kodesh into her new apartment. So we need to be concerned about our homes, but a materialistic worldliness can turn a home into an idol, so that we neglect the House of G-d. 9. Now here's the question: How can we make sure that G-d's House remains? [Q-A] There are structural weaknesses in the House of G-d and we have to be very sure that we know what they are. There are structural weaknesses in Aron Kodesh and we have to be aware of them so that Aron Kodesh will remain. 10. Let me mention some of these. These are some possible structural weaknesses [DEF] that could rear their ugly heads in the years to come. One structural weakness in [DIV] G-d's House is a kind of Seventh Day Adventist disdain for Yom Rishon as the Yom haAdon. You know, we start Torah services on Saturday morning--which you should be doing that already! -- but then we go one step further and declare that only the stupid go to kehillah on Yom Rishon, we're messianic Jews, we don't have anything to do with that. On that morning you find us lounging around the pool or at the golf course hobnobbing with other people who think it a nothing day. That would be bad, wouldn't it? Particularly when Orthodox Jews pray on Yom Rishon! In an Orthodox neighborhood you see them early in the morning walking to shul on Yom Rishon (while Messianic Jews sleep in?) [IRONY] Seriously, if Orthodox Jews are walking by here every Yom Rishon for their shacharis morning prayers and Conservative and other Jews are forming minyans all over the neighborhood, wouldn't it be a little weird for you to have your doors sanctimoniously locked and the place dark on Yom Rishon mornings? 11. Another type of structural weakness would be to develop a kind of Roman Catholic awe of dead unscriptural ritualism, the kind that loses the substance and get hopelessly bogged down in form. They had their indulgence and you, if you're not careful, could eventually have your tashlikh. Keep your traditions Biblical. It takes the blood of Moshiach to remove sin, let there be no "river of doubt" about that. [C-E] Then we become a very formal place where there's no real on-going personal relationship with G-d. Where we don't break through that incessant ritualism to have [ELLIP] a real on-going relationship with G-d. That could be a problem. Now that's not to say that we throw the traditions out the window, but we keep ANTITH an eye on them, because this could become a structural weakness if the substance [COND] gets lost in the form. It's already happened once in Judaism and we don't want it to happen again. Keep it all Biblical. Even though the Shas is in your library, your faith must be based on Sola Scriptura. [PFFF] In our quest for liturgical credibility let us not lose the spontaneity of the Ruach Hakodesh and the fire of the Dvar Hashem. 12. Another structural weakness would be an anti-Gentile exclusivism where we become a kind of Jewish club, for Jews only, an elite with a proud pedigree. That could be very bad, because after all, aren't we supposed to be "Ohr haOlam," the light of the world? Don't we have a commission, the Great Commission, Moshiach's Shlichut to go to all the ends of the earth to make messianic peoples out of Indians and Chinese and everybody else so that they all can become spiritual Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14)? Isn't that Moshiach's Shlichut (mission) for us? And doesn't that require a world-embracing [CLIM] organization as well as world-embracing mentality? We can't ever get so enraptured with ethnicity and so fearful of assimilation that we become ethno-idolaters. We've got to remember that the ecclesia, the Brit Chadasha Kehillah, is a world-embracing chavurah under a divine discipline to reach out to fulfill the Moshiach's Shlichut (Mat.28:19-20), which is to make talmidim of all peoples. [POLYPT] 13. There's a fourth structural problem and this one is very important. It's called nominalism. To be nominal is to have a commitment "in name only." [ETY] Let me tell you about three types of nominalism we have to look out for. [DEF] Some of this might come a little close to home, but remember, it's kind of close to my home too, and I have to watch myself, too and keep Goble in line. [PUN] I'm tempted to make G-d's house my house, so I'm preaching to myself here too. [ARGU] 14. One kind of nominalism is what we call "Second Generation Nominalism." [DIV] That's when some of the yeladim in our ministry become 16 or 17 years old and we can hear their conversations something like this: "You know I was bar mitzvahed at Aron Kodesh. But I don't believe Moshiach Yehoshua thinks there's that much wrong with smoking a little pot. And of course, my big brother, he was bar mitzvahed there too. But he doesn't believe there's all that much wrong with living with your girl friend at the University. I mean, everybody does it now and they do love each other. Now come on, G-d is love." You see' That's "Second Generation nominalism." Mom and Dad got delivered from the Olam Hazeh world at Aron Kodesh but the kids grew up taking Aron Kodesh for granted -- ("Great for Mom and Dad," you know.) Nominalism sneaked into the house. Mom loved the L-rd, but she didn't put her foot down when the kids brought acid rock records into the house. [PERSON] And the little kids grew up and they're not [GEN-SPEC] quite following Moshiach Yehoshua with Mom and Dad, and their experience with G-d was never really personal. Second generation nominalism is a phenomenon [CONCLU] that you've got to watch out for because ten or twenty years from now this place could be a completely different place if the children don't have a heart-felt experience with Moshiach Yehoshua. [DIV] 15. A second kind of nominalism I call "the seven month itch." I suffered from this in December DIV of '76. It's when you lose that first love for the work. Look at Rev. 2:4. "But this is what I have against you: you do not love me now as you did at first. Think how far you have fallen. Turn from your sins and do what you did at first. If you don't turn from your sins, I will come to you and take your menorah from its place." 16. The menorah here is talking about the [TEST] congregation. I suffered from the seven month itch nominalism in December of '76. I loved Miami Beach, I was going to serve Miami Beach, I was going to finish the L-rd's [SEQ] work in Miami Beach. But after the Devil got finished clobbering me for about five or six months, and after I went through some very bad experience with some people that I thought should have been a little more mature as spiritual leaders, I was itching to leave. My feet were badly infected. I had itchy [C-E] feet. I was beginning to flirt with maybe going to a little greener grass on some [MAX] other side of the fence. And the Enemy was dangling carrots. And then I was wavering [PERSON] and my thoughts were fluctuating something [F-I] like this while I was rationalizing: "Oh well, at least I've accomplished something here. I've pioneered a little something here. If I left now I'm sure something would remain -- no I'm not so sure something would remain -- I really haven't done all that much here-- maybe I'd better hang on." Because you see, we can lose the pioneer spirit very quickly. We can stop being chalutzim (pioneers). But let me tell you something, Rav Sha'ul never stopped being a pioneer. He knew he was in warfare from the day he started on the road to Damascus until the day they cut his head off, and he never retired, never went to part-time service, never [DESCRIP] to a nominal half-hearted commitment that looks for the easy way out. He said, "Forgetting what lies behind, I press on to the upward calling in the Moshiach Yehoshua." 17. Now let me tell you something: You've only just begun at Aron Kodesh. If anybody thinks that "Oh well, things are in pretty good shape here, we can more or less pack up and leave, " I've got news for you. You [ANAD] haven't got a real messianic synagogue yet. You've got something that's starting to look like one, but you haven't arrived yet. You need to have a messianic Jewish Day School. You've got to have a way to raise the children with Jewish parents and grandparents to know they're Jews but to also know they're [ANAPH] delivered from the Charon Af Hashem (burning wrath of G-d) because they've turned from the Olam Hazeh in teshuvah. You've got to have more than you've got here now, and it's going to take time, it's going to take work. But Baruch Hashem, if the job were over it would be a little boring, wouldn't it? So let's keep that in mind, because it's very easy after the honeymoon is over, to pack up and get a get without working through to the mature thing Hashem intended. That's the danger of the Seventh Month Itch type of nominalism: it's so subtle and so well rationalized that you don't realize you've quit before you get started. [CONCLU] 18. All right, the other type of nominalism is the worldly variety, and I've got to talk about [DIV] it now because it is very subtle. You see, it can even creep into the avodas kodesh ministry. Now I hope everyone here can hear what I'm saying without it being a stumbling block to you. You've got to really know the L-rd to be able to hear what I'm saying and accept it and understand that it's true. When we build with silver and gold, we have to have high standards for everybody who makes decisions and controls the work of G-d. Basically this boils down to three types of [DIV] people in the work of the L-rd. 19. We have the zekenim, the klei kodesh (ministers with s'michah) and we have the voting constituency of the [DEF] membership. Now when I use the word "member," I'm not talking about the member of the Body of Moshiach Yehoshua in the general sense. I'm using the word in the special sense of the "voting member." I'm not just talking about the "member" of the Body of Moshiach who comes regularly and who considers this his place of worship. I'm talking about the voting member, the one who can call the shots by the way he votes at the business meeting. He is very important and I'm going to get to him in a minute. But before I do, I've got to talk about the klei kodesh, the ministers. 20. Because, you see, worldliness can creep into the ministry, too, and you need to know about this. We have to have high standards for the ministry, because if we don't -- what does it say in [BIB] I Timothy 4:12? It says, "Set the believers an example in lashon hora and conduct, in ahavah, in emunah and in purity." And what if the man who's spiritually leading the kehillah doesn't do this? Now this may come as a surprise to you, but there have actually been ministers who have been caught guilty of ni'uf (adultery). Are you ready for this? Adultery! Are you ready for this? A [EMOT] minister! It can happen -- some lady comes into a man's office for personal counseling and begins to cry on his shoulder -- the next thing you know she has him in a head lock -- and one thing leads to another. Now this is [F-I] terrible. And there has to be the power to defrock an immoral, or heretical or adulterous minister. There has to be that power. And this is why an independent you-don't- [REPET] tell-me-what-to-do-and-I-won't-tell-you-what- [KEN] to-do type of organization is not going to work. Because, you see, to have order, there have to be police, and they have to have real [METAPH] clubs, and they've got to be able to go in there and make arrests and indict, try, and convict people and get rid of them when they are no longer fit for the ministry. You see what I mean? And that's the reason we have zekenim. 21. Now some of you may not even know what a zaken is. But he is the advisor of a mashgiach ruchani in the kehillah, and he may be a territorial overseer of a certain number of kehillot in a certain area. [DENOT] And if ministers get out of line and have to [RESTA] be defrocked (stripped of their right to minister), there have to be men (zekenim or elders or presbyters) who can do this. Let me tell you [EMOT] something: there are going to be men who can do this! And we're not going to have that kind of problem. That problem exists, but we're not going to have it. And if we do have it in the years ahead, it'll be taken care of, because we're not playing around here. Can you imagine what would happen if a man committed adultery [EMOT] and people in the Brit Chadasha kehillah began to backslide because of this? Can you imagine? We are going to have to stand for eternity for what we do! We're going to have to stand for eternity and give an accounting for every neshamah that wasn't rescued from judgment because of us. That's why Moshiach's Shliach Ya'akov says, "Not many of you should be morim (teachers)." Because it's a very high responsibility. And privilege entails responsibility. 22. Now what does this mean' It means that the messianic ministers have got to measure up to high standards. This means that the torah, the doctrine, the ikkarim they teach -- Moshiach Adoneinu, Elohim HaAv, the Ruach Hakodesh, Immanuel Ben haAlmah, that Gehinnom is [APPOS] real and no myth, that Yeshu'at Eloheinu is through Moshiach Yehoshua's Pesach Korban kapparah alone, that the Ruach Hakodesh tevilah for today, and so is miraculous healing -- all these teachings, (which many people are not preaching and many ministers don't even believe) [PAREN] have got to be believed by our messianic Jewish ministers. 23. Let me tell you what I don't want to see in the future. Suppose a novice took over this messianic synagogue. Suppose he decided to do away with all home meetings and began preaching strictly rabbinic sermons, no Besuras haGeulah, no life, no Moshiach Yehoshua. Suppose a spirit of megalomania and paranoia entered him because of his proud, bitter heart and he began culture-shocking and alienating everyone, Jew and non-Jew alike. Suppose he tried so hard to impress the Jewish religious establishment and rabbis that he removed the messianic content from all the services and legalistically, belligerently required all members to keep the law in a cult-like oppressive atmosphere without the ahavas Moshiach while he turned the services into dead, predictable, dry liturgical treadmills. Suppose, further, he stopped winning Jewish people and drove off everyone who disagreed with him, while at the same time he tolerated immorality in the leadership. Can you imagine that? It could happen. All you need to have it happen is a novice who doesn't know Biblical theology and doesn't have his heart right with G-d. 24. The ministers must be accountable to the [CONTRAD] zekenim or elders. Now this is important, because when it says in Hebrews 13:17, "Obey [LAW] your leaders," it's not just talking to laymen, it's talking to klei kodesh, too, you know! We've got to be accountable to our leaders. A spiritual leader is [SAR] not a little tin pope. He is not a law unto [PAR T] himself, so that if he falls into immorality or heresy as long as he's got his Shotrim board hood-winked and the little immature people -- they don't know what's going on -- then he's got everybody fooled. Oh, no! He's got the zekenim to reckon with. Obey your leaders! Be accountable to your leaders! That means Goble, too. Goble has got to be accountable to people over him. Goble is not a law unto himself, and neither are you! Members should submit themselves to their spiritual leaders (as long as the Bible is honored by those leaders) and spiritual leaders should [ANAD] submit themselves to their zekenim -- as unto the L-rd! None of us are free-wheeling [SAR] cult leaders or independents -- or does anyone here think Hebrews 13:17 doesn't apply to such a free-spirit as himself? [FAL. CON.] If we were a cult, we wouldn't have to be accountable, but we are not a cult. If someone wants to call us a cult, they will have to call Billy Graham a cult. He has a board. We have a Shotrim board. We are Biblical, and accountable to the Scriptures and to our duly-intalled-in-office spiritual overseers. 25. Now I think this should be a relief to all of you, because we are submitting to offices ordered by the L-rd, not to free-wheeling [SYNON] independent personalities. There is nothing more frail or fickle than human personality, [ALLIT] but if we have Scriptural checks and balances to keep us in line, and if we are under the discipline of being submitted to the offices of our leaders, then we're going to become good talmidim of Moshiach, and the work of G-d will [ENTHY] be protected by the L-rd's insurance policy that I was telling you about, which is in the Moshiach's Letter through the Shliach Sha'ul to Titos in the Brit Chadasha Scriptures. 26. Please read the letter to Titus. You'll find that this book in the Brit Chadasha gives to the zekenim the power to excommunicate spiritual leaders -- to defrock them and to excommunicate them. And that's very important. For those of you who love chess, let me say that Zekenim are the L-rd's bishops to checkmate the Devil and their Office is [ALLEG] part of the rock upon which Moshiach Yehoshua has built [METAPH] His ecclesia, his Brit Chadasha Kehillah so that the gates of Gehinnom will not prevail against it. 27. Now let me tell you something. All of this is a gift from G-d! Baruch Hashem. It's Good News! He has given us the office of zaken and keli kodesh minister to help us! It's all a kind of [SIMILE] insurance policy to keep the work of G-d going. Individual ministers come and go, and congregations run hot and cold, come in multitudes today and fall away tomorrow, but the offices we have will remain to pick up the pieces after any attack of Satan. Is this a relief to anybody? It is to me, because believe me, I'm working hard and I don't want [METAPH] to see a house of cards based on personalities collapse. I'm not building a house of cards. I'm building with silver and gold, with offices and standards, and so are you. Take care that you are! That's my text, I Cor. 3:10. 28. Now let's talk about the high standards for the voting membership. You know, the Jerusalem Council -- where that very critical decision [HIST] about new Gentile believers (proselytes to Biblical Judaism) was made that they must not be circumcised according to the Law of Moses, that they could become just spiritual Bnei Avraham (Gal.3:7-14) and not have to become practicing Jews under the full yoke of the Torah -- that Council in Jerusalem was not a smoke-filled room! The Shliach Shimon Kefa and Ya'akov were not drinking buddies! When [LIT] Moshiach's Shliach Sha'ul was working he did not interrupt some of his activities in this way: Can you imagine Sha'ul saying to Timothy if he were alive today, `Say, Timothy, Lust Pigs is playing down [HUM] at the Bijou. And listen, after I finish dictating this Romans thing, what say we [R.P.] get a six-pack and pack of cigarettes and catch the flick this afternoon. And Timothy says: [PARODY] But wait a minute, Sha'ul, you know Tuesday, [APOST] Wednesday, and Fridays are my bridge days. Besides, wouldn't you rather play the [HUM] horses and maybe make some dough before we go to Las Vegas next week? Can you imagine Peter spending time off at the Circus Maximus? Can you imagine that? [PUN] 29. And let me tell you something. The voting [APPOS] membership -- the people who make the decisions of this Temple -- are in a very critical and important position, too. They can determine a lot of things in the future, too. And wherever there is privilege there must be [EXCLAM] responsibility! Now the person who wants to come here and be a member in the sense of "Boy, I'm regular and, man, I'm here, and you can count on me" and all like that -- that's fine, and Baruch Hashem, as long as he is not a spy for the Enemies of Messiah, we want people to come and feel members in that sense. But now I'm speaking in a very technical sense. I'm speaking in the technical sense of the voting member, the person at the business meeting who raises his hand "yea" or "nay" on the holy matters of the L-rd. Now that person has got to be sanctified. He's got to have kedusha. That means, he's got to turn from the Olam Hazeh. The scriptures say that "whoever loves Olam Hazeh or the things in the Olam Hazeh, the Ahavas haElohim HaAv is not in him." And it also says, "Lay hands suddenly on no man." 30. Now let me tell you something. There are two [DEF] ways of laying hands on a man. You can, as the Zaken, lay hands on a man to give him s'micha ordination [DIV] for the avodas kodesh work of the ministry, to preach the Besuras haGeulah, and to get out and to make talmidim for Moshiach and start new messianic synagogues. You can do that. All right? That's for the Jewish clergy. 31. There's also this other kind of "laying hands" [POLYSYN] recognition of responsibility, and that is when you extend the yad yeminam as a sign of Achavah (Brotherhood) B'Moshiach (Gal.2:9), when you extend the right hand of fellowship to this voting member who will be making decisions at the congregational business meeting. This voting member must be sanctified and sensitive to the Ruach Hakodesh because if he's carnal and nominal, he will destroy the work of G-d. And all you have to do is look at certain expressions of so-called "Christianity" in the last two thousand years of Church History and you'll see this phenomenon occuring time and time again. Nominal believers who are [P.F.F.F.] really not true believers tear down (from within) the work of the L-rd. And they make the House of G-d into a pig pen, a den of thieves and tzevu'im (hypocrites). 32. You know there were a couple of demons speaking in The Screwtape Letters by C.S. Lewis. [AUTH] They were trying to decide how to best ensnare a man. And here's what one of these shedim (demons) said, "Murder is no better than cards if cards can do the trick. Indeed, the safest road to [QUO] hell is the gradual one." And let me tell you friend; [C.P.] you're looking at a guy who was on a very safe read to Gehinnom. When I was a little boy in the congregation, I didn't really know Moshiach Yehoshua. "While the minister was speaking, I was doing what some of the children may be doing right now, dreaming. I would sit there day-dreaming and counting the number of light bulbs on the Aitz haKelalat Hashem (Tree of the Curse of G-d--Devarim 21:23) at the front of the House of Worship, hanging above the minister's head. But unfortunately I would lose count and have to start all over again. And I did that for 500 sermons for thirteen years, and after it was all over with, all I really knew about the Brit Chadasha was that there were 26 light bulbs, because I'd been counting them for thirteen years. [JEST] 33. Let me tell you something, friends. The safest road to Gehinnom is the gradual one! [STA] When I was thirteen, I started smoking cigarettes; and I won't go on and tell what else happened in my life, but believe me it was gradual, and believe me I was headed straight for Gehinnom, not just for the sins I did but for the unregenerate sinner I was, by nature, from my mother's womb (Psalm 51: 5). I know what it is to be a nominal believer without the new birth. I almost spent eternity being tortured forever in Gehinnom fire because of nominalism. And this is one man you're not going to find being a nominal believer again. 34. Now at the same time I am not a legalist. And the thing that I'm going to be saying here I'm going to be qualifying, because [ASYND] these are just ikkarim principles, they are just standards, they're not laws, they're not [ANTITH] legal ways of earning righteousness or salvation. But a believer is someone who is reborn and adopted spiritually as a ben Avraham by emunah (Gal.3:7-14) and a voting member is someone who is also a number of other things. He's open to the Ruach Hakodesh tevilah (he doesn't quench the Sprit but desires to be filled); he has been immersed in Moshiach's tevilah; he believes in the sound doctrine of an infallible, divinely inspired Bible, one G-d complex in person as Elohim HaAv, Ben haElohim, and Ruach Hakodesh, that the Moshiach was in the form of the very mode of being of Elohim and he took the form of the mode of being of the Avdi Tzaddik, that he was Ben haAlmah Immanuel. The voting member should think that being faithful in chavurah and at the Moshiach's Tish is important, that G-d still heals miraculously, that Yeshu'at Eloheinu is through emunah and by the kapparah of Moshiach our Korban Pesach, that there is a real Gehinnom and a real Shomayim, a final Judgment and the New Heavens and the New Earth. In this way the doctrine doesn't get watered down, because if it gets diluted, then the voting constituency votes in a liberal, and then the liberal [CLIM] doesn't preach the Besuras Hageulah any more, and then the whole house of cards collapses. [METAPH] 35. Furthermore, this voting member has separated himself from secret unbelieving, unregenerate societies. I'm not going to name names about [AMBIG] what some of those societies are, but you [ASYND] know what they are. They come together, they have a kind of Ku Klux Klan "Grand [CON-ADS] Master, Honorable Matron" ritualism, it's all from the Bible they say, it's all [PERIPH] wonderful, it's a mighty social aid for making business contacts, and there's all kinds of [IRONY] reasons to learn the mumbo-jumbo. The only [AUX] problem is that the Scriptures say we are to separate ourselves from unbelievers, and secret societies are fellowships comprising nominal believers or unbelievers. Let's be messianic, not masonic. They can't be voting members. 36. With secret societies, the voting member also avoids Hollywood pornography. For him or her, theatrical pornography is bad news. Let me tell you something, Goble has said "goodbye" to [PERIPH] Burt Hollywood. You see? And it's very important for me to say "(goodbye" to him for good and not get involved in that. Because I was almost sucked into Gehinnom via the [CONNOT] Hollywood pornography palaces once, and that's enough. While I was counting those light bulbs I was also dreaming about leaving Indiana and going to Hollywood. And I know all about the carnality and demonic control in that type of worldliness. A believer who goes to those types of films is as big a hypocrite as Peter would have been if he attended the gladiatorial orgies in Rome. [SIM] 37. The voting member has also renounced gambling and bar-room dancing. (I'm not talking about [ANTITH] dancing the Hora, I'm talking about dancing the Hustle.) I'm talking about the general type of thing that the heathen are involved in. This is bad news and we've got to say no to it. I'm talking about deliverance from drugs of all kinds. 38. Finally, the voting member has a willingness to tithe to the local body. Malachi 3 says this: "Bring ye all the tithes into the storehouse that there might be meat for my house." It's the responsibility of the members who have the privilege to decide for the congregation to put their money where their mouth is. [MAX] [REFUT] 39. Everything I'm saying, I'm saying with fear and trembling because I know I'm stepping on toes. if I had preached this sermon to [SYNEC] myself a few years ago I couldn't have handled it because I wasn't spiritually mature enough to agree with the L-rd on these touchy personal matters. It's tough stuff I'm talking about, and it's not salvation I'm talking about -- [ANTITH] I'm talking about responsibility, that adult responsibility we must have to be good stewards for G-d. It is this principle, not a mere [PUR] list of laws or do's and don't's, that I'm exhorting you to respect, so that we would not use our freedom as a cover-up for evil. 40. Now what does this mean? This means that for Goble and each one of us Moshiach Yehoshua has got to become our social director, our entertainment [CON-ABS] advisor and critic, our censor, our dancing instructor, our dietician, our disc jockey, our conscience, our tour guide, our escort -- He has got to come into our life and take control of it through the Ruach Hakodesh, and get into our home and turn off the boob tube and have devotions with our children and make them into talmidim for Moshiach and train them up the way they should go. It's going to mean a total consecration of our lives to Moshiach Yehoshua. We're not playing games, this is [ANTITH] not social religion. This is life or death reality and many people may or may not come to know Moshiach Yehoshua as their Go'el Redeemer because of what we do and the decisions we make. 41. What does this mean? This means that if any of you have been thinking while I've been talking, [ANAD] "Wait a minute. Is Goble saying 'I can't do this, and I can't do that and what if I want to do this once in a while, does this mean I can't do it? Wait a minute! Wait till he gets off that podium and I get a chance to talk to him after the service. I'm going to tell him a thing or two. If I want to do this any time I can and that's it, etc.,.." 42. Now I'm not saying that you should battle me. Battle yourself! I've got to keep control over Goble. I pommel my body and subdue it, lest preaching to others, I myself should fall short of the prize. I'm the guy who doesn't want to drive the bus. I'm the guy who doesn't want to pick up the people. I'm the guy who maybe would like to get lazy once in a while. I've got to keep Goble under control and keep him in the bus. My battle is against the old man within me. The battle is within you and you've got to win it. It's within me and I've got to win it. And you know why? Because I've got to keep blood off Goble's [EPIS] hands. Because let me tell you something, [SYNEC] people are going to Gehinnom. And if I don't straighten up and fly right, their blood is going to be on my hands. And I've got to keep Goble under control. And so do you. So don't come up here and grab me by the tie. Grab yourself by the tie, because we're in warfare. And this is real tribulation we're going through. But Baruch Hashem, we don't have to get on a guilt trip because G-d loves us and He's helping us and if you say you can't quit the Klu Klux Klan, it's true you can't be a voting member until you drop your membership. [HUM] Okay, don't have a nervous breakdown-- we'll [HYPER] wait for you. We're not going anywhere. Keep hanging in here, you'll become a voting member some day. [P-I] 43. And when I say that, I don't mean that by becoming a voting member, you join an elite. I don't mean that, and please don't interpret me that way, because everything I've said can be misinterpreted and distorted if you want to, but it's not that. I'm not saying that. It's responsibility. If Goble has a problem and he's guilty of immorality, Goble's got to [ANTE-CON] get out of the ministry. And pray that someone else will come in and take over so that what has been started will remain. And if a person is toying with some cult-practice or the occult, he'd better not become a voting member. It's that simple. Because people will come in and look at us and if we lower the standards, then we'll really let the dike down and other people will take over. There are people who would like to come in and make this a Jewish social club and they'd like to bring all this worldly [CONN] garbage in with them. They're going to say, "Well, look if the leaders do this and the [DEG] voters do this, then why can't I do that?" And pretty soon you'll have just exactly what [ADVIS] you don't want. And this is what we cannot have. And this is what I'm trying to say. [SYNEC] Get the blood off your hands, because the [INDUCT] blood of all the people who'll be lost is on [ENTHY] our hands if we don't straighten up. (Numbers 32:15; Ezekiel 33:8) 44. Let me ask you something. would you go to a hospital with a doctor who had not been properly screened? Where they haven't been properly schooled? And tested and approved by the high standards of a competent medical school? Would you risk your physical health with people like that? No, you wouldn't, [ELLIP] would you? This is more important than that [DEG] because this is spiritual well-being for eternity. What we're going to ask people to do is to trust G-d and to come with us. And when we say us, we're talking about all of us, but we're particularly talking about the decision makers: the keli kodesh ministers and voting members among us who are consecrated and sanctified. Hear this now: We will not lower the standards. We will not lower the standards for the avodas kodesh messianic ministry or the voting members. We will not lower the standards, but we will by G-d's help raise the people to [ADVIS] the standards. And so they'll start to grow. And if we don't help them to grow, if we don't give them standards, if we just say, "It's all right, if you enjoy gambling, praise G-d," then we've made a real mistake. [ADVIS] 45. Let me tell you something. I don't miss the [PERIPH] world. I don't miss Burt Hollywood. You know why? Because I get so busy seeking the kingdom first, I don't have time to worry about whether I'm unhappy or not. I don't have time for Hollywood nonsense because I'm too busy serving G-d. Now if you're into some kind of inner psychological turmoil where [BATH] you're dealing with yourself as a psychoanalyst trying to understand this unhappiness you're going through, what I would say to you is very simple; Pick up your aitz haKorban (tree of sacrifice), forget about yourself and follow Moshiach Yehoshua. Get so busy [EUPH] working for G-d that you don't have time to worry about worldly happiness. Because, let me tell you something, there are going to be a lot of people who are going to be eternally unhappy if you don't get busy. And if you do [ANTITH] get busy, G-d will give you simcha the Olam Hazeh can never know. Lose your life in Moshiach Yehoshua and you will find it. Die to the Olam Hazeh and rest in Moshiach Adoneinu of the Olam Habah! 46. Now there are certain rebels who are not going [ADVIS] to like what I'm saying. But rebels don't build lasting kehillot. They burn their bridges and cut themselves off from their supply lines. [ALLUS] We're not going to do this. We're going to have messianic yeshivas where we can draw a steady supply of trained Jewish leaders. We're going to have kehillot like the congregation in Ft. Lauderdale where we've already gotten so many good leaders. We're going to have congregations all over the world where these Jewish people are coming in off the street and getting delivered from the Charon Af Hashem and then they're going to want to go to their own people and we're going to be able to tap into them. We're not going to be rebels that cut off that source of supply. Now anyone can become a rebel. That's what we were before [ADVIS] we were delivered from judgment, but a rebel only hurts himself when he's dealing with the L-rd and the L-rd's work. [SUM] 47. We weren't called to be rebels. We were called to put to death (Yeshayah 53:8; Daniel 9:26) on the aitz hakelalat hashem (tree of the curse of Hashem--Devarim 21:23) the old rebel that [CONTRAR] used to be us, and let the submitted humble one, Moshiach Yehoshua, take over in the rebel's place. Take no part in the unfruitful works of darkness, but instead expose them." This is what I've tried to do in this message, I've tried to expose the unfruitful works of darkness. They are all rebellion. A keli kodesh minister who won't listen to his zaken can be just as rebellious as a layman who won't stop cursing and gambling. And remember, the sin of rebellion is as the sin of witchcraft (I Sam. 15:23). Now I'm sure that maybe on this little point or on that little point somebody may have disagreed with me as I went through this material. But what I'm asking you to do even if you don't agree with every little dot and tittle of what I've said, is to agree with the basic point: which is my concern that you haven't been wasting your time for the last year, my concern that if you drop dead tomorrow this thing will go on, [OBSERV] that every time you came to one of these services it meant something and it will continue to mean something long after you're with the L-rd. Agree with me about G-d's insurance policy that if your monthly payments are silver and gold, your [ANAL] dividend will be collectable because your work will remain. If the payments bother you, at least agree with me on the soundness of the policy because it's the L-rd's. Don't compromise the high standards, don't become proud, suspicious, unsubmissive, unteachable and rebellious. Others have done it before you. Expressions of Judaism have done it. Expressions of Messianic Faith have done it. We have no excuse because History has warned us. G-d has warned me and I'm afraid of G-d. I'm warning you in love as an Ach b'Moshiach. Don't build with wood or grass or straw. If you do, [PARAL] the quality of your work will be revealed for what it is. Build with zekenim and klei kodesh and voting members, with chavurah loyalty rooted in sound torah and high moral standards. Build with silver and gold. If you don't respect me, respect my office. Respect the blood, sweat and [ETH] tears I have given before you. Respect the hard work with silver and gold that has gone before you. Respect it enough to hear me. G-d bless you. (See Ezra 9:11-13; [SYNEC] James 4:4; II Cor. 6:14-18; Romans 6:1-2) FORMULA-SUMMARY OF SERMON OUTLINE PROPOSITION (x, not y, is true about z) (1) INTRODUCTION (The fact that x, not y, is true about z is introduced) (2) EXPLANATION (z defined and magnified) (3) ARGUMENTATION (x defined and recommended) (4) REPUTATION (y defined and indicted) (5) SUMMATION (x particularized and applied) GLOSSARY Below are a list of terms describing the types of rhetorical devices, lines of arguments and figures of speech that are to be found in the discourse above, keyed to the 47 paragraph numbers. You can find the section of the speech that the term refers to by looking at the paragraph number given in the section. For example, if something is found in paragraph 13 it will be designated 13. There are some kinds of support that are not used in the speech although it is replete with most of the kinds of support used, omitting a few such as poetry, hymns, epitaphs, athletics, nature, biography, word studies, editorial cartoons, prayers, and audio visual aids. ADVIS. - ADVISORY ARGUMENT This is the kind of argument that exhorts someone to do something or not to do something, that advises an audience to adopt a certain line of action in the future and generally employs four kinds of persuasion: do it (or don't do it) because of the good, the unworthy, the advantageous, the disadvantageous. To see these kinds of arguments employed in the speech, study 43, 44, and 46. An advisory argument is applied when we speak to the lost about salvation or when we speak to believers about getting involved in something in the future, from a bake sale to a building program. ALLEG. - ALLEGORY An allegory is the figurative treatment of one subject under the guise of another subject, such as in Animal Farm or in Pilgrim's Progress. There is no allegory in this sermon; however, because an allegory is an extended metaphor, the comparison of presbyters to "chess bishops" in 26 is a metaphor which I could have extended into an allegory in this way: on the chess board of G-d's kingdom, you and I were not intended to be pawns of Satan. For we have an ivory king -- Moshiach Yehoshua -- that G-d has already played to checkmate the devil. But that match is not all the contest, since G-d intends to play not only us, but also his bishops which we call zekenim. G-d intends us to use all his pieces to win the contest, but some silly players -- not following G-d's rules -- think they can win just as well without playing the bishop! They can't, and neither can we. (A Scriptural example of allegory is Galatians 4:21-31.) ALLIT. - ALLITERATION The repetition of initial consonant sounds in consecutive words or words close together such as "Pretty as a picture," or "dead as a doornail." An example is "frail or fickle" in 25. ALLUS. - ALLUSION A means of colorful language by indirect reference such as "supply line" in 46 which is a military allusion reminiscent of Ephesians 6:10-20. AMBIG. - AMBIGUITY An intentional vagueness such as my refusal to specify clearly the lodges I am referring to in 35. ANAD. - ANADIPLOSIS The repetition of the last word of one clause at the beginning of the following clause such as in the statement, "children need parents, parents need pastors, pastors need presbyters." ANAL. - ANALOGY A partial resemblance between two unlike things which points up meaning in one or both of them. An analogy can also show similarity in proportional relationships, so that as A is to B, so C is to D. Or as A is in B, so C is in D. In 47 I draw an analogy between an insurance policy and its premiums and dividends, and building with zekenim, members, and ordained ministers. ANAPH. - ANAPHORA The repetition of the same word or group of words at the beginnings of successive clauses or sentences. See the repetition of "you've got" in 17. Winston Churchill used this stylistic device when he gave a speech saying, "We shall fight on the beaches, we shall fight on the landing grounds, we shall fight..." ANAST. - ANASTROPHE The inversion of a natural or usual word order so that something occurs in the sentence in a backward way. An example of this is in 3 where I say, "A good time will be had by all" instead of, "All will have a good time." ANEC. - ANECDOTE A short little story with a ring of truth to it or actual truth to it, such as is found 6. ANTE-CON. - ANTECEDENT AND CONSEQUENCE A loose kind of cause and effect argument where the persuader argues, "Given this situation or cause (the antecedent), a certain effect (the consequence) follows." This type of argument is found at the top of 43 with the sentences beginning "If Goble" and "If a person. ANTIM. - ANTIMETABOLE The repetition of words in successive clauses in reverse grammatical order. I did not actually employ this figure of speech, but it would have been very appropriate in 42 where I say, "My battle is against the old man within me." I could have also added the antimetabole, "You win over the evil within you, or the evil within you will win over YOU." ANTITH. - ANTITHESIS A figure of speech in which irreconcilable opposites or strongly contrasting ideas are placed close together and in sustained tension, such as when Abraham Lincoln said in the Gettysburg Address, "The world will little note nor long remember what we say here, but it can never forget what they did here." Antithesis is when you say a negative and a positive together, such as "I'm not saying this, I'm saying this." Examples of antithesis are in 11, 34, 37, 39, 40 and 45. APOST. - APOSTROPHE This is the device of addressing an absent person or a personified abstraction such as in I Cor. 15:55. I could have used apostrophe in 28 if I had said, "Paul, you don't mind if I have a cocktail, do you?" APPOS. - APPOSITION The placing of one word or expression next to another in order to explain it. Appositions are normally set apart by dashes and comas. Notice the use of apposition in 22 and 29. ARGU. - ARGUMENTATION In the five main sections of a discourse (namely Introduction, Explanation, Argumentation, Refutation and Summing Up), Argumentation is the portion where all the arguments and the complete presentation of one's case is presented in the speech. My argumentation goes from 14 to 38. ASSON. - ASSONANCE The repetition of similar vowel sounds, preceded and followed by different consonants, in the stressed syllables of adjacent words, such as in "hope for Goble, even if he blows it" in 1. ASYND. - ASYNDETON The deliberate omission of conjunctions between a series of related clauses, such as in "I came, I saw, I conquered" Notice this in 34 and 35. AUTH. - AUTHORITY An argument from authority is an argument stating the opinion of a respected or well known man. In messianic persuasion the opinion of a famous Jew that is favorable to Moshiach Yehoshua or Messianic Judaism can be an important argument. I use this type of argument in 32 when I refer to C. S. Lewis. AUX. - AUXESIS This is the use of a dramatic term or name for something by which the very name carries an argumentative force. For instance, to call pilfering embezzlement is to use auxesis. In 6 I use auxesis when I refer to "myself" as "Number One." I also use auxesis in 35 when I refer to the ritualism of lodges as "mumbo jumbo." BATH. - BATHOS An unintentionally or intentionally ludicrous attempt to portray grief or pity in order to ridicule or burlesque the emotions or to show their inappropriateness. It can also be used when one speaks in a straight-faced manner with elevated language in describing trivial subject matter with emotion. By the intonation in my voice I demonstrated bathos in 45 when I spoke about the soap opera-like turmoil that self-pitying believers go through. BIB. - BIBLICAL QUOTE The entire speech is seasoned with Biblical quotes that are used to make arguments. One example is 20 when I quote I Tim. 4:12. C-E - CAUSE AND EFFECT This is a line of argument that can work in two directions: either arguing from an effect back to a cause or starting with a cause and arguing that it will produce a particular effect or effects. This type of argument is found in 11 where I argue that the cause of getting wrapped up in rituals leads to the effect of cold formalism. I also use cause and effect in 16 to explain my feelings. CHIAS. - CHIASMUS The Greek for "cris-cross," which is a reversal of grammatical structures in successive phrases or clauses such as in the sentence, "It is hard to make money; to spend money it is easy." I did not use this figure of speech in my discourse but I could have used it quite easily at the end of 14 had I said something like, "With their parents, decent kids; but trashy heathen, with their peers." CLIM. - CLIMAX The arrangement of units of meaning (words, phrases, clauses or sentences) in an ascending order of importance until a high point of interest is reached. See Romans 5:3-5 for an example. This figure of speech is found in the series of questions in 12 and in 34 in the last sentence. COMM. - COMMAND This exclamatory rhetorical device is found in the first line of 42. CONCLU. - CONCLUSION This is the last part of a chain of reasoning or the final thought in an argument that is based on evidence stated previously. Often called an inference, you can see examples of this in 14 and 17, where summary sentences at the ends of the paragraphs nail down the exact argument that is being stated and refer back to the evidence given in the paragraph. CON. ABS. - CONCRETE AND ABSTRACT DICTION This is the use of very descriptive or colorful particular things to describe abstractions such as the concrete words like "Ku Klux Klan" and "grand master, honorable matron" in 35 to describe abstractions like the "foolish ritualism" of lodges. Notice also in 40 how the abstraction of Moshiach Yehoshua's L-rdship is made real by using concrete words like "social director" and "dietician." Generally speaking, the more concrete and pictorial the word is, the better than abstract words it communicates. In 40 it would have been somewhat boring to say that "Moshiach Yehoshua should have control over our social life and should be our guide in daily living." By using concrete words this is avoided. COND. - CONDITIONAL This is a line of argument which argues that hypothetically, if a certain condition is or is not met, then something will or will not follow. In 11 it is a conditional argument to say that if the substance gets lost in the form, then a structural weakness will be created. This type of argument is different from the cause and effect argument because what it is that's being argued is set in a hypothetical framework referring to conditions in the future. CONN. - CONNOTATION The implication of the word beyond its strict meaning (denotation). In 36 I could have used a word with fairly neutral connotation for Hollywood theaters, calling them movie theaters, but instead I used negative connotations in "pornography palaces." Also in 43 instead of saying "worldly inessentials" I used stronger connotation and said "worldly garbage." It's important to be careful about the use of connotation. For example, the word "politician" denotes something that "statesman" does not. Connotation is the implication of the word, what it suggests emotionally to the hearer. CONTRAD. - CONTRADICTIONS This is a line of argument in which two propositions are stated in such a way that the truth of one requires that the other be false. This kind of argument is running beneath the surface in 24 where the implication of my logic is that either Heb. 13:17 applies to everybody or it applies to nobody. Since it cannot be that Heb. 13:17 applies to nobody, it must apply to everybody, leaders and followers alike. CONTRAR. - CONTRARIES An argument based on contraries has its strength in contrast. In 47 to be a rebel is bad because it is contrasted with being accountable which is good, since this behavior describes Moshiach Yehoshua. The force of the argument that to be a rebel is bad is found in the strength of the contrast. C.P, - COURTROOM PERSUASION In contrast with advisory persuasion, this kind of appeal is what the lawyer uses in the courtroom when he pleads the legality of something based on law (in our case, Scripture) or the innocence or guilt of someone based an motives and causes of action. Very often in our speaking we have to level charges against the human race and present evidence for guilt; we have to define the nature of the charge that we are making and show how serious it is. At various times in the speech I have to decide whether or not the charge of nominality is just, so far as my own life is concerned and also in terms of certain types of ministers and believers. The lines of argument that are used are what is just or what is right, and what is unjust or wrong. I use courtroom persuasion to defend in 32. Also in my refutation I use courtroom persuasion to defend myself personally for making the stringent moral demands of kedusha sanctification that I make. I am countering certain silent charges of being a legalist or a prude or a dictator or a spoil-sport or a cult-leader in the style of a lawyer. Very often I am accusing as a lawyer does, or I am defending the truth of the Word of G-d. I am speaking of what is unjust or unfair or immoral. Very often we attempt to persuade the "jury" in our audience to accept an interpretation of Scripture as authoritative and to agree about guilt or innocence. Very often my remarks tend in this direction: Who is the rebel? Who is the worldly man? What is my answer to my objectors? What kind of people have to be exposed and discredited and why? What does the law (the Bible) say here? By the way, if you've always wanted to be a lawyer and write briefs to be used in front of a jury, maybe G-d is calling you to be minister and preach sermons in front of a congregation! CURR. EV. - CURRENT EVENT In our speaking we need to be in touch with the daily newspaper and with the recent historical happenings or the popular sayings of the day. Notice I make a reference to a currently popular black comedian named Richard Pryor in 3. It is good to read Time magazine or Newsweek so that your arguments have an "up-to-date" ring of relevance. DEDUCT. - DEDUCTIVE REASONING This is the type of argument that moves from a principle already known or assumed and moves to a conclusion. In 4 the conclusion that we will not tolerate irresponsible members is drawn or deduced from the principle that privilege requires responsibility. The argument runs: Privilege requires responsibility. These types of people are irresponsible. Therefore, they cannot be members. Anytime you argue from a principle you are arguing deductively and you are using deductive reasoning. DENOT. - DENOTATION Direct specific meaning as distinct from additional suggestion which is connotation. In 21 the definition given of zaken/presbyter is denotation, the dictionary meaning. DEF. - DEFINITION This is a means of describing something or arguing something by breaking the idea down into its various aspects in order to define it more carefully. This I do in 10, 13, 19, and 30. An argument by definition is used whenever you show that what is true of the genus (class) must also be true of the species (member of the class). For instance, we can prove that John Smith will die because he is a member of the class called man. Since all men are mortal, and since mortality is true of the class, it must be true of the species within the class. One of the arguments by definition in my speech is that since nominalism is bad, anything that falls into that category (or is a species in that genus) is also bad by definition. DEG. - DEGREE This is the familiar line of argument called a fortiori which affirms that whatever is true of the lesser of something must be true of the greater of something and to an even greater extent. This argument is used in 44 to say that if standards are required of a medical school dealing with only physical life, how much more should standards apply to a spiritual school which pertains to eternal life! Actually the a fortiori argument can also apply in the opposite direction because in 43 the would-be members of the congregation are arguing that if the greater leaders and voters can do carnal things how much more should the lesser people (the new members) be allowed to do carnal things. DESCRIP. - DESCRIPTION Description is picture-painting words that sharpen the audience's view of the speaker's point. In 16, notice that it would have been less persuasive to say, "Until the day they killed Paul," because the descriptive term adds its own persuasion in saying "they cut his head off." Also in 32 it helps to see what nominalism is (a spiritual deafness to the Word of G-d). And this story with all its descriptive details about a little boy daydreaming and counting light bulbs while supposedly listening to a sermon makes nominalism more vivid and real, like photos of a battlefield's carnage can make a war real. DIFF. - DIFFERENCE This is a familiar line of argument in which two things are compared and contrasted in order to make an argumentative point. The speaker who contrasts democracy with communism in order to argue for the American way of life is using this line of argument called difference. An example is in 5 to 8 which compares and contrasts G-d's house and "my house." Here I was able to show how materialistic worldliness can creep into one's home and turn it into an idol. I wanted more than just a bland "word study" definition of G-d's house. I wanted to polemically define G-d's house in a way that would spotlight the tension of the entire discourse, which is between rebellious materialistic idolatry and humble accountability and sacrifice for the Beis Hashem. DIV. - DIVISION Division is enumerating the parts of something in order to more clearly define it. When a man says there are only five possible solutions, a), b), c), d), and e) but then goes through to show that the only true solution is c) he has in effect done argument by division. You can see argument by division in 10, 14, 15, 18, and 30. ELLIP. - ELLIPSIS The deliberate omission of a word or words which are readily implied and understood by means of the context. Very often in speech we don't bother to speak in complete sentences. For instance in 11 "Where we don't break through that incessant ritualism to have a real on-going relationship with G-d" is not a sentence in the strict grammatical sense. It is a fragment, but the staccato pace of what is being said makes the fragment work. Notice also the elliptical questions at the beginning of 44 which are not complete sentences and yet fit because of the rapidity of the thought which they enhance. EMOT. - EMOTIONAL APPEAL When we persuade someone, not only is it permissible to get emotional, but it is really necessary because people decide with their emotions as well as their thinking. An example of an emotional appeal in the discourse is 20 where I am speaking about an adulterous minister. My anger is stirred (it is quite genuine) and it is my intention to stir the anger of the audience because without that anger they will not be moved to decide to be accountable to the spiritual authorities that can be used by G-d to control such an enraging situation, namely the zekenim. There is more emotional appeal of this type in 21. Remember: people do not get angry by thinking about anger. People do not get joyful thinking about joy. Anger and joy arise from the contemplation of enraging things and acts or wonderful things and acts. ENTHY, - ENTHYMEME An enthymeme is an argumentative statement that contains a conclusion and one of the premises, the other premise being implied. If both premises are stated you have a Syllogism. To state the argument of my speech syllogistically would be to say: (First Premise) Nominalism destroys congregations. (second Premise) High standards protect against nominalism. (Conclusion) Therefore, we should maintain high Standards However, to compress the argument into the form of an enthymeme would be to simply make a statement like, "we should maintain high standards because nominalism destroys congregations." One of the premises is missing but for the sake of brevity to get on with the argument and to finish the speech, very often if a premise is fairly well understood it does not have to be explicitly spelled out. There are many enthymemes in this speech. The word "because" is usually a signal of an enthymeme since it is a word used to state a conclusion based on some type of support which also involves premises. The last sentence in 43 is an enthymeme because the implied premise that is not stated is that the "found" have a responsibility to warn the "lost." EPAN. - EPANALEPSIS The repetition at the end of a clause of a word that occurred at the beginning of a clause. An example of epanalepsis is in 5 where I say my house is not G-d's house, repeating the word "house" at the beginning and end of a clause or sentence. I could have used epanalepsis with a phrase like "carnality invites carnality, permissiveness spawns permissiveness, sin begets sin, and rebels breed rebels." EPIS. - EPISTROPHE The repetition of a same word or group of words at the ends of successive clauses as in "the battle is within you, and you've got to win it, it's within me and I've got to win it," which is found in 42. Another example: In the world, liquor is sacred, gambling is sacred, illicit love is sacred." This is the use of epistrophe. ETH. - ETHICAL APPEAL The character of the speaker is his ethical appeal, as opposed to the emotional frame of mind of the audience toward him or the logical arguments he presents. In II Corinthians, chapters 11, 12, and 13 Paul deals heavily in ethical appeal to make his persuasion. You can see this resorted to in 47 in the last few sentences of the speech. ETY. - ETYMOLOGY The business of tracing the original meaning of words by studying their history as they were borrowed from other languages. In 13, although I did not take the time to give the history of the word "nominal" which comes from a Latin word which means "name," at least I gave the etymological definition "in name only." Here, Webster's Dictionary can be helpful because it will give you the etymology. If you look up the word "presbyter" in the Webster's dictionary it will tell you that it comes from a word meaning "elder." In Hebrew, "zaken." EUPH. - EUPHEMISM A figure of speech in which something of an unpleasant, distressing or inelegant nature is described in less offensive terms, such as using the words "passed away" for "died." I use a euphemism for the word "cross" in 45, substituting the word "tree" instead. In order not to offend the taste of people it is necessary often to use euphemisms so that there will be no distraction caused by our language and persuasion can still occur. EXAMP. - EXAMPLE Any precedent that illustrates a point (be it positively or negatively). In 6 I use the example of getting a new carpet to make a point about idolatry. EXCLAM. - EXCLAMATION An exclamation is an excited emphatic statement usually punctuated by an exclamation mark (!). If used sparingly, it is a key way of drawing attention to the most important ideas in the speech. It's used in 29. EXEG. - EXEGESIS Exegesis is the science in theology whereby the correct and Scripturally compatible meaning of a particular passage is drawn out and exposed to the reader. When several alternative interpretations are compared and eliminated down to a Scripturally compatible interpretation which does not contradict the relevant Tanach and Brit Chadasha passages, then exegesis is accomplished. Expository preaching is good because it utilizes a sermon development with rich exegesis of the text, its meaning and application. EXPLAN. - EXPLANATION The section of the speech known as the Explanation is the portion that follows the Introduction. This is a preliminary explanation of background details in anticipation of the Argumentation portion. In this speech it extends from 3 to 13 and explains the problem of nominalism in a general way in anticipation of the argument which will deal with the specifics of nominalism. This is to prepare the audience and orient them to be able to digest the argument by informing them in advance with the background material of the argument. In many messages this will be the place for exegesis, which is a critical interpretation of the text. F-I - FACT-INTERPRETATION A statement is made and then an interpretation from the statement is presented. This is a familiar pattern of rhetoric and is found in 16 where the fact is stated that I wanted to leave and then the interpretation is made that I was rationalizing. Also an example is found in 20 where the fact is stated that ministers have committed adultery in the past. Then the interpretation is made that this is terrible and must be dealt with. PAL. CON. - FALSE CONCLUSION This tactic in rhetoric is to offer a possible deduction which may be in the audience's mind but then point out that it is false, as in 24. GEN-SPEC. - GENERAL SPECIFIC An aid to clarity is never leaving a general statement without specifically illustrating it in order to make it clear as in 14 where it says that "Mom loved the L-rd" (general statement), "but she let the kids bring acid rock records into the house" (specific statement). HIST. - HISTORICAL EVENT A good way of illustrating any message is to refer to an historical event such as in 28 which is a reference to the Jerusalem council meeting in Acts 15. HUM. - HUMOR A surprise perception of a disharmony which is usually absurd but also in a sense true at the same time. The surprise may come from a tense expectation suddenly changing to nothing but it may come from a strange reversal from the norm. Examples are found in 3 and 28 which are incidentally two strategic places for humor, in the beginning and the middle of any discourse where the tension may be getting too high or the attention may be getting too low. HYPER. - HYPERBOLE The use of exaggerated terms for the purpose of emphasis or heightened effect such as in 42 with the thought, "Don't have a nervous breakdown." Obviously, the term "nervous breakdown" is an exaggeration but is intended for effect to point out that getting upset even a little about such a minor thing is overreacting. Therefore, I use an overly dramatic admonition. Hyperbole is a figure of speech that is an intentional exaggeration for emphasis or comic effect. INDUCT. - INDUCTIVE REASONING Reasoning that brings forward a number of particular facts for the purpose of proving a general statement. Inductive reasoning is demonstrated in 43 where a series of little facts move the argument forward all the way to the final general statement which is "Get the blood off your hands," meaning responsibility for their perishing without your witness. However, to get to that general statement there are a lot of little individual statements that move us forward to the general point. This is inductive reasoning. INTRO. - INTRODUCTION The Introduction of a speech is found in paragraphs 1 and 2 where the attention of the audience is gained and the general topic of the speech is presented in the last sentence of 2. The introduction is rather short because there is a good deal of explanation necessary in order to present the argument. The best introductions are usually short ones with perhaps a little humor (if appropriate) as in the last sentence of 1 and with some indications of what the speech is about and the direction that it's going to go. IRONY - IRONY A figure of speech in which the real meaning is concealed or contradicted by the literal meanings, as in: "That was a smart thing to do!" (means very foolish). It is an ironic statement. It arises from an awareness of what is and what ought to be and the disharmony between the two. In other words, it's a use of the word in such a way as to convey the meaning opposite to the real meaning of the word. One example of irony in this discourse is 3 where the last sentence says "stalwart" members of the congregation and just the opposite meaning is actually conveyed. Also the phrase "it's all wonderful" found in 35 is an ironic statement which is indicated by the tone in a speaker's voice to mean the opposite. JEST - JEST (PUNCH LINE) This is a specific kind of humor where a PUNCH LINE closes off the story as in 32, the last sentence. LAW - LAW This type of argument utilized any statute, contract, testament, record or document that can he used to substantiate or refute a claim. For the believer this is a Scripture verse from the Bible. An example of the use of law for an argument is "obey your leaders" (24) which is a principle which no one including spiritual leaders can be false to without suffering the consequences. LIT. - LITOTES A deliberate use of understatement not to deceive someone but to enhance the impressiveness of what we say. In Acts 21:39 Paul uses litotes when he says, "I am a Jew, from Tarsus in Cilicia, a citizen of no mean city," which is like saying "I am from New York, a citizen of no hick town." It is an understatement in the sense that Tarsus was an illustrious city in Cilicia. In 28 when I say that Peter and James were not drinking buddies, I am using an understatement. They were hardly that! LOG. - LOGICAL APPEAL There are two ways to argue logically against a proposition; We can prove that a proposition that is just the opposite is true, which will demolish the proposition that is being attacked; or we can undermine the argument by which the proposition is supported. This is a logical appeal as opposed to an emotional or ethical appeal.(42) METAPH. - METAPHOR An implicit comparison between two unlike entities which does not use the words "as" or "like." There is a metaphor on 20 where presbyters are compared to police and their G-d-given authority is compared to a club with which to drive unfit ministers from the ministry. Other metaphors are found in 26, 27 and 34. MAX. - MAXIM A saying which is a self-evidently true statement and is so widely accepted as true that no proof is needed to make it an acceptable argument. There is an allusion to a maxim in 16 which is the familiar saying that "the grass is always greener on the other side of the fence." Also, in 38 the saying that is very familiar is, "put your money where your mouth is." OBSERV. - OBSERVANCE PERSUASION As opposed to Advisory Persuasion or Courtroom Persuasion, this type of persuasion points to the occasion, celebrates the moment, and gives it meaning. Observance persuasion is found in 47 where I speak of the importance of the people coming to the services and being in the seats where they are seated right now. This type of persuasion is used on special occasions and holidays but it's also used during normal times when the meaning of the moment is in the foreground of the argument. ONOM. - ONOMATOPOEIA This is the use of words whose sound echoes the sense,as in the sentence, "The guns boom in the distance." The use of this figure of speech is found in 7 where the little voice is "clicked" off. Any time the imitation of natural sounds is found in the word formations of the speaker or in the rhythms and textures of his thoughts, he is using this communication technique. PAR. - PARABLE Like the fable, the parable is also a simple story. However, unlike the fable, which uses animal characters, the parable uses human characters and shows interest not so much in the story telling as in the analogy drawn between a particular instance of human behavior and human behavior generally. An example is in the analogy drawn between the particular behavior of the Prodigal Son and the behavior of humans generally. This is teach the point about a heart of teshuvah. In this discourse, the story about the little boy counting the light bulbs and dreaming of Hollywood (32) is a parable, too (although it is also a true personal testimony). It is like the parable about the Prodigal Son and also the sower who sowed on bad ground, where the desires for other things choked the word and made the individual unfruitful and spiritually deaf to the Word of G-d. Because the story of the little boy and the light bulbs uses a particular human instance to teach a single moral lesson about humanity in general, it is a parable with a teaching point -- that it is folly not to pay attention to the Word of G-d. Jewish people like parables with Yiddish punchlines and humor and these can be excellent ways of making your point. PAR T - PARADOXICAL TERM This is an apparently self-contradictory term, the underlying meaning of which is revealed only by careful thought. "Less is more" is a paradoxical statement intended to gain attention and provoke fresh thought. Two-word paradoxes are terms like "living death" and "loud silence," or like the term "little tin pope" which is a mixture of opposite or contradictory ideas and is found in 24. PARODY - PARODY This is the intentional ridicule of someone which usually involves the imitation of their words. In 28 it is not Paul or Timothy who are being parodied, but it is the ordinary worldly person who is being ridiculed, such as your average bridge player or gambler hypocrite in the House of G-d. PARAL. - PARALLELISM This is the use of coordinate ideas arranged in phrases, sentences and paragraphs that balance one element with another of equal importance and similar wording. Scriptural examples of parallelism are in Psalm 78:4, 36. The parallelism in 47 arranges coordinate ideas in contrast: "Don't build with wood or grass or straw; build with zekenim, klei kodesh ministers, and voting members." Three ideas are coordinated and contrasted with three other ideas. PAREN. - PARENTHESIS A comment that is inserted into another passage with parenthetical markings to bracket it off. Two examples are in 2 and 22. PF.FF. - PAST FACT AND FUTURE FACT This line of argument is based on the principle that if something has happened before, it can happen again, or if the means has been available, then the end can be accomplished. This line of argument is demonstrated in 31 to show that this type of nominalism has occurred in the past and it can very well occur in the future in the messianic synagogue called Aron Kodesh. Also 11 is the same type of argument. PERIPH. - PERIPHRASIS The substitution of a descriptive word or phrase for a proper name, or of a proper name for a quality associated with the name, as in the sentence about "Ku Klux Klan ritualism" in 35 or "Saying goodbye to Burt Hollywood" in 36 and 45 where "Burt Hollywood" becomes a figure of speech symbolizing the whole of carnal Hollywood and the Olam Hazeh generally. We use this figure of speech every day when we say things like "he's a regular 'Babe Ruth' at baseball." PERSON. - PERSONIFICATION Where human qualities or characteristics are attributed to entities that are not human. Anything can be personified from the moon to death to knowledge or even the Devil who is not a human being but is a supernatural spiritual being. Notice the personification in 14 where it says "nominalism sneaked into the house." Also 16 where "the enemy was dangling carrots." PER. EX. - PERSONAL EXPERIENCE Personal experience is an excellent illustration because besides making good points it also tells the hearer something about the speaker and establishes his ethical appeal. An example is an anecdote that is based on personal experience at the bottom of 6. POLYPT. - POLYPTOTON This is the repetition of words derived from the same root, such as John F. Kennedy said in his inaugural, "Not as a call to battle, though embattled we are." POLYSYN. - POLYSYNDETON This is the deliberate use of many conjunctions such as in Genesis 1:24-25. This rhetorical device is used in 31 where the word "and" is repeated several times deliberately for effect. P-I - POSSIBLE AND THE IMPOSSIBLE This line of argument says that if the more difficult of two things is possible, then the easier of two things is also possible. Paul argues this way in Phil. 1:6 when he reasons that if something can be begun it can be finished. An example of this type of argument is found (42) where the text says "keep hanging in here, you'll become a voting member someday." The implied argument is that if it's possible for you to become a believer (which is more difficult) then it's even more possible for you to become a voting member (which is less difficult). And of course the understood assumption here is that all of these things are accomplished by the Chesed and Gevurah of G-d. PROP. - PROPOSITION The proposition of a discourse is the point to be discussed or maintained in the argument and is usually stated in sentence form near the outset. "Privilege requires responsibility" is the proposition that the discourse argues because this is the principle implied in the text, I Cor. 3:10. This same principle is also found in Luke 12:48 which says "To whom much is given much is required." The science of homiletics (homiletics means saying the same thing) is concerned with saying only what the Bible says, no more, no less. It is difficult to expound or argue the depth of meaning of a passage of Scripture unless one can see the specific truth in the passage and argue the acceptance of that truth prepositionally. The proposition is the compressed argument of the discourse stated as a principle or fundamental truth. To state a proposition is to predicate (assert) that one thing is true about another thing. In fact, the word "predication" used to actually mean "an act of preaching or proclaiming." A proposition is a statement that preaches that x is true of y. Put mathematically, the proposition has a simple formula: x = y. In the discourse the argument looks like this: x (the requirement of responsibility) = (is true of) y (privilege). Or, to state it as a sentence with a subject and predicate it reads; Privilege requires responsibility. This is repeated enough times that the audience gets the point of the message. A message should deal with one proposition only, and attempt to say only one thing. This message was attempting to say one thing: that privilege required responsibility. In other words, the message could have begun by saying: Today I want to talk about privilege. I want to tell you one thing about it, and that is its requirement of responsibility. Notice, to have a proposition you must have a subject (privilege) and a predicate (requires responsibility). The predicate is the part of the sentence that "predicates" (asserts) something about the subject. To have an argument you must have more than a subject, you must also have an assertion to make about the subject. You can't argue something if you don't know what you're arguing. You must find the proposition that you are arguing before you can begin to support it. This is why you need to look at a text and study it carefully to see what one subject it's actually talking about and what argument about that one thing it is making. You should ask yourself the question, "What proposition am I trying to support by the use of this text?" (See paragraph 4.) The L-rd gave me this text because it was my last opportunity to speak to this messianic synagogue and I had to leave them with a strong word. PUN - PUN A play on words that sound alike but have different meanings. A pun is found in 13 where I say "some of this might come a little close to home," which is a play on words, since I am using the word home in two different senses. A famous pun is when Benjamin Franklin said, "If we don't hang together we'll hang separately." PUR. - PURPOSE Any time you see the words "in order that" or "so that" these words signal a purpose sentence. Ideally, there should be a statement of purpose at the beginning or early in the discourse as it is in 2 and this purpose should be reiterated from time to time as it is in 9 and 39. The purpose of the discourse will be accomplished if the arguments convince the hearers to take the line of action that is advised by the message. In the case of this speech, getting membership cards signed was the bottom line. Q-A - QUESTION AND ANSWER This rhetorical device is to help the audience follow the line of thought. A question is asked and then answered. In the case of a rhetorical question, no answer is expected but is understood because of the obviousness of the answer. An example of question and answer is 9 and 22. QUO. - QUOTATION A quotation can be a very effective way of supporting an argument. This is why Barlett's Familiar Quotations has been a best seller for so long and is also why Great Treasury of Western Thought is included in this book's bibliographies, because of the great wealth of extremely effective quotations that it contains. A quotation used in this discourse is found in 32 where C. S. Lewis is quoted. REFUT. - REFUTATION The Refutation is the portion of the speech which comes after the statement of the argument and is placed there in order to defend the argument against its attackers. Any time an argument is made there are objections that are raised in the minds of the hearers and these objections have to be dealt with or the argument will not effectively stand. The Refutation portion of this discourse goes from 39 to 47. During this portion the objectors who may be thinking that the speaker is a prude or kill joy or legalist are being disarmed of their objections. However, the Refutation does not always take place neatly in one particular portion following the Argumentation. For instance, refutation is seen in the speech almost immediately when the speaker throws a grenade, as it were, at his objectors in 3 by satirizing them with the business meeting announcement. This is refutation by wit. There is also refutation by emotional appeal as in 43 where the speaker's anger is stirred against the people who want to bring the worldly "garbage" in. There is refutation by ethical appeal in 40 where the character of Moshiach Yehoshua is held up to refute the objectors. There is also refutation by logical appeal in 44 where the irrationality of lowering standards is shown. A good way of refuting a point which is not used in the message is to put the argument of the opponent into a syllogism which is absurd by the very erroneousness of the premises and conclusion. Once the opinions of men are shown to be contradictory to reason, they are refuted. RESTA. - RESTATEMENT To restate something is to say it again in other words. This is used in 21 where the idea of the zaken presbyter being a territorial overseer is restated in that he is also said to be "over certain congregations in the area" which is really saying the same thing but saying it in different words so that it can be understood more readily. This is another method of definition. R.P. - ROLE PLAYING This dramatic device is illustrated in 28 where the speaker becomes two people and converses in their characters, playing different roles. REPET. - REPETITION In 20 the word "power" is repeated for emphasis. Repetition can be effective in driving home the point being made. However, it can also be tiresome if not used with constraint. For example, the phrase "let me tell you something" is repeated too frequently in this speech and it becomes a little tiresome. SAR. - SARCASM Sarcasm is a cutting rebuke such as in the phrase "little tin pope." In 24 sarcasm is directed against the spiritual leader who is so cock sure of himself and independent that he is a rebel and will not listen to those over him in the L-rd. SAT. - SATIRE A satire is a verbal caricature that shows a deliberately distorted image of a person, institution or society. The technique of the satirist is to exaggerate the disapproved features of what he is attacking. Paragraph 3 contains a satire of the typical "house of worship announcement" which is heard or seen in the bulletin so frequently. Like all satires, it mixes the familiar with the absurd. Notice the familiar sentence, "A good time will be had by all" but also the absurdity. SEQ. - SEQUENCE This is where an argument hinges on the time that a thing occurred, whether it was previous to something else or after it occurred. In the beginning of 16 you see how sequence is used to state temporal relationships in order to make the argument clear. SIM. - SIMILARITY This is a line of argument based on resemblance such as in 36. SIMILE - SIMILE This is a comparison with the words "as" or "like" used so that the comparison is more explicit. Paragraph 27 is a simile but instead of stating it directly as the speaker should have, he used an overworked, trite expression "kind of" when he should have stated the simile directly using either "as" or "like." Then he would have said, "It's like an insurance policy." STA. - STATISTICS Using figures or numbers to make an argument can be very effective because these are facts verifiable in an Almanac. A good place where a statistic could have been used is in 33. The speaker could have said something like "in the last 20 years suicides among youth have gone up 20%. This shows how teenagers are increasingly being sucked into Gehinnom, not in any overnight way but in a gradual way." SUBJ. - SUBJECT A formal discourse should have a subject and that's why the theme is stated at the beginning as "a sermon on standards for ministers and voting members." This is the subject or theme of the discourse. SUM. - SUMMING UP Paragraph 47 contains the Summing Up portion of the discourse. This is where the final opportunity occurs for the speaker to inspire his audience, to leave a favorable impression of himself and what he's been trying to say, to amplify the force of the point that he's been making, to extinguish the force of a point made by the opposition, to arouse the appropriate emotions in the audience, to lead them to an opportunity to make the decision he's been pleading for, and to restate in a summary way the facts and arguments that have been made in the entire discourse. SYNEC. - SYNECDOCHE A figure of speech in which a part stands for the whole, such as in "Give us this day our daily bread" where the word "bread" stands for all the food that we need for the day, not just bread. Other examples are in 39 where "toes" is a part standing for the whole person offended or in 42 where the word "blood" is a part standing for the whole person irresponsibly lost. The same figure of speech is employed in 43 and 47, SYNON. - SYNONYNS Words having nearly the same meaning, as in "freewheeling, independent" in 25. TEST. - TESTIMONIAL A personal experience used to make a point which is generally one in which the person admits failure and also points to the chesed Hashem as in 16. TITLE - TITLE A discourse should have a title that states the subject in a very poignant and dramatic way, one that is catchy to the memory and can be referred to easily, such as "Building with Silver and Gold." Even better sermon titles can be used in the congregational mailings to spur attendance at the sermons. The days of great preaching are not over. This sermon is not great but it can spur you on to greater heights. CHAPTER ELEVEN: PIONEERING A MESSIANIC JEWISH DAY SCHOOL BY PHILLIP GOBLE In the eyes of many Jewish parents, the faith that Moshiach is Yehoshua is not a real option to them within their cultural perspective. Why? One reason is that the existing house of worship that believes this does not provide a Jewish education or the bar or bas mitzvah training they desire for their children. Even though these Jewish parents may not understand much about the Houses of Worship in their cities, or the Jewish religion, they know their children are going to be bar mitzvah! That in itself is enough to make many reject the Good News. Of course, in the early messianic kehillah in Jerusalem, the little Jewish boys were allowed to grow up in the messianic faith identifying with their own people in their Jewishness. In Acts 21:21, we hear that the Brit Chadasha Kehillah in Jerusalem was extremely zealous for the Jewish mitzvot or Hebrew laws, which have helped to sustain the Jewish people in their identity and cultural heritage. And even the Encyclopedia Judaica's article on the Bar Mitzvah shows there was a functional equivalent ceremony for the Bar Mitzvah in Jerusalem during First Century times. Therefore, if we have an understanding of the Good News as the Moshiach's Torah or teaching (Moshiach himself being the indwelling personal law of the Brit Chadasha), then there is no theological objection to messianic Bar or Bas Mitzvah or Jewish training in the Brit Chadasha kehillah, provided it is Moshiach centered and Scripturally sound. If even ordinary kehillot know the benefits derived from offering religious-based education, how much more needed is this kind of education for a messianic Jewish congregation! If Gentile unbelievers will eventually attend a church because they first felt the need of putting their children in that church's day school, how much more may Jewish unbelievers (with children) respond to a congregation (with a messianic Jewish day school). Now suppose someone in your group has a Jewish heart and has started a Bible Study that is getting ready to become a messianic congregation. Suppose the weekend services are just getting underway and the core group wants to begin a messianic Jewish day school. How do they begin? First of all, to get started, someone who has done pioneer work in this field should be contacted, like Mrs. Daniel Juster, Beth Messiah Congregation, 2208 Rockland Avenue, Rockville, Maryland 20851. She could, through correspondence, direct the inquirer to the curriculum materials being developed so far by people affiliated with the Messianic Jewish Alliance. Also, a good book to read is Rabbi Hayim Halevy Donin's To Raise A Jewish child, Basic Books, 1977. This book plus a few field trips to Jewish day schools and Hebrew schools would give your pioneers an idea of what Jewish educators are doing. The school administrators will sometimes give you brochures describing their school philosophy and curriculum. If you live in a city with a large Jewish population (like Los Angeles) you can find out from the school which Jewish bookstore is their textbook distributor. Then you can go there and examine first-hand the kinds of books in use. A good Jewish library in a synagogue might also be helpful. Now consider the basic logistics involved in starting a school in connection with a congregation. A congregational spiritual leader, who has done or is now doing this, can be a helpful resource person. There are Biblical curriculum publishing companies who offer one week training courses to spiritual leaders and their staff on the ABC's of starting a religious school. Talk to a few spiritual leaders in your area who have started a school by means of this kind of training. What they have learned can help you get started. You may want to take such a training course. Of course, some of these curriculum publishing companies have textbooks that are unsuitable to a messianic Jewish school. If the terminology would create culture shock, or if the materials could not be selectively purchased (since some textbooks might be completely inappropriate), then the company might not be right for your school. Two that are recommended by messianic Jewish Day School pioneers are A Beka Book Publications, 125 St. Johns Street, Pensacola, Florida 32503 (good for History, Science and Social Studies textbooks), and Scott Foresman and Company, 1900 East Lake Avenue, Glenview, Illinois 60025 (good for Math and Reading textbooks). If Bible-based educational curricula such as the above were combined with Hebrew classes for all ages, a beginning could be made with just a few children, starting with the couples that you now know. As long as you abide by the laws, a school can begin anywhere, with the most modest facilities and school staff. Much prayer and a burdened, competent, educational pioneer are the key ingredients. He or she will have the burden to work with the congregation leadership to get the school started. On pages 197-215 in Donin's To Raise A Jewish Child, there is an excellent bibliography of the Jewish books presently available and even the address of Jewish bookstores in the different states that carry these books. Some of these books will be useable, also, in a messianic Jewish day school. Some may not be useable, or may only be partially useable, because of incorrect teaching about the Moshiach. In doing your research before you officially open your school, find out from successful Jewish and other Day School administrators how they attract their students: word-of-mouth, newspaper advertising, bulletin boards, neighborhood canvassing with questionnaires, direct mailing, etc. Prayerfully seek the L-rd's guidance on how you should advertise. Keep in mind that some Jewish groups will be highly threatened by you, viewing your school as a cult, a den of spiritual child molesters. They will try to "infiltrate" you with spies and may even try to keep you from enjoying your constitutional rights to freedom of religion, freedom of assembly, and freedom of speech. You must use wisdom and discretion in avoiding the harassment and bad publicity these sadly mistaken groups may try to bring on you. They would not tolerate being treated as they are treating you, and they are religious hypocrites. Pray for them. Some will become like Paul and have a Damascus road experience in the midst of their persecutions of you. These will turn the whole world upside down once they have a zeal for G-d WITH knowledge! Pray for that end. We have every right to give Jewish children education. The Brit Chadasha Kehillah was doing this in Jerusalem (Acts.21:20) before there ever were rabbis in Yavneh or even such a thing as post-Temple, non-priestly Rabbinic Judaism. Our Messianic chinuch (education) was here first! (Also read Act 19:9-10 in the Orthodox Jewish Brit Chadasha to find out about Rav Sha'ul's messianic yeshiva in Ephesus that predated the one in Yavneh near Jaffa, Israel.) As drugs, violence, and the other social ills of our day continue to invade secular schools, the need for religious-based education will be more keenly felt. The fact that you have a day school, a summer camp, Hebrew classes, and a bar or bas mitzvah training program (administered either by your school or under the tutelage of one of the elders in your congregation) will make your faith a more viable option to many Jewish families in your city. The fact that you offer more than secular humanism in a Jewish package, but instead a vibrant life-changing faith that transforms troubled youth into loving new persons, will make what you offer attractive to many. If your school communicates to children a spiritual sense of Jewish roots, destiny and practical daily living, it will make a strong statement to those who argue that faith in our Messiah is always a step toward cultural assimilation and Jewish genocide. CHAPTER TWELVE: STUDYING THE MIKRAOT GEDOLOT IN A MESSIANIC YESHIVA BY PHILLIP GOBLE We need to pause and got acquainted with the 'Rabbinic Bible,' especially as it relates to Genesis 3:15 (in a moment we will also open the 'Rabbinic Bible' to Zech. 3:8 and 6:12). The Rabbinic Bible is called the Mikraot Gedolot (which means 'Great or Big Scriptures'). You can buy one in most Jewish bookstores. If you look up the text in what is called the Chumash (original text of the Torah), you will see that next to our Genesis 3:15 passage there is (on the left) the ALEF VAV NOON KOOF LAMMED VAV SAMECH 'Onkelos' Aramaic targum translation. Below Onkelos you will we the letter ALEF TAV (short for 'Toldot Aharon'), the Rabbi (Aharon M'Pisaro) who tells you the folio page in the Talmud where there is a discussion of this part of the Bible in the most important rabbinic literature. Now we are going to look at the various commentators. Every page has basically the same thing. Rashi (1040-1105) has his commentary headed with the letters RESH SHIN YUD and there is a commentary on Rashi's commentary written by Rabbi Shabathai (Meshorer) Bass (1641-1719) headed with the letters SIN FAY TAV YUD ("Sifethey") CHET CHAF MEM YUD FINAL MEM ("Chakhamim"). Next is Rabbi Avraham ben Meir, another medieval rabbinic commentator (1089-1164). headed by the letters ALEF BET FINAL NOON ("Ibn") AYIN ZAYIN RESH ALEF ("Ezra"). Then there is Rabbi Moses Ben Nachman (Nachmanides) (1194-1270) headed by the letters RESH MEM BET FINAL NOON ("Ramban"). Then there is Sforno (Rabbi Ovadia Ben Yaakov) headed by the letters SAMECH FAY CHOLOM RESH NOON CHOLOM (he is quoted on p.1172. Then there is Rabbi Chaim Ben Moshe (Ibn Attar) (1696-1743) headed by the letters ALEF CHOLOM RESH ("Ohr") HAY CHET YUD YUD FINAL MEM ("HaChaim") ("Ohr HaChaim"). Then there is Rabbi Shlomo Efraim of Luntschitz, Poland (1550-1619) headed by the letters KAF LAMMED YUD ("K'li") YUD KOOF RESH ("Yakar"). Then there is Rabbi Shmuel Ben Meir ( 1080- 1174) headed by the letters RESH SHIN BET FINAL MEM ('Rashbam'). Then there is Rabbi Yaakov p.1175 Ben Asher (1268-1340) headed by the letters BET AYIN LAMMED ("Baal") HAY TET SHURUK RESH YUD FINAL MEM ('Ha-Turim', Baal Ha-Turim). Then there are early Jewish interpretations ('Midrashic' is the word) of the Biblical text, some of which were written in the 12th and 13th centuries by Rashi's descendants, and these are found under the letters DALET AYIN TAV ("Daat") ZAYIN KOOF NOON YUD FINAL MEM ('Z'Kenim'). Finally, it's time for another Aramaic Targum Translation/Paraphrase of the Hebrew Biblical Text, Targum Yonatan or Jonathan (A.D.50) ascribed to either an unknown author or to Yonatan Ben Uzziel and headed by the letters YUD CHOLOM NOON TAV FINAL NOON ("Yonatan") BET FINAL NOON ("Ben") AYIN CHOLOM ZAYIN YUD ALEF LAMMED ("Uzziel") ('Yonatan Ben Uzziel'). Then there is another Aramaic translation of the Torah headed by the letters YUD RESH SHURUK SHIN LAMMED MEM YUD ("Yerushalmi'). All this is found on the left and right facing pages and each of these pairs of pages contains the same thing, commentators etc. The Chumash or Torah is in larger Hebrew letters. It is the text of the Hebrew Scriptures, put together by scribes living roughly from the 7th to the llth centuries C.E. ('Masorstes' means "transmitters.") The Targum was read in the synagogue for the benefit of the Aramaic-speaking Jews, who, having returned from the Babylonian Exile, no longer were as fluent in Hebrew and needed an Aramaic translation. This translation is important, because when the word Messiah occurs in this translation, it shows that a certain text was considered predictive of the Messiah by the Jews, and that this is not a mere "non-Jewish" interpolation on our part, but a "Jewish" Messianic interpretation. For the Jewish people of the lst Century and later, this Targum had tremendous authority because it was what was heard by the Jewish people and was the comprehensible Word of G-d to them. Rashi (RESH, SHIN, YUD) is the acronym for Rabbi Shlomo Ben Yitzchak, who lived in France. His is the most famous commentary on most of the Bible and the Talmud as well. Whenever Rashi agrees with us, quoting him carries much weight with religious Jews. Ibn Ezra from Spain, another important Medieval commentator, often examines the etymological roots. If you turn to Zechariah 3:8 you will also see the following commentators in the Mikraot Gedolot: RADAK (RESH, DALET, KOOF) is Rabbi David Kimkhi (1160-1235), another important Medieval commentator. Also, 'Our teacher (Joseph) Karo' (1488-1575), the author of the 'Shulkhan Arukh,' the great legal code of Judaism. Born in Spain, he ended up the head of a yeshiva in Safed, Israel. Also Metsudat David and Metsudat Zion (Fortress of David? Fortress of Zion?) are written by a rabbi and his son. There is also a Yiddish translation and commentary. Unless a rabbi has been trained in a more liberal seminary, he will rely on what these great commentaries have said. Therefore, they can be useful to us in evangelism. Just because Rashi says something was messianic doesn't mean that we can say that Rashi thought the text spoke about Yehoshua. However, we can show that it is not a "Non-Jewish" notion that a certain text is talking about the Messiah. Notice that the next to the last word in the Aramaic Targum on Zech.3:8 is 'Messiah," proving that it was a Jewish interpretation of this text, not a non-Jewish interpretation, that claimed this verse was talking about the Messiah. This proves that 'TSEH-makh' was a code-word for 'the Messiah.' Transliteration of the Aramaic: "Sh'mah k'anh Y'hoh-shoo-ah kah-hah-nah rah-bah aht v'khahv-rahkh d'yaht-veem kah-d'mahkh ah-ray gahv-reen k'sh'reen l'meh-bahd l'hohn nee-seen ee-noon ah-ray hah ah-nah mah-tay yaht ahv-dee M'shee-khah (the Messiah) V'Yeet-g'lay." Translation of the Aramaic Targum: "Hear now, Yehoshua (Joshua) the high priest, you and your compatriots sit before you, behold they are men fitting for signs to be worked for them. Behold I will bring forth my servant the Messiah and he will be revealed." This represents by and large the interpretation of the rabbis at a certain stage in history and is very authoritative as a 'clincher' argument that this verse is talking about the Jewish Messiah. Now let's look at Rashi on this passage: Rashi comments on AH-TAH (ALEF TAV HAY) V'REI-EH-CHAH (VAV RESH AYIN YUD KAF FINAL KAF) first and says that those words refer to Hananiah, Mishael, and Azariah, Daniel's companions in the fiery furnace (a gratuitous explanation that does not fit the context at all, which witnesses to the lack of anointing on the rabbinic traditional interpretation). Then Rashi comments on AN-SHEY MOFET ("Sign men") and we see that he believed the fiery furnace 'sign' was what they were worthy of. Then Rashi comments on the TSEH-makh passage, but unfortunately he misses the point completely and quotes some erroneous Talmudic tradition that Zerubbabal = Nehemiah = "TSEH-makh", 'The Branch.' Now let's look at Ibn Ezra on TSEH-makh "He is Zerubbabel as it says, 'His name is TSEH-mahkh,' and the end of the passage proves this refers to Zerubbabel. And many interpreters say that this TSEH-mahkh is actually the Messiah. He is called Zerubbabel because he is from the Messiah's seed, the line of David like Jeremiah and Ezekiel say that David my servant will be their prince.' So how is it that Zerubbabel can be a Messianic sign? Because he's from the line of David, and each Davidic King was a portent of the ultimate Davidic King to come, in other words. This part is correct, but Ibn Ezra misses the point, because the context is dealing not with Zerubbabel here, but with a resurrected-from-exilic-death priest named YEHOSHUA/JOSHUA/YESHUA/EE-EE-SOOS-JESUS (Ezra 3:8). 'David my servant will be a priest for them forever." Then he says he's going to also engage in a homiletical interpretation (darash): TSEH-mahkh in gematria (add up numerical value of each letter in a word and if two words have the same 'score' you can supposedly interchange them, which is what he does here with the words 'TSEH-mahkh' and 'Menachem.' Menachem ben Omniel is one of the names of Messiah in Medieval Rabbinic literature. So Ibn Ezra has no problem saying that TSEH-mahkh is a title of the Messiah.) RADAK also affirms the messianic interpretation of the Targum on TSEH-mahkh. Critical (liberal) scholars will tell you that Zechariah and Haggai were wrong because they thought that Zerubbabel would rebel against the Persian authorities and become the Messiah. The text does not say this. The text says that Yehoshua/Joshua (Ezra 3:8 says Yeshua) was a 'sign man' so that when the crown is put on his head, the context is the 'sign' of Psalm 110, the coming Messiah Priest. What is astounding is that all of this portent centers on a man named "EE-EE-SOOS" (OR JESUS), according to the Septuagint (Ezra 3:8). Read II Samuel 8:18 where it says that David's sons were priests, thus our Moshiach Yehoshua was also a priest as the (legal) son of Joseph the son of David. David and Solomon offered sacrifices as types of the ultimate Messiah Priest to come. Uzziah tries it generations later and is stricken with a skin disease, showing that it was a prophetic act that David did in his priesthood, pointing toward the Messiah. Rashi says (on Zechariah 6:12) 'His name is TSEH-mahkh: this is Zerubbabel ... and there are those who interpret this with reference to the King Messiah.' Ibn Ezra says this refers to Zerubbabel. RADAK and the other Medieval commentators can't see that TSEH-mahkh refers to both Zerubbabel and Yehoshua because the priest-Messiah they symbolize is one, a priest forever after the order of Melchizedek and also the ultimate King. A priest never sat on a throne so Ibn Ezra is wrong in his literal interpretation. The Dead Sea Scrolls mentions 'The Anointed Ones (or Messiahs) of Israel and Aaron' because they believed in two messiahs, one Davidic or royal and one priestly. Also they believed in 'the Prophet' who was to come. The Bible has a Prophet, a King, and a Messiah Priest all fulfilled in Moshiach Yehoshua, because the Messiah must combine all of them strands. The Targum also says that Zechariah 6:12 is referring to the Messiah. The Jerusalem Talmud Berakhoth 5a deals with the prayers of the prayerbook and then has a brief digression which shows that the rabbis were familiar with the interpretation that says that TSEH-mahkh refers to the Messiah (referring to Zechariah 6:12). So it is indesputably clear that TSEH-makh is the allegorical name of the Messiah. Also on TSEH-mahkh see II Samuel 23:S, Isaiah 4:2, Psalm 132:17. Some commentators say that 'Branch of Hashem' in Isaiah 4:2 is a reference to the divine nature of the Messiah. The TSEH-mahkh in Jeremiah 23:5-6 and 33:15-16 is obviously a reference to the Messiah, making the meaning of the code-word TSEH-mahkh indisputably clear. Notice Jeremiah 23:5-6; 33:15-16 also calls the Messiah 'the L-rd' here and 'our Righteousness' and therefore says the same thing as Paul in Romans 1:17 etc. The Dead Sea Scrolls use the phrase 'TSEH-mahkh David' as a Messianic term in explanation of the Davidic covenant of II Samuel 7:14. Additional evidence is found in Isaiah 11:1 and Isaiah 53:2. Isaiah tells us that Assyria will cut Judah down and leave her with just a remnant, like a few trees or a stump in the field. But out of that stump will come the remnant of one, the ultimate remnant, the Moshiach, who will reverse the history of Man and save the world. Moshiach is the true 'Seedling' of the new and sanctified Israel (Isaiah 4:2; 11:1,10). Final note: Once the messianic yeshiva student has been introduced to the Mikraot Gedolot, he should begin using it as he studies Appendix Nine, pages 710-741 in Alfred Edersheim's LIFE AND TIMES where Tanach passages messianically applied in the Talmud are listed. This project plus a thorough study of the Torah-based Jewish Calendar prophetic fulfillments in the Moshiach, using a book like Barney Kasdan's G-d's Appointed Times (Lederer Messianic Publications), to map out a complete Messianic Jewish Annual Liturgical Calendar for a Messianic Yeshiva/Synagogue community are two of the most important areas of study for a Messianic Yeshiva. In this way, the Messianic turf in the Talmud will be claimed and mapped out by the Yeshiva students, and its study will be circumnavigated in the ebb and flow of the Jewish calendar, Messianically observed (i.e. so that the Messianic Yeshiva community celebrates Moshiach's Hagbahah (Lifting Up) on 14 Nisan and Moshiach's Techiyas HaMesim on Sifrat haOmer of Bikkurim 16 Nisan, etc). Once the right texts are being studied on the right days, this is no longer a mere seminary, it has become a yeshiva! CHAPTER THIRTEEN: A VITAL AREA OF PASTORAL COUNSEL: IF YOU WERE TO BE "DEPROGRAMMED" BY MOISHE ROSEN (Reprint by permission C) Copyright, 1979, Bible Voice from Kidnaped for my Faith by Ken Levitt and Ceil Rosen) A self-styled task force of wolves in sheep's clothing has taken upon itself what it considers to be a mission of mercy. These are the "deprogrammers," a group comprised mostly of concerned parents and religious Jews who seek by nefarious methods to destroy the faith of young Jewish believers in Messiah. Many of these deprogrammers actually believe that Jews who believe in Yeshua are emotionally unsound and that those who try to dissuade them from their beliefs are doing the work of G-d. They justify their methods by treating Jewish faith in Messiah as a mental and social aberration. There is a vital need for both Gentile and Jewish Bible Believers to be educated and warned about these deprogrammers so that they can deal intelligently and effectively with this insidious threat. HOW THE DEPROGMMERS OPERATE Separation. The deprogrammers operate on familiar principles. First, the parents of the prospective subject visit the believer and say they would like to be alone with their son or daughter. They invite the believer for a drive or a meal. Once in the car or home, the believer is "kidnaped," and taken to a group of deprogrammers in alien, totally unfamiliar surroundings, often a motel room. The strategy is that the deprogrammers separate the believer from his fellow believers and place him in an unfamiliar situation. In order to do their "work," the deprogrammers must first disorient and intimidate their subject. For this reason they usually don't work with the believer in his parents' home, because the familiarity of those surroundings would serve to remind him of his own identity enough for him to be able to maintain his orientation. The deprogrammers claim that it is important for them to separate the young believer from his religious community because the Bible Believing leaders or elders have some unusual power over the person. This may be the case in a cult situation, but appeof course it doesn't hold true in a normal congregational relationship. In any case, separation from all strong believers is imperative for the deprogrammers' plan, since supportive fellowship of any kind would thwart their purposes. The deprogrammers agree that one of the first steps in the deprogramming process is to separate the believer from his Bible. Although the deprogrammers sometimes pose as true believers, this approach immediately uncovers their true identity and purpose. Imposed spiritual starvation is never to be regarded as a holy imperative, for the Scripture teaches that we are to consider the Word of G-d as essential food for nourishment, (I Tim. 3:15, 16). The Attack Approach. This tactic is not new. It has been used effectively in military spheres for centuries to acquire information from an unwilling prisoner, or to restructure loyalties. In modern language we call it "brain washing." Human beings are creatures with limitations, and in order to achieve the desired results, the deprogrammers have only to attack until they reach the limits of the individual's endurance. The deprogrammers proudly claim that their methods are one hundred percent effective. Nevertheless, as in the foregoing incident, captured Bible Believers have escaped, sometimes with their faith temporarily shaken, but not destroyed. It's easy for the deprogrammers to trip up even a Bible Believer with this attack approach. In the deprogramming process there are usually six to ten deprogrammers surrounding the believer, sometimes many more. These people eat and sleep normally, while the believer is often deprived of food, granted a bare minimum of sleep, and subjected to a great deal of harassment. As believers, we have the holy obligation to confess our faith. Therefore, the deprogrammers' questions seem at first like welcome opportunities to share the faith. They ask, "What do you believe,?" "How did you come to believe this?" "Could you explain to us why you believe?" What Bible Believer could resist such an opportunity? But the Bible admonishes us to be wise as serpents and not to address ourselves to insincere questions. When a Bible Believer gives his testimony, it is to proclaim the grace and mercy of G-d in light of his own particular unworthiness regarding salvation. Often the believer will describe a certain problem from which the L-rd delivered him. If a person has had a problem of indulgence in dope, degraded sex, or a certain kind of pride, the deprogrammers might reintroduce this to the believer. Pride is the easiest stumbling block, as the Bible warns us. Pride tells us that we "deserve" something. If the deprogrammers can get the subject hooked into a pride trip, then they can get him hooked on almost any old habit (Proverbs 16:18). The Bible Believer in such a situation, must remember that he is bought with a price and doesn't deserve any kind of self indulgence. Guilt. Another prime tactic the deprogrammers use is the appeal to a young believer's love for his parents, combined with his susceptibility to guilt feelings. Most people have at one time or another done things, or displayed attitudes towards their parents for which they are genuinely sorry. Since all Evangelical Bible teaching points to the necessity for love and restitution, the young believer is eager to become the child he feels his parents expect him to be. This good motive is used by the deprogrammers as a lever to increase the believer's guilt feelings. In this early state, the parents or the deprogrammers appeal to the believer that for the sake of his family, he ought to sever his relationship with the particular fellowship of believers from which he has been kidnaped. The deprogrammers don't at first ask the believer to renounce our Messiah, but that is only steps away. Few can resist this technique, and once the believer has accepted the deprogrammers and parents as his friends, who only have his "best interests at heart," it's just a matter of time until he succumbs and reaches their intended conclusion. The deprogrammers have all the time in the world. They will work on a person for days, however long it takes. Renunciation. Toward the end of the deprogramming, when the subject is broken in spirit, the deprogrammers goad him into performing some act of renunciation. This act may be to slander the names of the people he knew, especially the elders or the minister of the fellowship or congregation. In some cases, it might be something more unspeakable, such as cursing the name of our Messiah, or spitting on the Bible. Once the person has done something of that magnitude, the deprogrammers remind him of how difficult it would be to return to the fellowship he attended, and often they convince him that he has committed an "unpardonable sin." HOW CAN WE ANTICIPATE DEPROGRAMMING? We must expect that many parents will be very receptive to the idea of cooperating with deprogrammers to "free" their victimized children from the "Jesus trip." They will provide all necessary funds and go to great lengths to accomplish the desired end, but there is much that G-d would have us do to prepare for such a possibility. The Word of G-d. Every believer requires the consumption and digestion of the Word of G-d for spiritual sustenance. Bible memory work is imperative to strengthen a person against the threat of being deprogrammed. The deprogrammers may take away your Bible, but they can't take away your memory. Furthermore, knowledge of the Bible must exist on an independent basis. That is, it must stem from private thought and study, not group teaching. Too much of our Bible "knowledge" is made up of predigested conclusions based on what our particular group of believers assumes. A believer should always be able to back up his faith with Scripture. Know why you believe what you believe. Forgiveness. Remember that there is no act that can be committed that, will take a believer out of salvation and away from G-d if he truly repents and wants to have the L-rd. Where there is repentance, there is always forgiveness. It is the responsibility of the elders in Messiah to teach new believers the depth and extent of our Messiah's forgiveness. One of the tactics used by the deprogrammers is to convince the "broken" victim that his renunciation or slander of his fellowship or testimony is too great a sin to be forgiven by his old friends. They convince him that it will be no use ever to try to reinstate himself into that fellowship. We must remember that the blood of Messiah can cleanse us from ALL unrighteousness if we confess our sins to the Father. Likewise, as brothers and sisters in Messiah, we, too, should be quick to show forgiveness to one who has stumbled. Remember, no one is saved because of what he deserves. G-d is the one who places us into the body of Messiah, and it is His grace that will keep us there. Emotions. Don't allow love for any person to be used as a lever against your faith. The parents of the deprogrammers victims often try to appeal to their emotions by saying, "if you really love us, then come away where we can sit together and talk." The believer will usually comply, because he wants to do all he can to show his love and respect for his parents' wishes. New Believers should be instructed that there is a point at which they should not allow their love to be used in this way. Also, there is a time to witness, and a time not to witness. The time not to witness is in a situation contrived by someone who doesn't want to hear, but rather wants to dissuade the believer from his faith. Conditioned to be harmless as doves, we, as Bible Believers, sometimes forget to be also as wise as serpents. We must be prepared to keep our emotions from endangering us or our brothers and sisters in Messiah. A good idea when being approached by a parent or other family member in this way is to take along another believer. There's safety in numbers. Humility. Biblical faith is not a rational process by which a believer comes to a logical conclusion that Yeshua is L-rd. Faith is a gift from G-d whereby we believe that which the natural man is incapable of believing: spiritual truth. There is much to learn about our faith, and G-d has given us all eternity to grow in understanding and wisdom. Therefore, a new believer should realize that just because he may not have an answer to a question, that is no reason to think that there is no answer. To think that at any point you must be able to come up with perfect answers to a person's questions is to fall into the trap, of pride. Never let yourself believe that you know everything that is in the Bible and everything that G-d has inferred in His Word. Above all, don't confuse paradoxes with contradictions when examining Scripture. A believer should be humble enough to allow a great margin for the things he doesn't understand, and faith filled enough to believe that G-d is making him into the kind of person who can and will be trusted with more and more spiritual insight. HOW TO DEAL WITH THE ENEMY The deprogrammers, no matter how convinced they may be that they are doing G-d a service, are the enemies of your soul. If encountered by such people, here are some recommendations on handling the situation. Cooperation. NEVER talk to someone and try to persuade him while you are being held against your will. Only a free man can talk and think straight. You have to be able to eat when you want, sleep when you want, and have the right of privacy and the choice to leave or stay. Just the fact that you're being held against your will is enough to interfere with your being able to think clearly and to comprehend. Different groups of deprogrammers allow the victim varying degrees of freedom, but in some cases it has been reported that the parents themselves actually slept across the threshold or doorway of a room in order to prevent the possibility of escape. Often the deprogrammers count on the fact that most people, especially Bible believers, prefer to avoid making a scene. The victims, being in unfamiliar territory and often without money in their pockets, are apt to decide that cooperation is the best way to meet the situation. DO NOT BE COOPERATIVE! Tell anyone who is holding you that you are being held against your will, and you refuse to talk to them. Deprogrammer Ted Patrick was once quoted in Time Magazine as saying, "If I can get them communicating, I can always win. I say, 'Prove you are a Christian.' This shows up the person's own frailties." Don't accept any kindness from the deprogrammers, and don't communicate with them. Accept the fact that anyone who would interfere with your walk with G-d in this way is your enemy. Soldiers in wartime are taught not to communicate with the enemy. If captured, they are to state only their name, rank, and serial number. You, too, can refuse to talk. Some of this deprogramming is demonic--Remember to resist the devil and he will flee. Prayer. Talk to our Messiah within yourself, but don't let your captors hear you. Remember the promises of G-d in Scripture and recite verses to yourself. Dwell on past experiences of answered prayer. Don't let the deprogrammers get into your mind. Don't reveal to them what you're thinking, except to express resistance. To keep your mind busy, recite poetry to yourself, or count the cracks in the floor or ceiling. DO NOT OPEN UP. Fasting. Another effective technique that has been used to defeat the deprogrammers is to go on an extended fast, which the captors interpret as a hunger strike. Such a fast, accompanied by prayer, is actually strengthening under these circumstances, and it puts the moral responsibility for the consequences on the captors. If the captive can find the strength from G-d to maintain absolute silence, physical passivity to violence, and complete refusal to ingest either food or water, the chances of his being released soon are much better. In that situation, you should remember to continue your refusal to eat and drink and remain absolutely passively uncooperative until you are away from the deprogrammers and back to complete safety. Otherwise, the deprogrammers might trick you into eating or drinking or communicating with them by saying they have decided to let you go. This happened to someone who was being held, where his captors said they were releasing him. They stopped the car in a gas station and someone brought cokes to the car, The victim drank one, whereupon the deprogrammers, no longer worried about his becoming dehydrated, refused to release him and continued their harassment. Dealing with Physical Violence. The main tool that the deprogrammers use is psychological duress, but sometimes they try to induce this by physical violence or the threat of physical violence. Then they resort to kicking, slapping, and shoving the victim in order to intimidate him. In one bizarre case, a girl was repeatedly raped and tortured and told that her religion made her subhuman. Serious physical attack of this kind is rare. Nevertheless, should the victim encounter any degree of physical violence, it's best just to go limp. Don't make the mistake of thinking of yourself as a martyr for the faith, because such pride works against you. The best way to endure physical violence is to remember that it is not directed against you as a person, but against our Messiah who is in you. Separate the physical pain from the psychological pain. Don't allow yourself to be shocked if you are slapped, shoved, or slammed up against a wall. One way to handle the pain is to compare in your heart what you are enduring to the agony our Messiah suffered at Golgotha. In the light of His sufferings, almost any pain seems small and insignificant by comparison. It's very important that you don't shove back, scream, or respond in any manner. If you were to fight back, your captors would consider that justification for further acts of violence. G-d built the human body in such a way that if the physical pain becomes too great to bear, a person loses consciousness. Remember that He will not tempt you above that which you are able to bear, but will, with the testing, make a way of escape for you. (I Cor. 10:13). If pain is happening to you, He has already given you the strength to bear it and to endure. Humiliation. Part of the intimidation process is humiliation. The deprogrammers might hold their victim in such confines that he cannot tend to his personal toilet or relieve himself. This is extremely embarrassing to most people. One person broke during deprogramming when he wasn't allowed the use of a bathroom. When he could no longer contain himself and defecated, the deprogrammers made him sit in his own filth. This humiliated and embarrassed him to the point of tears. If you ever find yourself in such an embarrassing or humiliating situation, remember that a believer who has been cleansed by our Messiah cannot be defiled by any bodily function over which he has no control. Only the thoughts of his heart can defile him. Accusations of Insanity. While being held, you might encounter a statement like this: "We think you're insane. If you'll just talk to us and show us that you're a reasonable person, we won't have you committed to a mental institution." Denying insanity won't work, because insane people never admit to being insane. Remember, anyone can be driven insane by pressure tactics and the withholding of bodily necessities like food and sleep. Do not try to manipulate the deprogrammers. They are not bound by Biblical ethics. They have only one job to do, and that is to get you to renounce your faith at all costs. Never fake insanity as a means of escape, because they might have you committed to a mental institution. While being held, never take any medication from anyone purporting to be a doctor. Escape. One article about deprogrammers reports that a number of abductees have managed to escape through windows. one girl said that she felt they were going to kill her anyway, and that it was worth the risk of jumping. Don't do anything foolhardy, but do try to escape. If you succeed, go to the police and tell them that you have been held against your will. Volunteer to take a battery of tests that comprise a legal sanity hearing on which to base your case. If you can't find police, go to a nearby house of worship and report what has happened to you. Try to call your pastor or believer friends collect, and seek their help. It's not wrong to go to the police. We have been conditioned not to complain against parents. But when parents declare that they will stop at nothing to get their sons and daughters to renounce their faith, then those sons and daughters must, at all costs, protect themselves, their personal freedom, and particularly the future freedom of others. Capsule Advice to Deprogramming Victims. If captured by deprogrammers, behave like a prisoner of war. You must fight the deprogrammers all the way, as though they were going to kill you. Remember to resist but remain passive. When you are confronted with what seems like a monolithic force, you can be brought to the point of believing anything. But remember, as a Believer in the Bible, stronger is He that is in you than he that is in the world. The law is now being brought into question concerning some of the deplorable tactics of the deprogrammers. Every person has the right to freedom of religion and freedom of choice. Furthermore, as creatures of G-d, we should demand and expect the same kind of choice from the world that we have received from the L-rd. Yeshua said, "Behold, I stand at the door and knock." G-d does not abduct His children! In conclusion, there is no "cure" for a real case of Faith in our Messiah. The deprogrammers will never be one hundred percent effective, because the experience of knowing Messiah keeps on in a person even when he has been brought low. Keep in mind the disciple Peter who denied the L-rd three times, saying, "I never knew him." Peter came back to become the strongest of the apostles. The L-rd can always forgive and reinstate His children and accomplish through each one what He has purposed to do. Remember the promises of G-d in Messiah! Never give anyone up to the deprogrammers. A few might actually renounce the L-rd under extreme pressure; yet there is the probability that if they do, they will still repent and come back. And when someone returns to Messiah after such an ordeal, treat him with a double measure of welcome and rejoicing, like the "prodigal son." APPENDIX: BY-LAWS OF BETH MESSIAH CONGREGATION IN ROCKVILLE MARYLAND Appendix By-Laws ARTICLE I - NAME OF ORGANIZATION The name of this organization shall be: BETH MESSIAH CONGREGATION, INCORPORATED; hereafter referred to as BETH MESSIAH CONGREGATION. ARTICLE II - OBJECTIVES: SECTION I - SPIRITUAL: A. To foster the spiritual growth of those Jewish people who have already asked Messiah Yeshua into their hearts. B. To win other Jewish people to Messiah Yeshua. SECTION II - SOCIAL: To provide occasions for fellowship among Messianic believers. SECTION III - CULTURAL: A. To identify with our Jewish people everywhere. B. To assist in worthwhile Jewish causes by practical participation. ARTICLE III MEMBERSHIPS: SECTION I REGULAR MEMBERSHIP: Messianic believers, their spouses, and their children may apply for regular membership. SECTION 11 - APPLICATION: For reception into membership, applicants must: A. Be at least 18 years of age. B. Have confessed and repented of their sins and asked Messiah Yeshua into their hearts and lives. C. Have followed Messiah Yeshua into the mikveh (Baptism). D. Have completely filled out and signed the membership application form. E. Give evidence of agreement with the Congregation's doctrinal statement in their interview with the Membership Committee. F. Have the approval of the Board of Elders. The Elders will carefully weigh the view of the Membership Committee. SECTION III - REMOVAL: The Board of Elders may remove any person at any time from the membership rolls for unworthy conduct, lack of attendance, or discontinuance of faith in the Messiah and in the Scriptures. Such removal shall be in accord with biblical principles of testimony and the judicial authority of the body of believers (Matthew 18). SECTION IV - ANNUAL BUSINESS MEETINGS: A. There shall be at least one annual business meeting of the entire membership. B. The annual business meeting shall be conducted in the month of May. SECTION V - VOTING: Members may vote on the removal of elders or Executive Director/Rabbi, may as a group suggest candidates for elder ship, vote an disposition of property and amendments to by-laws. ARTICLE IV - BOARDS OF ELDERS AND DEACONS SECTION I - COMPOSITION: A. Beth Messiah's Board of Elders shall be comprised of individuals as prescribed in the Bible which are members in good standing. B. Beth Messiah's Board of Deacons shall be comprised of individuals as prescribed in the Bible which are members in good standing. SECTION II - SELECTION: A. The Board of Elders as a whole, or a designated part of the Board of Elders, shall serve as a Nominations Committee. B. The Elders shall at least four weeks before the annual meeting present those whom they perceive as called to serve in the positions of Elder and Shamash. This process of nomination includes elders and shamashim whose terms have expired and who are eligible for reaffirmation. The Congregation shall have the opportunity to affirm or not affirm the nominees. Two-thirds affirmation from those who cast ballots at the meeting will be necessary before the assumption of the position. C. If affirmation is not forthcoming, the Elders may lower the set number of members on either board or may, through the Nominations Committee, present names at a future time to fulfill the positions. vacancies due to resignation or removal may also be filled by the same process. All names presented for affirmation shall be announced four weeks before any special affirmation meeting. D. The original selection of an elder or shamash (deacon) is for a three-year term or for the duration of the term of any elder or shamash who vacates his or her position. SECTION III - DUTIES: A. The Board of Elders shall manage and direct the affairs of Beth Messiah, and within the limits of constitutional powers set forth herein, are the highest authority of Beth Messiah. They shall oversee all the various areas of congregational life. B. The Shotrim Board (deacons) shall oversee the Scriptural responsibilities assigned to them as well as other tasks assigned to them by the Board of Elders. The Shotrim Board shall be under the authority of the Board of Elders and shall regularly report to the Board of Elders. C. The Board of Elders shall have the power to appoint department heads and chairmen of standing and special committees. SECTION IV - MEETINGS: The boards of Beth Messiah shall meet as needed but will seek to usually meet on a monthly basis. SECTION V - QUORUM: If less than a majority of board members of either board are present, action taken shall be submitted to the other members of the Board of Elders by mail for their written approval. SECTION VI - REMOVAL: Elders may be removed at any time by a two-thirds majority of members present at a duly called meeting. SECTION VII - MODERATORS: The Spiritual Leader shall be the moderator of the Board of Elders and an ex-officio member of the Shotrim Board and all committees. Committee chairpersons shall moderate the meetings of their committees. The Shotrim Board shall be moderated by either an elder appointed for this purpose or by a chairperson of this board who is appointed by the elders and who is a duly active member of the Shotrim Board. In making the selection of committee chairpersons and the Chairperson of the Shotrim Board, the elders shall seek to ascertain the sense of the various committees and the Shotrim Board as to whom they believe would make good leaders in these areas. All moderators and chairpersons shall be responsible to regularly report on their areas of oversight to the Board of Elders. Hence the elders shall ultimately oversee all projects and areas of congregational life and shall have the authority to approve, disapprove, and direct subject to the directives of Scripture and the limitations of this constitution. SECTION VIII No person who is ordained or who has served as a congregational Spiritual leader shall function in the capacity of a lay elder unless he relinquishes this ordination and assumes office as a regular lay elder among the rest of the lay elders. ARTICLE V - THE EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR: SECTION I - NOMINATION: An Executive Director/Rabbi shall be determined by two-thirds of the Board of Elders and ratified by two-thirds of members present at a duly-called business meeting. SECTION II - COMPENSATION: The Executive Director shall be compensated in such an amount and with such benefits as determined by the Board of Elders and approved by a two-thirds majority of members present at a duly-called business meeting. SECTION III - DUTIES: A. The Executive Director/Rabbi shall execute the directives of the Board of Elders and acts as its agent when it is not in session. B. The Executive Director/Rabbi shall have the prime responsibility for the successful operation of Beth Messiah. To this end, he shall aid and exhort its members to do their part in every way possible. C. He is an ex-officio member of every committee; with voice. As Spiritual Leader, his sense of leading shall be carefully and seriously considered. As moderator, however, he shall only vote in the meetings he moderates (elders and general congregational meeting) to break a tie. SECTION IV - AUTHORITY: A. The Executive Director/Rabbi shall have the authority to make such purchases as he deems necessary for the functioning of Beth Messiah within the financial limits set by the Board of Elders. B. The Executive Director/Rabbi shall have the authority to engage, dismiss and to set the salaries of staff members of Beth Messiah with the approval of the Board of Elders. SECTION V - REMOVAL: The Executive Director/Rabbi of Beth Messiah may be removed upon the recommendation of the Board of Elders and the two-thirds approval of members present at a duly-called business meeting. ARTICLE VI - FINANCES- SECTION I - BANK ACCOUNT AND RECORDS: Beth Messiah shall keep a bank account and maintain records of all of its finances. SECTION 11 - DEPOSIT, CHECKS AND LOANS: A. Deposits may be made by the treasurer or the Executive Director/Rabbi. B. Checks may be drawn by any authorized member of the Board of Elders. C. Loans may be made for Beth Messiah in the amounts approved by the Board of Elders. SECTION III - FISCAL YEAR: The fiscal year of Beth Messiah shall be from January 1 to December 31. SECTION IV - BUDGET: An annual projected budget shall be prepared by the elders and approved by the congregation each May. ARTICLE VII BUSINESS MEETINGS: SECTION I RULES OF ORDER: Roberts Rules of Order shall govern the parliamentary procedure at all business meetings. SECTION II - QUORUM: A quorum shall consist of those members present at a duly-called meeting. SECTION III - A DULY-CALLED MEETING: A. A duly-called meeting of the Board of Elders is one in which the time and place of the meeting has been submitted in written form to each member of the Board of Elders at least three days prior to the meeting. B. Emergency meetings of the Board of Elders may be called and action confirmed at the next duly called meeting. C. A duly-called meeting of the entire membership of Beth Messiah is one in which the time, place and purpose of the meeting is announced at least seven days prior to the meeting. D. Business meetings or Board meetings may be called by either the Executive Director/Rabbi or a majority of the Board. SECTION IV - RECORDS: The Clerk or Secretary of the Board of Elders shall keep minutes of all elders' board meetings as well as congregational meetings. The minutes of each previous meeting shall be read to begin each session. The Shotrim shall also keep regular minutes of their meetings. These minutes shall be ultimately stared in the Congregational file. Other Committees shall keep minutes sufficient for their orderly functioning. ARTICLE VIII - AMENDMENTS: SECTION I - SUBMITTAL: By-laws Amendments must be submitted in written form to the Board of Elders by any regular member of Beth Messiah. SECTION II - CONSIDERATION: Amendments to the by-laws must be approved by a majority of the Board of Elders. SECTION III - APPROVAL: A. Proposed amendments to these by-laws approved by the Board of Elders are to be sent to each member of Beth Messiah in written form at least seven days prior to a duly-called business meeting at which the amendments will be voted upon. B. The membership of Beth Messiah can then adopt the amendment(s) by two-thirds of the members present at the said duly-called meeting. ARTICLE IX - DISSOLUTION: No part of the net earnings of the corporation shall inure to the benefit of or be distributable to its individual members, directors, officers or other private persons, except that the corporation shall be authorized and empowered to pay reasonable compensation for services rendered and to make payments and distributions in furtherance of the purposes set forth in Article II thereof. No substantial part of the activities of the corporation shall be the carrying on of propaganda, or otherwise attempting, to influence legislations, and the corporation shall not participate in, or intervene in (including the publishing or distribution of statements) any political campaign on behalf of any candidate for public office. Notwithstanding any provision of these articles, the corporation shall not carry on any other activities not permitted to be carried on by a corporation exempt from Federal Income Tax under Section 501(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (or the corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law). Upon the dissolution of the corporation, the Board of Directors shall, after paying or making provision for the payment of all liabilities of the corporation, dispose of all the assets in such manner, or to such organizations organized and operated exclusively for charitable, educational, religious or scientific purposes as shall at the time qualify as an exempt-organization or organizations under Section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 (or the corresponding provision of any future United States Internal Revenue Law), as the Board of Directors shall determine. NOTES Chapter I 1 Hugh J. Schonfield, The History of Jewish Christianity, p. 122. 2 Martin Luther, Luther's Works, Vol. 45, p. 20D. 3 Ibid, Vol. 47, p. 268f, 4 Isaac DaCosta, Israel and the Gentiles, p. 519. 5 As quoted by Jewish Series No. 10, Presbyterian Evangelism Department, p. 107. 6 Ibid, p. 109. 7 Albert Huisjen, The Home Front of Jewish Missions, P. 192. Chapter 2 1 This is by implication since the baptismal formulae of Matt.28:19 and Acts 2:38 refer to the G-d of Israel. 2 See Matt. 23:15 where Jesus condemns only the results of the Pharisees' proselytizing and not their zeal. See also Bamberger, Proselytism in the Talmudic Period, p. 267f. 3 See extensive documentation from rabbinic literature in Bamberger, Proselytism in the Talmudic Period, p. 175f. 4 Of course, Gal. 6:15 makes it clear that for Gentiles, being born again is what is important, not being Jewish. However, when Paul speaks of the new birth, he speaks of becoming a spiritual or true Jew -- see Rom. 2:28, 29 and Phil. 3:3. Care must be taken by a Gentile Christian not to usurp the term "Jew" so completely (or arrogantly) that he minimizes the promises made to the Jewish remnant that will one day have expanded so that all Israel is saved (Romans 11:26). Therefore, a Gentile Christian may want to identify himself as one with a "Jewish heart." This is much more satisfactory to many Messianic Jews. 5 Joseph Hertz, Authorized Daily Prayer Book, P. 251. 6 See Brown, Driver, and Briggs, A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, P. 402. 7 Hertz, Authorized Daily Prayer Book, P. 149. 8 Oesterley, The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy, P. 90. See James 2:2 where the church is called a synagogue in the Greek New Testament. 9 See the five contacts with Jerusalem that Paul has in the book of Acts. 1) Acts 9:26-30. 2) Acts 11:29-30. 3) Acts 15. 4) Acts 18:22. 5) Acts 21:18-25. l0 "Antinomian" is a term that does not normally refer to "ceremonial law" nor even to the Torah, but contrasts instead with legalism and means lawless. However, here it is used in the sense of a reaction against "Torah" Judaism in favor of a "Torah-free" Christianity, i.e., a religion free from the life-style created by the ceremonial law, rather than the more usual sense of "libertine." 11 Schmithals, James and Paul, P. 37. 12 Haenchen, The Acts of the Apostles, P. 267. 13 Contra Brandon, The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church, P. 127. 14 See Brandon, The Fall of Jerusalem, pp. 27 and 152. 15 Compare Jas. 2:14 and Gal. 5:16. 16 Compare Jas. 3:17-18 and Gal. 5:22-25. 17 Compare Ro. 2:13 and Jas. 2:24. 18 Compare Jas. 1:22-23; 2:18-25 and Gal. 5:13-15. 19 See Schmithals, James and Paul, P. 93. 20 See Romans 3:1f; 7:12; I Cor. 9:20; Acts 18:18; 20:16; 21:26. 21 Brandon, The Fall of Jerusalem, P. 135. 22 Ibid, P. 135.23 See Schmithals, James and Paul, p. 20. 24 Ibid, P. 35. 25 Ibid, P. 97. 26 Ibid, pp. 28-30. 27 Zech. 12:10; Matt. 23:38-39; 24:32-33; Luke 21:29-31; Ro. 11:15. 28 See Gal. 2:9. Also note Acts 8:14 and 9:32 where Cornelius is seen by Peter to be something of an exception in that his ministry even as late as Acts 15:6-11 is mainly to Jews. Peter's previous contact with the church at Antioch shows by his blunder that he was a specialist out of his own mission field. Note the cultural specialization possibly implied in Acts 11:19, where some of the Hellenists go to "the Jews only and to no others." 29 See Luke 2:41-52 which alludes to Moshiach Yehoshua's bar mitzvah, according to G. B. Caird, The Gospel of Saint Luke, P. 66. Note also the Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 4, P. 244, which says that a tradition recorded in Talmudic literature (Sof. 18:7, ed. M. Higger 1937) alludes to the fact that during the period of the Second Temple it was customary for the sages to bless a child who had succeeded in completing his first fast day at 12 or 13. This would be the equivalent of a bar mitzvah ceremony at that time and would justify Luke 2:41-52 being interpreted in that light. 30 Brandon, The Fall of Jerusalem, P. 184. 31 See Encyclopedia Judaica, Vol. 4, P. 244 for historical background documentation. 32 See Acts 2:46, 47; 5:13-14; 6:7; 9:31; 21:20. Chapter 3 1 Judah Benzion Segal, The Hebrew Passover: From the Earliest Times to A.D. 70, P. 257. 2 E. 0. James, Origin of Sacrifice: A Study in Comparative Religion, P. 192. 3 Roland de Vaux, Ancient Israel: Religious Institutions, Vol. 2, P. 490. 4 Ibid, P. 484. 5 George Buchanan Gray, Sacrifice in the Old Testament: ItsTheory and Practice, P. 385. 6 e.g. Joachin Jermias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, P. 146. 7 See also Angus John Brockhurst Higgins, The Lord's Supper in the New Testament, P. 50. 8 Gray, Sacrifice. Theory and Practice, P. 357. 9 Ibid, P. 376. 10 Vaux, Institutions, p. 427. 11 Geerhardus Vos, Biblical Theology: Old and New Testaments, P. 135. 12 Segal, Passover, P. 183. 13 Ibid, P. 183. 14 Exod. 13:3; see Childs' commentary, The Book of the Exodus, P. 204. 15 Ps. 113, 114, 115, 118, 135, 136, 146-150. 16 "In the Old Testament the terms 'to be unclean' and 'to defile' have always a moral no less than a Levitical connotation." William David Davies, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism, New York, 1948, P. 255. 17 See Mishnah Pesahim 8.8, Herbert Denby, translator. The Mishnah, P. 148. 18 Segal, Passover, p. 171. 19 Leon Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross, P. 77. 20 Dennis J. McCarthy, Old Testament Covenant: A Survey of Current Opinions, P. 4. 21 See Gen. 17 and 22. See also the lifesaving significance of the blood of circumcision in Exod. 4:25, 26. 22 Henry Clay Trumbull, The Blood Covenant, A Primitive Rite and Its Bearings on Scripture, P. 280. 23 Segal, Passover, p. 177. 24 Ibid, p. 266. 25 Gray, sacrifice: Theory and Practice, P. 362. 26 Trumbull, Blood Covenant, p. 231; The Threshold Covenant, orthe Beginning of Religious Rites, P. 203f. 27 See Trumbull, Threshold Covenant, pp. 216-217. 28 Ibid, P. 209. 29 Ibid, P. 216. 30 See Segal, Passover, P. 106. 31 See Trumbull, Threshold Covenant, P. 69. 32 Ibid, 203. 33 Ibid, 206. 34 Segal, Passover, p. 165. 35 See Gen. 14:18, 26:28-30, 31:44; Exod. 24:8-11. 36 L. Kohler, "Problems in the Study of the Language of the Old Testament," FSS, 1, 1956, 4-7 as quoted in McCarthy, Old Testament Covenant, p. 3. 37 McCarthy, Old Testament Covenant, P. 30. 38 Trumbull, Threshold Covenant, P. 212. 39 Ibid, p. 212. 40 Ibid, p. 214. 41 Mowinckel, The Psalms in Israel's Worship, Nashville, 1962, Oxford, 1963, 2 Vol. 42 Segal, Passover, P. 184. 43 George F. Moore, Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, Vol. II, p. 41 and note 7. 44 Danby, Mishnah Pesahim, 10.4-5, P. 150-151. Chapter 4 1 There is no need to rehearse here the various arguments for and against the Synoptic dating of the Last Supper. For a good summary, see Jocz, The Covenant, P. 185f. Also Higgins, The Lord's Supper in the New Testament, p. 17. 2 For a nearly exhaustive listing of the various theories of the Last Supper and the scholars that espouse them , see Jocz, The Covenant, P. 186. 3 Ralph P. Martin, "Passover," New Bible Dictionary, P.750. 4 George Buchanan Gray, Sacrifice in the Old Testament: Its Theory and Practice, p. 383. 5 See William David Davies, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism, p. 250 and note especially I Cor. 5:7; 10:1-4; 15:23. 6 Ibid, p. 253. 7 E. 0. James, Origin of Sacrifice: A study in Comparative Religion, P. 209. 8 See Leon Morris, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross, p. 78. 9 Elmert J. F. Arndt, The Font and the Table, P. 71. 10 Morris, Apostolic Preaching, p. 105. 11 Arthur C. Cochrane, Eating and Drinking with Jesus, p. 28. 12 Henry Clay Trumbull, The Threshold Covenant, or the Beginning of Religious Rites, P. 274. 13 See Isa. 42:6 and Mal. 3;1 where the covenant is associated with an individual who mediates it to Israel. 14 The mikveh is the purification bath whereby a proselyte turns in repentance to G-d and becomes incorporated into Judaism. The bris is the act of circumcision whereby one becomes a Jew, and with a spiritualized meaning, becomes a spiritual Jew. See Col. 2:11-13 where baptism is described as the rite of spiritual circumcision, the ritual associated with the new birth through faith. A spiritual heathen would be the equivalent of one uncircumcised in heart" (Acts 7:51), i.e., one who has not been born again, regardless of whether he was Jewish or Gentile in a physical sense. The whole message of Scripture is that the true spiritual Jew is one who is in a covenantal relationship with G-d, which, according to Heb. 8:13, can only be the followers of Moshiach Yehoshua. 15 Delbert R. Millers, Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea, P. 187. 16 Joachim Jeremias, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, p. 159. 17 Mishnah, Perakoth, 288. 18 Jermias, Eucharistic Words, P. 246.19 J. J. Petuchowski, Journal of Biblical Literature, 76 (1957), p. 294-295. 20 A. R. Millard, "Covenant and Communion in First Corinthians," Apostolic History and the Gospel, ad. W. W. Gasque and R. P. Martin, p. 247. 21 Millard, "Covenant and Communion," p. 243. 22 Jeremias, Eating, p. 251. 23 Millard, "Covenant and Communion," p. 245. Chapter 5 1 For those who would hesitate on grounds that the Seder was traditionally a home ceremony, see Deut. 16:2, 7; II Kgs. 23:21-23 where the Passover was in fact transferred to the central Sanctuary in Jerusalem. 2 Jean-Jacques Von Allmen, The Lord's Supper, p. 42. 3 Karl Barth, Church Dogmatics, IV, 3, p. 878. 4 Dom Gregory Dix, The Shape of the Liturgy, p. 81. 5 Arthur C. Cochrane, Eating and Drinking with Jesus, P. 88. 6 Elmer J. F. Arndt, The Font and the Table, p. 21. 7 Alan Marshall Stibbs, Sacrament Sacrifice and Eucharist: The Meaning, Function and Use of the Lord's Supper, P. 46. 8 Allmen, The Lord's Supper, p. 37. 9 Haggadah of Passover, translator Naurice Samuel. 10 Arndt, Font and Table, p. 18. 11 H. L. Strack and P. Billerbeck, Kommentar Zum Neuen Testament aus Talmud und Midrash (Munich: C. H. Becksche Verlagsbuchhandlung, 1922-) Vol. II, p. 246f as quoted in Cochrane, Eating and Drinking with Jesus, p. 158. 12 Dix, Shape of the Liturgy, p. 49. 13 Ibid, p. 48. 14 See the liturgy in the author's book, Everything You Need to Grow A Messianic Synagogue, pp. 59-69. 15 Stibbs, Sacrament Sacrifice, p. 53. Chapter 61 See the liturgy in the author's book, Everything You Need to Grow a Messianic Synagogue, pp. 95-139. 2 Joseph Hertz, The Authorized Daily Prayer Book, p. 345. Also see Exod. 25:31f for a Biblical precedent for a kindled light in Jewish worship. 3 See I Cor. 14:26; Eph. 5:19; Col. 3:16. 4 See Oesterley, The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy, Gloucester, Mass., P. Smith, 1965, P. 81, where he shows that the Ten Commandments were discontinued from the synagogue liturgy for anti-Christian reasons since in the Jerusalem Talmud Berakhoth 1.8 it says "of right they should read the ten words every day. And on account of what do they not read them? On account of the cavilling of the heretics (minim), so that they might not say, these only were given to Moses on Sinai." 5 See Oesterley, The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy, P. 139, where he connects this benediction with an early Christian liturgical prayer. 6 See Hertz, Prayer Book, P. 468. 7 See Gustaf Dalman, Jesus - Yeshua, S.P.C.K., New York, 1929, P. 41. 8 See Oesterley, The Jewish Background of the Christian Liturgy, p. 40. BIBLIOGRAPHY Allman, Jean-Jacques Von, The Lord's Supper, Richmond: John Knox Press, 1966. Arndt, Elmer J.F., The Font and the Table, Richmond: John Knox Press, 1967. Aron, Robert, The Jewish Jesus translated by Agnes H. Forsyth and Anne-Marie de Comaille and in collaboration with Horace T. Allen, Jr., Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 1971. Ausubel, Nathan, The Book of Jewish Knowledge, Crown Publishers, New York, 1964. Baltsan, Hayim, Webster's New World Hebrew Dictionary, Macmillan, 1992. Bamberger, Bernard Jacob, Proselytism in the Talmudic Period, New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1968. Birnbaum, Philip, Encyclopedia of Jewish Concepts, Hebrew Publishing House, 1993. Bloch, Abraham, The Biblical and Historical Background of the Jewish Holy Days, New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1978. Blumberg, Harry and Lewitter, Mordecai, Modern Hebrew, Hebrew Publishing Co., 1963. Brandon, S. G. F., The Fall of Jerusalem and the Christian Church, London: S.P.C.K., 1968. Brown, Edward, Driver, S.R. and Briggs, Charles A., A Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907. Buksbagen, Victor, The Gospel in the Feasts of Israel, Philadelphia: The Spearhead Press. Caird, G. B., The Gospel of Saint Luke, Great Britain: Penguin, 1963. Campbell, Roderick, Israel and the New Covenant, Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Co., 1954. Campbell, Alexander, The Covenant Story of the Bible, Philadelphia: United Church Press, 1963. Charnock, Stephen, Christ our Passover, Evansville, Indiana: Sovereign Grace Book Club, 1959. Chill, Abraham, The Mitzvot, the Commandment and Their Rationale, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1974. Cochrane, Arthur C., Eating and Drinking with Jesus, Philadelphia: Westminister Press, 1974. Cohen, A., Everyman's Talmud, E. P. Dutton, New York, 1949. Coopersmith, Harry, The Songs We Sing, New York: The UnitedSynagogue Commission on Jewish Education, 1950. Corbett, Edward, Classical Rhetoric for the Modern Student, Oxford University Press, 1971. Cullmann, Oscar, Early Christian Worship translated by A. Stewart Todd and James B. Torrance, London: SCM, 1953. DaCosta, Isaac, Israel and the Gentiles, London: Nisbet, 1850. Dalman, Gustaf, Jesus-Yeshua, Paul P. Levertoff, translator, New York: S.P.C.K., The MacMillan Co., 1929. Danby, Herbert, translator, The Mishnah, London: The Clarendon Press, 1933. Danielou, Jean, The Theology of Jewish Christianity, translated and edited by John A. Baker, London: Darton, Lougman and Todd, 1964. Davies, William David, Paul and Rabbinic Judaism, New York: Harper, 1948. Davis, W.D., Paul and Rabbinic Judaism, London, 1949. Dix, Dom Gregory, The Shape of the Liturgy, 2nd Ed., London: Dacre Press, 1945. Donin, Hayim Halevy, To Be a Jew, New York: Basic Books, 1972. Donin, Hayim Halevy, On developing Messianic Jewish parochial schools see pp. 164-185 To Raise a Jewish Child. See Appendix A in the bibliography for "Resources for the Jewish Education of Children." Dossick, Wayne, Living Judaism, Harper Collins, 1995 Douglas, J.D., The New Bible Dictionary, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1962. Dugmore, Clifford William, The Influence of the Synagogue upon the Divine Office, Westminister, S.W.: Oxford University Press, 4 Milford, The Faith Press LTD, 7 Tufton St., 1944. Engstrom and Dayton, The Art of Management for Christian Leaders, Word Books, 1976. ed Gasque, Woodrow Ward and Martin, Ralph P., Apostolic History and the Gospel, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1970. Goble, Phillip, Everything You Need to Grow a Messianic Synagogue, Pasadena: William Carey Library, 1974. Graetz, Heinrich, History of the Jews, Philadelphia: The Jewish Publication Society of America, 1891-98. Gray, George Buchanan, Sacrifice in the Old Testament: Its Theoryand Practice, Oxford: The Clarendon Press, 1925. Greenspahn, Frederick, The Human Condition in the Jewish and Christian Traditions, KTAV, 1986. Guilding, Aileen, The Fourth Gospel and Jewish Worship: A Study of the Relation of St. John's Gospel to the Ancient Jewish Lectionary System, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1960. Haenchen, Ernest, The Acts of the Apostles, Philadelphia: Westminister Press, 1971. Heller, Abraham Mayer, The Vocabulary of Jewish Life, Hebrew Publishing Company, 1942. Herford, R.T., Judaism in the New Testament Period, London, 1928. Herford, R.T., The Ethics of the Talmud: Sayings of the Fathers, Schocken Books, 1962. Hertz, Joseph H., The Authorized Daily Prayer Book, New York: Bloch Publishing Co., 1948. Higgins, Angus John Brockhurst, The Lord's Supper in the New Testament, London: SCM, 1952. Hillers, Delbert R., Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea, Baltimore: John Hopkins Press, 1969. Holy Scriptures (The Tenach), Hebrew Publishing Company, New York. Hoon, Paul Waitman, The Integrity of Worship: Ecumenical and Pastoral Studies in Liturgical Theology, Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1971. Hort, Fenton John Anthony, Judaistic Christianity, New York; Macmillan and Co., 1904. Huisjens, Albert, The Home Front of Jewish missions, Grand Rapids: Baker Book House, 1962. Idelsohn, A.Z., Jewish Liturgy and Its Development, New York: Schocken, 1960. James, E. O., Origin of Sacrifice: A Study in Comparative Religion, Port Washington, New York: Kennikat Press, 1971, Oxford, 1933. James, E. O. Seasonal Feasts and Festivals, New York, Barnes and Noble, 1961, Jeremias, Joachim, The Eucharistic Words of Jesus, Oxford: Blackwell, 1955. Jocz, Jakob, The Covenant, Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1968. Jocz, Jakob. The Jewish People and Jesus Christ, London: S.P.C.K., 1949. Knox, Wilfred L., St. Paul and the Church of Jerusalem, London: The Cambridge University Press, 1925, St. Paul and the Church of the Gentiles, London: The Cambridge University Press, 1939. Levi and Kaplan, Guide for the Jewish Homemaker, New York: Schocken. Levitt, Zola, Confessions of a Contemporary Jew, Tyndale Publishing House, 1975 (pp. 106-111 gives the description of a messianic bar mitzvah service). Luther, Martin, "On the Jews and their Lies" (1943), translated by Martin H. Bertram, edited by Franklin Sherman, Luther's Works, Vol. 47, Fortress Press, Philadelphia and Concordia Publishing House, St. Louis, 1962-1974. Luther, Martin. "That Jesus Christ Was Born a Jew" (1923), translated by Walter I. Brandt, ad. Luther's Works, Vol. 45. McCarthy, Dennis J., Old Testament Covenant: A Survey of Current Opinions, Virginia: 1972. Menkus, Belden, ad. Meet the American Jew, Broadman Press, 1963. Mielziner, Moses, Introduction to the Talmud with a New Bibliography by Alexander Guttman, Block Publishing, 1966. Montefiore, Claude, Rabbinic Literature and Gospel Teaching, Library of Biblical Studies, New York: KTAV Publishing House, 1970. Moore, George F., Judaism in the First Centuries of the Christian Era, Vol. II, New York: 1958. Morris, Leon, The Apostolic Preaching of the Cross, Grand Rapids: 1955. Murray, Andrew, The Two Covenants and the Second Blessing, London: 1899. Neusner, Jacob, Messiah in Context, Fortress Press, 1984. Osterley, William Oscar Emil, Jewish Background to the Christian Liturgy, Gloucester, Mass: P. Smith, 1965. Paterson, Moira, ed., The Bar Mitzvah Book, New York: Praeger Publishers, 1975. Patai, Raphael, The Messiah Texts, Wayne State University Press, 1979. Posner, Kaploun, Cohen, ads., Jewish Liturgy: Prayer and Synagogue Service Through the Ages, Jerusalem: Keter Publishing House, 1975. Rabinowicz, Tzvi. M., The Encyclopedia of Hasidism, Aronson Press, 1996 Randall, Gerald H., The Epistle of St. James and Judaic Christianity, London: Cambridge University Press, 1927. Rosenbaum, Samuel, To Be a Jew, Knopf, 1969. Routtenberg, Lilly S. and Seldin, Ruth, The Jewish Wedding Book, New York: Schocken Books, $3.95. Safrai, S and Stern, M. in co-operation with D.Flusser and W.C. van Unnik, The Jewish People in the First Century, Vols. 1 & 2, Van Gorcum, Fortress Press, 1987. Safrai, Shmuel, The Literature of the Sages, Van Gorcum, Fortress Press, 1987 Scharfstein, Zevi, Shilo Dictionary, Shilo Publishing House, 1973. Schauss, Hayyim, Guide to Jewish Holy Days. History and Observance, New York: Schocken Books, 1938. Schlatter, Adolf, The Church in the New Testament Period, translated by Paul R. Levertoff, London: SPCK, 1955. Schmithals, Walter, Paul and James, Chatham, England: SCM Press, Mackay LTD, 1965. Schoeps, Hans-Joachin, Jewish Christianity, Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1969. Schoeps, Hans-Joachlin, Paul, Westminister Press, 1961. Schonfield, Hugh J., The History of Jewish Christianity, London: Duckworth, 1936. Segal, Judah Benzion, The Hebrew Passover: From the Earliest Times to A.D. 70, London: Oxford University Press, 1963. Srawley, James Herbert, The Early History of the Liturgy -- [Eng.] -- Cambridge University Press, 1947. Stibbs, Alan Marshall, Sacrament Sacrifice and Eucharist: The Meaning, Function and Use of the Lord's Supper, London: The Tyndale Press, 1961. Stone, Michael, Jewish Writings of the Second Temple Period, Van Gorcum Fortress Press, 1984. Streeter, Burnett Hillman, The Primitive Church, London: Macmillan and Co., 1929. Talbot, Louis, Christ in the Tabernacle, Moody Press, 1978. Tanenbaum, Wilson and Rubin, ads. Evangelicals and Jews in Conversation , Baker Book House, 1978. (Marvin Wilson who teaches at Gordon College, Wernham, Massachusetts has prepared a Study Guide for this book which is published by Gordon College Press.) Trumbull, H. Clay, The Threshold Covenant, New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1896. Trumbull, H. Clay, The Covenant of Salt, New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1899. Trumbull, H. Clay The Threshold Covenant, or the Beginning of Religious Rites, New York: C. Scribner's Sons, 1896. Trumbull, H. Clay, The Blood Covenant, a Primitive Rite and Its Bearings on Scripture, Grand Rapids-. Zondervan, 1958. Vaux, Roland de, Ancient Israel: Religious Institutions, Vol. 2, New York: 1965. Vos, Geerhardus, Biblical Theology Old and New Testaments, Grand Rapids: W. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co., 1948. Werner, Eric, The Sacred Bridge, New York: Schocken Paperback, 1970. Williams, Arthur Lunky, The Hebrew-Christian Messiah, Londonz S.P.C.K., 1916. Winter, Roberta, Once More Around Jericho, Pasadena: William Carey Library. (You should know about Roberta and Ralph Winter. They are my publishers and their ministry, USCFWM, at 1605 East Elizabeth St. Pasadena CA 91104 is the Billy Graham-endorsed nerve center and think tank for reaching 16,750 Hidden peoples and completing the task of the Great Commission. I have been very, very fortunate to have Ralph and Roberta Winter publish my books and to study under Dr. Donald McGavran and Dr. Peter Wagner. If any of the material in this book is a blessing to you, may these people be honored and my G-d be praised!)